The GREEN Charter School

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2 South Carolina Public Charter School Application For schools planning to open fall 2013 Application Cover The GREEN Charter School FOR SCDE USE ONLY Date Received: Received By: Name of Proposed School Mailing Address (if known) Name of Applicant Group Application Cover Page : GREENVILLE RENEWABLE ENERGY EDUCATION (GREEN) CHARTER SCHOOL : N/A : GREENVILLE RENEWABLE ENERGY EDUCATION (GREEN) CHARTER SCHOOL Contact Information Contact Person : A.Kadir Yildirim Title/Position : The GREEN Charter School Planning Committee Chair Daytime Telephone : Other Phone (cellular) : Mailing Address : 508 Millervale Road City, State, Zip Code : Greer, SC Additional Information about Proposed Charter School Grade Levels during Opening Year: K-6 Grade Levels at Full Student Matriculation: K-12 Sponsor (local school district board or SCPCSD) Name: South Carolina Public Charter School District Certification: I hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge, the information and data contained in this application are true and correct. The applicant s governing body has approved this document and pledges to comply with the attached assurances. Signature of Charter School Planning Committee Chair 04/30/2012 Date FOR SCDE OFFICE USE ONLY Authorization: We hereby certify that this charter application has been duly authorized by the sponsor listed above. This authorization indicates that the terms of the application constitute a contractual agreement between the two organizations represented below. Charter School Planning Committee Chair Name: Signature Date Sponsor Representative name: Signature: Date 1

3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Greenville Renewable Energy EducatioN (GREEN) Charter School (the GREEN Charter School ) aims to provide environmental and sustainability literacy, improved science instruction, and renewable energy learning opportunities that stimulate scientifically literate individuals, workforce, and leadership through world-class and challenging science teaching standards. The GREEN Charter School will instill in students the desire to continually expand their intellects and use the content knowledge and skills they have acquired to participate in and responsibly shape the quality and direction of a complex world with ever increasing energy and sustainability demands. The GREEN Charter School will serve 260 students in its first year of operation (K-6). By adding a grade level each year, the proposed student enrollment at full capacity will be 500 in its seventh year of operation (K-12). To reduce racial, ethnic, and economic isolation, the GREEN Charter School will seek to have a diverse student population, mirroring South Carolina s diversity. Open houses, information sessions and recruitment sessions will be held in order to attract a diverse group of students from varying backgrounds. Every culture and heritage will be celebrated within the school, particularly, within the English Language Arts, Social Studies, World Languages, and Art curricula. The school s character building program will also ensure all students are celebrated and encouraged to be effective citizens. With a strong emphasis on direct instruction, one-on-one and small group instruction, the GREEN Charter School is certain all students will achieve grade level standards. Home visits, increased instructional time, parental support, and tutoring will be provided for each student. Monitoring students progress will be ongoing and will include the student, parent, teacher and other appropriate staff. 2

4 The GREEN Charter School will partner with various institutions in Greenville County, including the Shi Center for Sustainability at Furman University and I-CAR of Clemson University. Additionally, the GREEN Charter School will facilitate teacher and student exchange programs, Math Competitions, and Science Olympiads. 3

5 Table of Contents Cover Page... 1 Executive Summary... 2 Table of Contents Purpose and Support... 6 a. Charter School Mission Statement... 6 b. Admissions Policies and Procedures i. Enrollment Procedures ii. Students Outside the District iii. Student Appeals Process c. Support for Formation of the Charter School i. Charter Planning Committee ii. Evidence of Support Academic Plan a. Educational Program i. Student Population ii. Goals and Objectives iii. Academic Standards iv. Educational and Curricular Program ) Proposed Curriculum ) School Calendar and Daily Schedule ) Strategies and Approaches ) Curriculum Innovation ) High School Diploma ) Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of b. Student Assessment i. Student Achievement and Progress Evaluation ii. Performance Goals Timeline iii. Academic Assistance iv. Increased Student Achievement Operational Plan a. Budget and Accounting System i. Annual Budget ) Revenues ) Expenditures ) Budget and Account Management ii. Annual Audit iii. Pupil Accounting System iv. Negotiated Services Documentation b. Governance and Operation i. NonProfit Corporation Status ii. Governing Board iii. Administrative Structure iv. Parental, Community, and Educator Involvement c. Administrative and Teaching Staff

