# Lecture 1: Introduc4on

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1 CSC2515 Spring 2014 Introduc4on to Machine Learning Lecture 1: Introduc4on All lecture slides will be available as.pdf on the course website: Many of the Cigures are provided by Chris Bishop from his textbook: Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning

2 Admin Details Permanent tutorial time/place: Thursdays 2-3, Haultain 401 Do I have the appropriate background? Linear algebra: vector/matrix manipulations, properties Calculus: partial derivatives Probability: common distributions; Bayes Rule Statistics: mean/median/mode; maximum likelihood Sheldon Ross: A First Course in Probability Related Courses

3 Textbooks Christopher Bishop: Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning, Other recommended texts Kevin Murphy: Machine Learning: a Probabilistic Perspective David Mackay: Information Theory, Inference, and Learning Algorithms

4 Do the readings! Requirements Assignments Two assignments, worth 10% each Programming: take Matlab/Python code and extend it Derivations: pen(cil)- and- paper Test Two hour exam on last day of class, check that understand main concepts in course Worth 35% of course mark Project Proposal due Jan 26 Presentations: Week March 23 (date might change) Write- up due April 3 rd (date might change) Worth 45% of course mark

5 What is Machine Learning? Learning systems are not directly programmed to solve a problem, instead develop own program based on: Examples of how they should behave From trial- and- error experience trying to solve the problem Different than standard CS: want to implement unknown function, only have access to sample input- output pairs (training examples) Learning simply means incorporating information from the training examples into the system

6 Why Study Learning? Develop enhanced computer systems Automatically adapt to user, customize Often difcicult to acquire necessary knowledge Improve understanding of human, biological learning Computational analysis provides concrete theory, predictions Explosion of methods to analyze brain activity during learning Timing is good Ever growing amounts of data available Cheap and powerful computers Suite of algorithms, theory already developed

7 A classic example of a task that requires machine learning: What makes a 2?

8 Why use learning? It is very hard to write programs that solve problems like recognizing a handwrinen digit What dis4nguishes a 2 from a 7? How does our brain do it? Instead of wri4ng a program by hand, we collect examples that specify the correct output for a given input A machine learning algorithm then takes these examples and produces a program that does the job The program produced by the learning algorithm may look very different from a typical hand- wrinen program. It may contain millions of numbers. If we do it right, the program works for new cases as well as the ones we trained it on.

9 Two classic examples of tasks that are best solved by using a learning algorithm

10 Learning algorithms are useful in other tasks Recognizing panerns: Facial iden44es, expressions HandwriNen or spoken words Digital images and videos: Loca4ng, tracking, and iden4fying objects Driving a car Recognizing anomalies: Unusual sequences of credit card transac4ons Spam filtering, fraud detec4on: The enemy adapts so we must adapt too Recommenda4on systems: Noisy data, commercial pay- off (Amazon, Ne\lix). Informa4on retrieval: Find documents or images with similar content

11 Data Explosion: Text Large text dataset 1,000,000 words in ,000,000,000,000 words in 2006 Successful Applications Speech recognition Machine translation Lots of labeled data Memorization is useful

12 Really Big Data

13 Human learning Josh Tenenbaum

14 Types of learning task Supervised: correct output known for each training example Learn to predict output when given an input vector Classifica4on: 1- of- N output (speech recogni4on, object recogni4on, medical diagnosis) Regression: real- valued output (predic4ng market prices, customer ra4ng) Unsupervised learning Create an internal representa4on of the input, capturing regulari4es/structure in data Examples: form clusters; extract features How do we know if a representa4on is good? Reinforcement learning Learn ac4on to maximize payoff Not much informa4on in a payoff signal Payoff is ocen delayed Important area not covered here, many applica4ons: games, SmartHouse

15 Supervised Learning ClassiCication Outputs are categorical (1- of- N) Inputs are anything Goal: select correct class for new inputs Ex: speech, object recognition, medical diagnosis Regression Outputs are continuous Inputs are anything (typically continuous) Goal: predict outputs accurately for new inputs Ex: predicting market prices, customer rating of movie Temporal Prediction Goal: perform classicication/regression on new input sequences values at future time points Given input values and corresponding class labels/outputs at some previous time points

