# Inductive Learning and Decision Trees

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1 Inductive Learning and Decision Trees Doug Downey EECS 349 Spring 2017 with slides from Pedro Domingos, Bryan Pardo

2 Outline Announcements Homework #1 was assigned on Monday (due in five days!) Inductive learning Decision Trees 2

3 Outline Announcements Homework #1 Inductive learning Decision Trees 3

4 Learning tasks Tasks clearly state inputs and outputs: Predicting the stock market based on past price data Input: A ticker symbol and a date Output: Will the close be higher or lower on the date? (classification) Or: what will the price change be? (regression) Predicting outcomes of sporting events Input: A game (two opponents, a date) Output: which team will win (classification) On the other hand, these are not tasks: Studying the relationship between weather and sports game outcomes. Applying neural networks to natural language processing.

5 Instances E.g. Four Days, in terms of weather: Sky Temp Humid Wind Forecast sunny warm normal strong same sunny warm high strong same rainy cold high strong change sunny warm high strong change

6 Functions Days on which Anne agrees to get lunch with me INPUT OUTPUT Sky Temp Humid Wind Forecast f(x) sunny warm normal strong same 1 sunny warm high strong same 1 rainy cold high strong change 0 sunny warm high strong change 1 6

7 Inductive Learning! Predict the output for a new instance (generalize!) INPUT OUTPUT Sky Temp Humid Wind Forecast f(x) sunny warm normal strong same 1 sunny warm high strong same 1 rainy cold high strong change 0 sunny warm high strong change 1 rainy warm high strong change? 7

8 General Inductive Learning Task DEFINE: Set X of Instances (of n-tuples x = <x 1,..., x n >) E.g., days decribed by attributes (or features): Sky, Temp, Humidity, Wind, Forecast Target function f : X Y, e.g.: GoesToLunch X Y = {0,1} ResponseToLunch X Y = { No, Yes, How about tomorrow? } ProbabililityOfLunch X Y = [0, 1] GIVEN: Training examples D FIND: examples of the target function: <x, f(x)> A hypothesis h such that h(x) approximates f(x).

9 Example w/ continuous attributes Learn function from x = (x 1,, x d ) to f(x) {0, 1} given labeled examples (x, f(x))? x 2 x 1

10 Hypothesis Spaces Hypothesis space H is a subset of all f : X Y e.g.: Linear separators Conjunctions of constraints on attributes (humidity must be low, and outlook!= rain) Etc. In machine learning, we restrict ourselves to H The subset aspect turns out to be important

11 Examples Credit Risk Analysis X: Properties of customer and proposed purchase f (x): Approve (1) or Disapprove (0) Disease Diagnosis X: Properties of patient (symptoms, lab tests) f (x): Disease (if any) Face Recognition X: Bitmap image f (x):name of person Automatic Steering X: Bitmap picture of road surface in front of car f (x): Degrees to turn the steering wheel

12 When to use? Inductive Learning is appropriate for building a face recognizer It is not appropriate for building a calculator You d just write a calculator program Question: What general characteristics make a problem suitable for inductive learning?

13 Think/Pair/Share What general characteristics make a problem suitable for inductive learning? Think Start End 13

14 Think/Pair/Share What general characteristics make a problem suitable for inductive learning? Pair Start End 14

15 Think/Pair/Share What general characteristics make a problem suitable for inductive learning? Share 15

16 Appropriate applications Situations in which: There is no human expert Humans can perform the task but can t describe how The desired function changes frequently Each user needs a customized f

17 Outline Announcements Homework #1 Inductive learning Decision Trees 17

18 Why Decision Trees? Simple inductive learning approach Training procedure is easy to understand Output models are easy to understand Popular The most popular learning method, according to surveys [Domingos, 2016]

19 Task: Will I wait for a table? 19

20 20 Decision Trees!