6 i. Administrative Staff ii. Teachers d. Racial Composition i. Racial Composition of South Carolina ii. Policies and Procedures iii. Desegregation Plan or Order e. Transportation i. Transportation Needs ii. School Bus iii. Contracted Services iv. Special Needs Students f. Facilities and Equipment i. Identified Facility ii. Facility Not Identified iii. Equipment g. Employee Relations i. Employment Process ii. Teacher Evaluations iii. Terms and Conditions of Employment h. Grievance and Termination Procedures i. Teacher Employment and Dismissal Procedures ii. Employment and Dismissal Procedures i. Student Conduct, Rights, and Responsibilities, and Discipline Procedures i. Student Conduct ii. Students with Disabilities iii. Student Rights iv. Parental Notification j. Indemnification k. Insurance

7 1. PURPOSE AND SUPPORT a. Charter School Mission Statement The Mission of the Greenville Renewable Energy EducatioN (GREEN) Charter School (the GREEN Charter School ) is to provide improved science instruction, and sustainability learning opportunities that stimulate scientifically literate individuals, workforce, and leadership through world-class and challenging science teaching standards. The GREEN Charter School will instill in students the desire to continually expand their intellects and use the content knowledge and skills they have acquired to participate in and responsibly shape the quality and direction of a complex world with ever increasing energy and sustainability demands. Purpose of the GREEN Charter School & Consistency with Charter School Act: The primary purpose of the Greenville Renewable Energy Education (GREEN) Charter School is to offer a secure, structured and stimulating educational environment to develop the academic, technical, and critical thinking skills of students. These skills are necessary to meet the state standards and will allow success in a global economy, predicated on knowledge, energy, interconnectedness, and innovation. Consistent with the intent of the S.C. Charter Schools Act of 1996 and following South Carolina Academic Standards, the unique and innovative educational approach of the GREEN Charter School includes: o Utilizing current best practices in teaching to improve student learning in all areas. 6

8 o Employing a hands-on, inquiry-based education program that utilizes research based productive and proven teaching methods and performance based accountability measures. o Providing opportunities for all students and close the gap for the disadvantaged students with the proven math and science programs that work for at-risk students, as well as academically gifted students. o Offering free after-school and weekend tutoring programs by teachers and instructional staff members especially for students who are at risk of academic failure and need extra help to pass their classes. o Preparing interested students for regional, statewide, national, and international competitions. o Creating new professional opportunities for teachers, including the opportunity to be responsible for the learning program at the school environment. o Curriculum, instruction and relevant learning will be connected to green/renewable units and students ability to apply highly rigorous knowledge in a relevant real-world setting will be the end goal. A rigorous and relevant education is a product of effective learning, which takes place when standards, curriculum, instruction and assessment interrelate and reinforce one another. o The GREEN Charter School will ensure that every student is green/renewable energy literate upon graduation, including the use of renewables to teach basic scientific principles (e.g., the sun as a source of Earth s energy and conversion of energy from one source to another). 7

9 o The GREEN Charter School students will have the knowledge and ability to think critically about some of America s complex energy, sustainability, and climate change challenges and engage in critical discussions on such challenges. o Social studies teachers will implement renewable energy activities that demonstrate how the market place and our political system interact to yield energy policymaking. o Diversity and multicultural education will be infused into the curriculum planning process. Through the development of an interdisciplinary approach to teaching curriculum, character education, multicultural understanding, tolerance and respect will be cultivated. Positive adult-student relationships, diversity and awareness of many cultures will be created through the establishment of a system of shared values, norms, beliefs, attitudes, and practices that will be connected to clearly articulated expectations. The purpose of the GREEN Charter School is consistent with the intent of the S. C. Charter Schools Act of 1996, by creating an innovative and flexible educational environment that reflects excellence in education in Greenville County, SC. Need for the GREEN Charter School: Education and renewable energy constitute two major challenges for South Carolina in the 21 st century. With its unique educational focus, the GREEN Charter School tackles two intertwined challenges of our community. While progress has been made to some extent, our changing economy requires much more from public education. Specifically, today more students must perform at higher levels than those expected of only small proportion of students a generation ago. If our young citizens are to succeed in the future, we must have schools that are fundamentally different. 8