16 Unsupervised Learning Clustering: Inputs are vector or categorical Goal: group data cases into a Cinite number of clusters so that within each cluster all cases have very similar inputs Compression Inputs are typically vector Goal: deliver an encoder and decoder such that size of encoder output is much smaller than original input, but composition of encoder followed by decode very similar to original input Outlier detection Inputs are anything Goal: select highly unusual cases from new and given data

17 Machine Learning & Data Mining Data- mining: Typically using very simple machine learning techniques on very large databases because computers are too slow to do anything more interesting with ten billion examples Previously used in a negative sense misguided statistical procedure of looking for all kinds of relationships in the data until Cinally Cind one Now lines are blurred: many ML problems involve tons of data But problems with AI Clavor (e.g., recognition, robot navigation) still domain of ML

18 Machine Learning & Sta4s4cs ML uses statistical theory to build models core task is inference from a sample A lot of ML is rediscovery of things statisticians already knew; often disguised by differences in terminology: But the emphasis is very different: Good piece of statistics: Clever proof that relatively simple estimation procedure is asymptotically unbiased. Good piece of ML: Demo that a complicated algorithm produces impressive results on a specicic task. Can view ML as applying computational techniques to statistical problems. But go beyond typical statistics problems, with different aims (speed vs. accuracy).

19 Cultural gap (Tibshirani) Machine Learning Statistics network, graphs weights learning generalization supervised learning model parameters Citting test set performance regression/classicication unsupervised learning. large grant: \$1,000,000 conference location: Snowbird, French Alps density estimation, clustering large grant: \$50,000 conference location: Las Vegas in August

20 Represen4ng the structure of a set of documents using Latent Seman4c Analysis (a form of PCA) Each document is converted to a vector of word counts. This vector is then mapped to two coordinates and displayed as a colored dot. The colors represent the hand- labeled classes. When the documents are laid out in 2- D, the classes are not used. So we can judge how good the algorithm is by seeing if the classes are separated.

21 Represen4ng the structure of a set of documents using a neural network

22 Using Variables to Represent the World We use mathematical variables to encode everything we know about the task: inputs, outputs and internal states. Variables may be discrete/categorical; continuous/vector Discrete quantities take on one of a Cixed set of values e.g., {0,1}, { ,spam}, {sunny,overcast,raining} Continuous quantities take on real values e.g , [3.3,- 1.8,120.4] Generally have repeated measurements of same quantities Conventions i,j, indexes components/variables/dimensions n,m, indexes cases/records x i (n) : value of the i th input variable on the n th case y j (m) : value of the j th output variable on the m th case x (n) : vector of inputs for the n th case X = {x (1) x (2),, x (N) } is all the inputs

23 Ini4al Case Study What grade will I get in this course? Data: entry survey and marks from previous years Process the data Split into training set; test set Determine representation of input features; output Choose form of model: linear regression Decide how to evaluate the system s performance: objective function Set model parameters to optimize performance Evaluate on test set: generalization

24 Hypothesis Space Now have a representation for inputs and outputs How to represent a supervised learning machine? One way to think about a supervised learning machine is as a device that explores a hypothesis space. Each setting of the parameters in the machine is a different hypothesis about the function that maps input vectors to output vectors. If the data is noise- free, each training example rules out a region of hypothesis space. If the data is noisy, each training example scales the posterior probability of each point in the hypothesis space in proportion to how likely the training example is given that hypothesis. The art of supervised machine learning is in: Deciding how to represent the inputs and outputs Selecting a hypothesis space that is powerful enough to represent the relationship between inputs and outputs but simple enough to be searched.

25 Searching a hypothesis space The obvious method is to Cirst formulate a loss function and then adjust the parameters to minimize the loss function. This allows the optimization to be separated from the objective function that is being optimized. Bayesians do not search for a single set of parameter values that do well on the loss function. They start with a prior distribution over parameter values and use the training data to compute a posterior distribution over the whole hypothesis space.

26 Some Loss Functions Squared difference between actual and target real- valued outputs Number of classicication errors Problematic for optimization because the derivative is not smooth Negative log probability assigned to the correct answer. This is usually the right function to use. In some cases it is the same as squared error (regression with Gaussian output noise) In other cases it is very different (classicication with discrete classes needs cross- entropy error)

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