1 Differentiated Instruction August 27, 2013 Nanaimo, Liz McKenzie Instructor, SETS program VIU
2 Who are we?
3 Where are we going today? What is differentiated instruction? Connections to brain research Basic principles A concept model Instruction strategies Getting started Differentiated Instruction and RTI Resources
4 Anticipation Guide: True or False Differentiated instruction is the same as individualized instruction DI is based on student readiness Flexible grouping is key to DI Learner profiles are optional Using a variety of instructional strategies is the same as DI Assessment is ongoing Classroom structure is not important
5 Think, Pair, Square
6 Differentiated Instruction IS Proactive Quality not quantity Rooted in assessment Flexible groupings Student centered A blend of whole class, small group and individual instruction Multiple approaches for what students learn, how they learn it and how they demonstrate learning IS NOT Individualized instruction Not chaotic or unstructured Homogeneous grouping Including a few different strategies for some students Using the same materials, assignments for all Approximating needs and readiness Curriculum driven
7 Differentiated Instruction is: A principle guided method to approach teaching and learning and it is implemented in the context of the classroom system that contains four interdependent elements,: environment, curriculum, assessment and instruction.
8 Differentiation is a philosophy that enables educators to plan strategically in order to reach the needs of the diverse learners in classrooms. It is not a set of tools but a belief system educators embrace to meet unique needs of every learner. Gayle Gregory/Caroline Chapman 2007
9 We believe: All students have areas of strength and can learn All students have areas in need of strengthening Each student s brain is as unique as a fingerprint It is never to late to learn
10 Students bring their prior knowledge and experience to the learning Emotions, feelings and attitudes affect learning Students learn in different ways and different times
11 All students have gifts, they just open their presents at different times and in different ways
12 Differentiation in a Nutshell Effective differentiation calls on a teacher to be consistently mindful of: how content is structured for meaning and authenticity who their students are as individuals and learners which elements in their classrooms give them degrees of freedom in connecting content and learners
14 Carol Ann Tomlinson Responsive Teaching
16 Current understandings in brain research add to the arguments for differentiation. Psychological, demographic, ethical
17 Brain Research Supports Differentiation Each brain is uniquely organized. Individual preferences for how we learn make up our own learning profile. One learning model doesn t fit all. The brain is a pattern making machine. If incoming information has meaning to the individual it is more likely to be retained. The brain s frontal lobe is often referred to as the executive centre because it directs much of the brain s activity. Tasks include higher order thinking and problem solving. Divergent thinking explores different ways of solving problems.
18 Emotions are processed in the brain s limbic system and play an important role in pattern making. When an emotional aha occurs chemicals are produced and we are motivated to continue. Learning is as much a social process as it is a cognitive one. Neurons when we experience a task or emotion and also when we observe others. A constructive environment with positive practices and values helps to enhance learning.
19 We are learning about our memory systems. Instructional strategies can result in students remembering what they learn. Learning for retention requires focus and extended attention. Students attend to what is personally meaningful it becomes engaging and learning is enhanced
20 Beliefs that point to Differentiated Instruction: Every student is worthy of dignity and respect Diversity is both inevitable and positive The classroom should mirror the kind of society in which we want our students to live and lead
21 Most students can learn most things that are essential to a given area of study Every student should have equity to access to excellent learning opportunities A central goal of teaching is to maximize the capacity of each learner
22 5 Key Principles Work in a differentiated classroom is respectful of each student. Curriculum is rooted in the critical ideas of a topic or discipline. Teachers regularly use flexible grouping. Teachers use ongoing assessment to inform their instruction. The learning environment supports students in taking the risk of learning.
23 Common Sense of Differentiation Ensuring the environment actively supports students in the work of learning Having absolute clarity about learning destination Knowing consistently where students are in relation to the destination all along the way Adjusting teaching to make sure each student arrives at the destination (and when possible moves beyond it) Tomlinson
24 Differentiation is a teacher s response to all learners needs. Teachers can differentiate through: Content Process Product Environment Interest Paying attention to students : Learning Profile Readiness Affect Guided by general principles of differentiation: Good curriculum Respectful work Positive community Flexible management strategies Ongoing assessment Through a range of strategies such as: Multiple intelligences Jigsaw 4MAT Graphic Organizers RAFTS Compacting Tiered assignments Leveled texts Complex Instruction Learning contracts
25 Think of a time: a lesson, a learning task, a unit In what ways did the students differ? Which difference was the most powerful How did you differentiate to accommodate the difference? How did that impact the learning?
