# Linear Models Continued: Perceptron & Logistic Regression

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1 Linear Models Continued: Perceptron & Logistic Regression CMSC 723 / LING 723 / INST 725 Marine Carpuat Slides credit: Graham Neubig, Jacob Eisenstein

2 Linear Models for Classification Feature function representation Weights

3 Naïve Bayes recap

4 The Perceptron

5 The perceptron A linear model for classification An algorithm to learn feature weights given labeled data online algorithm error-driven

6 Multiclass perceptron

7 Understanding the perceptron What s the impact of the update rule on parameters? The perceptron algorithm will converge if the training data is linearly separable Proof: see A Course In Machine Learning Ch.4 Practical issues How to initalize? When to stop? How to order training examples?

8 When to stop? One technique When the accuracy on held out data starts to decrease Early stopping Requires splitting data into 3 sets: training/development/test

9 ML fundamentals aside: overfitting/underfitting/generalization

10 Training error is not sufficient We care about generalization to new examples A classifier can classify training data perfectly, yet classify new examples incorrectly Because training examples are only a sample of data distribution a feature might correlate with class by coincidence Because training examples could be noisy e.g., accident in labeling

11 Overfitting Consider a model θ and its: Error rate over training data error %&'() (θ) True error rate over all data error %&,- θ We say h overfits the training data if error %&'() θ < error %&,- θ

12 Evaluating on test data Problem: we don t know error %&,- θ! Solution: we set aside a test set some examples that will be used for evaluation we don t look at them during training! after learning a classifier θ, we calculate error %-0% θ

13 Overfitting Another way of putting it A classifier θ is said to overfit the training data, if there is another hypothesis θ, such that θ has a smaller error than θ on the training data but θ has larger error on the test data than θ.

14 Underfitting/Overfitting Underfitting Learning algorithm had the opportunity to learn more from training data, but didn t Overfitting Learning algorithm paid too much attention to idiosyncracies of the training data; the resulting classifier doesn t generalize

15 Back to the Perceptron

16 Averaged Perceptron improves generalization

17 What objective/loss does the perceptron optimize? Zero-one loss function What are the pros and cons compared to Naïve Bayes loss?

18 Logistic Regression

19 Perceptron & Probabilities What if we want a probability p(y x)? The perceptron gives us a prediction y Let s illustrate this with binary classification Illustrations: Graham Neubig

20 The logistic function Softer function than in perceptron Can account for uncertainty Differentiable

21 Logistic regression: how to train? Train based on conditional likelihood Find parameters w that maximize conditional likelihood of all answers y ( given examples x (

22 Stochastic gradient ascent (or descent) Online training algorithm for logistic regression and other probabilistic models Update weights for every training example Move in direction given by gradient Size of update step scaled by learning rate

23 What you should know Standard supervised learning set-up for text classification Difference between train vs. test data How to evaluate 3 examples of supervised linear classifiers Naïve Bayes, Perceptron, Logistic Regression Learning as optimization: what is the objective function optimized? Difference between generative vs. discriminative classifiers Smoothing, regularization Overfitting, underfitting

24 An online learning algorithm

25 Perceptron weight update If y = 1, increase the weights for features in If y = -1, decrease the weights for features in

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