10 Currently there exists no charter school in Greenville County that focuses on renewable energy, and only one such school exists in the entire state. On the one hand, business and industry representatives report that the high school graduates they are hiring typically lack important reasoning, writing and communication skills. According to the report from the Blue Ribbon Commission on Testing and Accountability, The current testing program and accountability system do not ensure that students are graduating from high school globally competitive for work and post-secondary education and prepared for life in the 21 st century. The current testing program and accountability system do not reflect the 21 st century skill sets ( Blue Ribbon Commission to Review State Public School Testing Program ). The GREEN Charter School will prepare students for life in the 21 st century by challenging them to develop a high standard of personal expectations beyond proficiency toward mastery in areas such as problem-solving, teamwork, and communication. Further, through strong partnerships with members of the community, including I-CAR, Shi Center for Sustainability at Furman University, the Greenville Zoo, Palmetto Clean Energy, South Carolina Forestry Commission, Sewee Environmental Education Center, and Upstate Forever students will be able to apply their academic knowledge to real-world settings. The need for a school, like the GREEN Charter School, that couples rigorous curriculum with environmental literacy and renewable energy is great. Non-renewable energy, such as oil, has been the primary energy source for decades. However, an inevitable decline in oil sources is fast approaching and the search for alternate ways to produce energy has begun. Lester Brown of the Earth Policy Institute writes that, The peaking of world oil production raises questions more difficult than ever since civilization 9

11 began. * The U.S. Department of Energy s recent initiatives focused on mitigation strategies for the peaking oil as evidenced by the Hirsch Report, suggests that smooth energy transition necessitates mitigation efforts years before oil production peaks and begins its decline. The State of South Carolina recognizes this need, and accordingly the South Carolina Energy Office (SCEO) promotes the use of renewable energies and sustainable development practices throughout the state. Education and action on alternative and renewable energy methods constitute a crucial element of this transition. The energy issues linked to global warming also carry potential implications for food production. Changing weather patterns, increased droughts and floods are likely to damage yields. Because plant production is sensitive to temperature, plant physiologists estimate that a one-degree rise in average climate temperature will decrease world harvest by 10%. This will cause agricultural problems and contribute to world hunger directly. Thus, food-related issues are closely tied to energy issues. Renewable energy is also intimately linked to promotion of economic recovery efforts, job creation, and clean energy manufacturing, by investing in the Clean Energy Jobs of the Future. Green jobs pay well and cannot be outsourced. An American clean energy industry stands to gain most as a result of developing a 21 st century industry. Hence, it is vital for our students to have an adequate preparation for such future careers, especially in light of the issues our students face in acquiring 21 st century skill sets. Our children should be educated not for today s job market or academic programs in today s colleges and universities, but for those that will be most important a decade from now. U.S. Department of Labor predicts that virtually all * Lester R. Brown (2008). Plan B 3.0: Mobilizing to Save Civilization. Available at Robert Hersch (2005). Peaking of World Oil Production: Impacts, Mitigation, and Risk Management. Available at

12 science and technology-related jobs to have excellent prospects and projects much faster growth than average employment. We live in a changing world that will require citizens to be educated about dynamic environmental issues, so we want our students to understand how their individual decisions affect the environment at local and global levels. The most significant and meaningful innovation at the GREEN Charter School will be the emphasis on developing students environmental literacy through integration of green practices in all subject areas. Utilizing National Environmental Education Foundation Plan and National Energy Education Development Project as guides, the GREEN Charter School will develop instructional methods and materials that promote sustainable practices and stewardship both locally and globally. As stated by our name, the GREEN Charter School will truly be green, meaning that we will help students learn to live the four R s: reduce, reuse, recycle, and repurpose. There are several reasons why schools could become ideal centers for energy and sustainability education, and innovation. At the high school level, well-educated teachers in many diverse disciplines can synthesize their knowledge and research to develop, teach and implement sustainable houses and homesteads. Schools can serve well as energy centers, since more businesses, colleges, and universities are willing to partner with them and sponsor projects. Energy efficient or energy generating applications can be donated and showcased by businesses. Guest speakers will be important resources in classrooms to educate and showcase innovations. With these purposes in mind, the GREEN Charter School committee believes that Greenville County has a rich potential to house a charter school with renewable energy focus. Greenville County is home to major national and international energy-related companies and institutions, Occupational Outlook Handbook, Edition 11