26 First step: Know your students
27 Readiness, Interests, Learning Profile Readiness: skill and understanding of a topic Interests: that which ignites curiosity or passion Learning profile: preferred manner of working and learning
30 Discussion: What strategies could you use to determine student readiness for a topic or learning intention? How can we learn about student interests? How do we develop a student learning profile and what would we include?
31 3 Most Important Questions What do I want my students to know, understand and do? What will I do instructionally to get my students to learn this? How will my students show what they know?
32 Content Content is the what. The information and ideas that students need to grapple with in order to reach the learning goals (what they will know, understand and do as a result of the teaching and learning).
33 Creating common learning goals We have to know where we want all students to end up before we can intelligently think about how we want them to get there.
34 When students know the destination they are more likely to arrive Stiggins
35 Planning a focussed curriculum means be clear on what students need to: -facts -vocabulary definitions KNOW UNDERSTAND Principles / generalizations -big ideas BE ABLE TO DO -process -skills
36 Process Process is the HOW. How the students will take in and make sense of the content... Made up of strategies and methods.
37 Products The ways or vehicles in which students will show/demonstrate what they know, understand and do.
38 Assessment is today s means of understanding how to modify tomorrow s instruction C.A.T.
39 C.A.T. Assessment has more to do with helping students grow than with cataloguing their mistakes.
40 Assessment in a Differentiated Classroom Assessment drives instruction. Information helps the teacher map the next steps for varied learners and the class as a whole) Assessment occurs consistently as the unit begins, continues and ends. (Pre, formative and summative) Teachers assess student readiness, interest and learning profile.
41 Assessment helps students chart and contribute to their own growth Assessment MAY be differentiated Assessment information is more useful than grades Assessment is more focussed on personal growth than on peer competition.
42 Differentiation is a teacher s response to all learners needs. Teachers can differentiate through: Content Process Product Environment Interest Paying attention to students : Learning Profile Readiness Guided by general principles of differentiation: Affect Good curriculum Respectful work Positive community Flexible management strategies Ongoing assessment Through a range of strategies such as: Multiple intelligences Jigsaw 4MAT Graphic Organizers RAFTS Compacting Tiered assignments Leveled texts Complex Instruction Learning contracts
43 Strategies: The tools
44 From One Size Doesn t Fit All FLEXIBLE grouping Focus activities Sponge activities Graphic organizers Group learning Independent work assignments Differentiating levels of thinking and questioning
45 One Size Doesn t Fit All cont d Centres Projects Choice boards Problem based learning Contracts KWL Mind maps
47 Learning Environment/Affective The climate or tone of the classroom as well as the organization of time, space and resources within the environment.
48 Teacher-Student Connections Bridge the Risk of Learning
49 Everyone is welcomed and contributes to the environment Mutual respect is non-negotiable Students feel safe Expectation of growth Teaching for success Fairness defined Collaboration between teacher and students
50 DI / UDL
51 ASCD article
52 Tier 1 Response to Intervention Viable, clearly defined curriculum Formative assessments Scaffolds and differentiation Small group supports Chris Weber
53 10 strategies for managing a differentiated classroom 1. Have a strong rationale for differentiating instruction, student readiness, interest and learning profile. 2. Begin differentiating at a pace that is comfortable for you. 3. Time differentiated activities for student success 4. Use an anchor activity to free you up to focus your attention on your students. 5. Create and deliver instructions carefully.
54 6. Have a home base for students. 7. Be sure students have a plan for getting help when you are busy with another student or group. 8. Give your students as much responsibility for their learning as possible. 9. Engage your students in talking about classroom procedures and group processes. 10. Use flexible grouping
55 Resources Differentiation Central Dare to Differentiate Technology: UDL/CAST: makingadifference_2010.pdf
Differentiated Instruction: An Introduction > Module 2 > Reading: Beliefs That Guide Differentiated Instruction Beliefs That Guide Differentiated Instruction As discussed previously, differentiation is
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