21 Expressiveness of D-Trees 21

22 A learned decision tree 22

23 Inductive Bias To learn, we must prefer some functions to others Selection bias use a restricted hypothesis space, e.g.: linear separators 2-level decision trees Preference bias use the whole concept space, but state a preference over concepts, e.g.: Lowest-degree polynomial that separates the data shortest decision tree that fits the data 23

24 Decision Tree Learning (ID3) 24

25 Recap Inductive learning Goal: generate a hypothesis a function from instances described by attributes to an output using training examples. Requires inductive bias a restricted hypothesis space, or preferences over hypotheses. Decision Trees Simple representation of hypotheses, recursive learning algorithm Prefer smaller trees! 25

26 Choosing an attribute 26

27 Think/Pair/Share How should we choose which attribute to split on next? Think Start End 27

28 Think/Pair/Share How should we choose which attribute to split on next? Pair Start End 28

29 Think/Pair/Share How should we choose which attribute to split on next? Share 29

30 Information Brief sojourn into information theory (on board) 30

31 H(V) Entropy The entropy H(V) of a Boolean random variable V as the probability of V = 0 varies from 0 to 1 31 P(V=0)

32 Using Information The key question: how much information, on average, will I gain about the class by doing the split? Choose attribute x i that maximizes this expected value InfoGain x i = H prior v P(x i = v)h(y x i = v) Since H prior is constant w.r.t. x i, we can just choose attribute with minimum v P(x i = v)h(y x i = v) 32

33 Measuring Performance 33

34 What the learning curve tells us 34

35 Overfitting

36 Overfitting is due to noise Sources of noise: Erroneous training data concept variable incorrect (annotator error) Attributes mis-measured More significant: Irrelevant attributes Target function not realizable in attributes

37 Irrelevant attributes If many attributes are noisy, information gains can be spurious, e.g.: 20 noisy attributes 10 training examples Expected # of different depth-3 trees that split the training data perfectly using only noisy attributes: 13.4

38 Not realizable In general: We can rarely measure well enough for perfect prediction => Target function is not uniquely determined by attribute values Target outputs appear to be noisy Same attribute vector may yield distinct output values

39 Not realizable: Example Humidity EnjoySport Decent hypothesis: Humidity > 0.70 No Otherwise Yes Overfit hypothesis: Humidity > 0.89 No Humidity > 0.80 ^ Humidity <= 0.89 Yes Humidity > 0.70 ^ Humidity <= 0.80 No Humidity <= 0.70 Yes

40

41 Avoiding Overfitting Approaches Stop splitting when information gain is low or when split is not statistically significant. Grow full tree and then prune it when done 41

42

43 Effect of Reduced Error Pruning 43

44 C4.5 Algorithm Builds a decision tree from labeled training data Generalizes simple ID3 tree by Prunes tree after building to improve generality Allows missing attributes in examples Allowing continuous-valued attributes 44

45 Rule post pruning Used in C4.5 Steps 1. Build the decision tree 2. Convert it to a set of logical rules 3. Prune each rule independently 4. Sort rules into desired sequence for use 45

46

47

48 Other Odds and Ends Unknown Attribute Values?

49

50 Odds and Ends Unknown Attribute Values? Continuous Attributes?

51 Decision Tree Boundaries 51

52

53 Decision Trees Bias How to solve 2-bit parity: Two step look-ahead, or Split on pairs of attributes at once For k-bit parity, why not just do k-step look ahead? Or split on k attribute values? =>Parity functions are among the victims of the decision tree s inductive bias.

54 Now we have choices Re-split continuous attributes? Handling unknown variables? Prune or not? Stopping criteria? Split selection criteria? Use look-ahead? In homework #2: one choice for each In practice, how to decide? An instance of Model Selection In general, we could also select an H other than decision trees

55 Think/Pair/Share We can do model selection using a 70% train, 30% validation split of our data. But can we do better? Think Start End 55

56 Think/Pair/Share We can do model selection using a 70% train, 30% validation split of our data. But can we do better? Pair Start End 56

57 Think/Pair/Share We can do model selection using a 70% train, 30% validation split of our data. But can we do better? Share 57

58 10-fold Cross-Validation On board

59 Take away about decision trees Used as classifiers Supervised learning algorithms (ID3, C4.5) Good for situations where Inputs, outputs are discrete Interpretability is important We think the true function is a small tree 59

60 Readings Decision Trees: Induction of decision trees, Ross Quinlan (1986) (covers ID3) (may need to be on campus to access) C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning (2014) (covers C4.5) =c4.5&ots=spanstetc4&sig=c2np0fbu37b-iedvuyhulpjsv4#v=onepage&q=c4.5&f=false Overfitting in Decision Trees Cross-Validation

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