13 including BMW, GM, Michelin, Furman University and I-CAR. Hence, a great resource and support potential for green school already exists in Greenville County. Schools are well-suited to incorporate and implement renewable energy-related projects. For example, an interdisciplinary project on renewable energy, such as a mobile solar greenhouse is a case in point. Drafting, physics, metals, constructions, and electrical classes could help construct it, while horticulture, agriculture and biology classes can use it for growing and producing. Classes to specialize in cooking could utilize produce as well. The entire system serves as a project for its ability to collect and conserve solar energy and convert it through photosynthesis into chemical energy that can be eaten and burned by the body. The federal legislation known as No Child Left Behind has led many schools to focus on courses with high-stakes tests, demanding that teachers teach to the test and that students memorize content. Unfortunately, this came at the expense of decreased problem-solving and innovative teaching methods, such as project-based learning, authentic assessment, and outdoor learning experiences. According to the No Child Left Inside Coalition, the Center of Education Policy noted the problem in 2008, discovering that time for social studies and science had been decreased in many school districts ( Narrowing Curriculum 2011). The GREEN Charter School will address this deficit in our children s education. Schools do not have to choose to emphasize environmental education at the cost of traditional content knowledge. In fact, studies have shown that environmental education can actually enhance academic achievement. In a study by American Institutes for Research, children in California who attended outdoor education programs increased their science scores by 27 percent ( Effects of Outdoor Education Programs for Children in California 2005). By using the National Environmental Education Foundation plan and the National Energy Education Development Project as guides, teachers will 12

14 incorporate environmental education into project-based learning, requiring students to use math, reading, science, and writing skills as they apply their learning in authentic ways. b. Admissions Policies and Procedures i. Enrollment Procedures The GREEN Charter School shall admit any student who is eligible to attend similar public schools in the SCPCSD, which is the State of South Carolina, to the maximum capacity allowed by its charter. The GREEN Charter School shall comply with all federal and state laws and constitutional provisions prohibiting discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, creed, gender, ethnicity, disability, age, religion, ancestry, or need for special education services. The GREEN Charter School will be open to any students residing in the SCPCSD who submit a timely application. An application can be through Web, mail, or hand-delivered. The school will have an enrollment period. The deadlines for student applications, lottery date, and registrations and waiting-list enrollment will be publicly announced on school website and in front office. During the lottery process, all applicants who applied by the deadline will have an equal opportunity in the drawing. After the capacity is filled, a waiting list will be formed based on the student s application date and time. Upon receipt of an application, the GREEN Charter School shall notify the parent/guardian that the application was received, and inform of the possibility of a lottery as specified in federal or state guidance in case the number of applications exceeds the capacity of the grade level or building applied for. Applications received after the application deadline shall 13

15 not be considered for the lottery pools. Instead they shall be put on the waiting list in the order they are received. Student enrollment projections for the first and subsequent years are presented in Section (2)(a)(i). If the number of applications exceeds the capacity of a grade level or building, students shall be accepted by lottery. The lottery shall take place at a previously announced public location, such as the GREEN Charter School cafeteria, in front of prospective parents and students in the presence of a public notary. The names of the applicants shall be entered into lot pools categorized by the grade level or building applied for. Then, randomly drawn names from the lot pool of each category shall be put on the winners list until the capacity of that category is reached. The winners shall be asked to enroll in a certain period of time. Students who do not bring the necessary enrollment procedures to a completion in this period of time shall forfeit their right for admission into the GREEN Charter School. After capacity is reached in any category, random drawing shall continue to place remaining names on a waiting list in the order drawn. Waiting list students shall also be expected to complete their enrollment procedures in a certain period of time. The GREEN Charter School shall not limit or deny admission or show preference in admission decisions to any individual or group of individuals. However, the GREEN Charter School shall give enrollment priority to a sibling of a pupil already enrolled, children of the GREEN Charter School employees, and children of the GREEN Charter School Committee, provided their enrollment does not constitute more than twenty percent of the enrollment of the GREEN Charter School, in accordance with S.C. Code Ann ii. Students Outside the District 14

16 The GREEN Charter School shall grant any students to attend the GREEN Charter School if they reside in a SCPCSD. Therefore, the GREEN Charter School will enroll out-of-district students if applied. iii. Student Appeals Process Students, who are denied admission for any reason other than the results of a lottery, may appeal the decision by sending to the SCPCSD a notice of appeal in writing within ten days of receipt of the denial decision. The SCPCSD shall make the final binding decision in a manner consistent with the South Carolina Charter Schools Act as amended. c. Support for Formation of the Charter School i. Charter Planning Committee The GREEN Charter School Planning Committee consists of parents, community leaders, higher educators, and researchers, representing diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, former school board members, business leaders, and student advocates. The planning committee was formed in January 2011, and immediately started sharing a possible school project idea after Dr. Haque shared his long-waited idea with one of the committee members. Their initial idea about a renewable energy focused charter school was well received by the interested members of Greenville community. Committee members have continued working on the renewable energy focus charter school through regular meetings since January. The Charter Committee consists of five members, one of whom is a South Carolina certified teacher and all members are Greenville County taxpayers and residents. The Charter Committee members are the following: 15

17 Dr. Imtiaz Haque (Community Member, Parent, Professor, and Resident in Greenville County) Dr. Haque is Professor and past chair of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson University. He is currently serving as Executive Director of the Carroll A. Campbell Graduate Engineering Center on the CU-ICAR Campus in Greenville SC. His teaching and research interests lie in the general areas of dynamics, vibrations, mechanisms and machines, and manufacturing process simulation. He has been involved with the modeling and simulation of vehicular systems since Professor Haque is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers. He has been a member of the ASME Applied Mechanics Transportation Committee, and was a founding member of the ASME Material Division Committee on Metal Forming. He has served as Guest Editor for the International Journal of Vehicle Design and is a member of the Editorial Board for the International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems. He was Vice Chairman of the ASME Design Division Committee on Vehicle Design from Dr. Haque has conducted research for and served as consultant to private industry and federal agencies. In he spent his sabbatical year at the BMW Research and Engineering Center in Munich, Germany. Dr. Haque has published over 100 refereed journal and conference papers. He serves as reviewer for numerous journals, conferences, and funding agencies. Dr. Haque resides in Greenville County and his address is 4 Research Drive Greenville, SC Amanda Yilmaz (Teacher, Community Member, Parent, and Resident in Greenville County) Mrs. Yilmaz is a certified French teacher at Mauldin Middle School. Mrs. Yilmaz received her M.A degree in French at University of South Carolina Upstate in 2004 and received M.A.T. in 16

18 Secondary English at Converse College in She is certified in South Carolina to teach Secondary English, French (K-12) and ESOL (K-12). She has worked and studied abroad as well. She taught ESOL classes for the Greenville Literacy Association for several years and tutored students throughout various programs including private lessons and university programs. Mrs. Yilmaz is a resident of Greenville County and her address is 217 Kelsey Glen Ln., Simpsonville, SC Dr. A.Kadir Yildirim (Community Member, Parent, Professor, and Resident in Greenville County) Dr. Yildirim is a faculty member in the Department of Political Science at Furman University. Prior to joining Furman University, he was a postdoctoral fellow in Niehaus Center for Globalization and Governance at Princeton University. Dr. Yildirim holds a Ph.D. in political science from the Ohio State University. Dr. Yildirim's research interests center on economic liberalization and democratization. His articles on contemporary political issues have appeared in scholarly journals as well as daily newspapers. As an educator, Dr. Yildirim taught at various levels including high school and college. As part of his research, Dr. Yildirim traveled extensively abroad. He is married and father of three children, an eight-year-old daughter, and two-year-old twin sons. Dr. Yildirim is a resident of Greenville County, and his address is 508 Millervale Rd., Greer, SC Baran Menguloglu (Community Member and Resident in Greenville County) Mr. Menguloglu is a goal-driven, quality/ industrial engineer. He is an expert in utilizing resources, improving processes, increasing quality and reducing costs. Baran Menguloglu has been working at Magna/ Drive Automotive since Baran Menguloglu is responsible for 17

19 BMW X5 vehicle s body-in-white parts quality assurance. Baran also worked for an aluminum machining/bending company (Pwg-Aluminum) as a quality engineer and quality manager. Mr. Menguloglu is a resident of Greenville County, and his address is 620 Halton Rd., Apt , Greenville, SC Abdulbasit Aydin (Community Member, Parent, and Resident in Greenville County) Abdulbasit Akif Aydin received his M.S. degree in Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis at Florida State University in Mr. Aydin is currently a Ph.D. candidate in John E. Walker Department of Economics at Clemson University. He has served as a board member of River City Science Academy Charter School between 2007 and He has been an educational director for the Atlantic Foundation of North Florida from 2006 until He is married with two children. Mr. Aydin is a resident in Greenville County and his address is 230 Roper Mountain Road # 713-G Greenville, SC The charter planning committee will be dissolved shortly after the opening of the school when the school s first governing board is elected. In Appendix item 1, please find their resumes. ii. Evidence of Support In order to assess the need for a renewable energy focused charter school in Greenville County, the Charter Committee met with numerous elected and public officials and members of local community organizations, and neighborhood associations since January The feedback we received was overwhelmingly positive, supportive, and encouraging. Written support letters from local educators and community leaders are included in Appendix item 2. Our meetings with 18

20 these individuals and their comments and suggestions had a significant impact on the design and development of our proposal. The Charter School Committee held several private community discussions with parents, pupils, and teachers. There are periodic meetings scheduled throughout the year to inform public about the project and to increase awareness about charter schools as a public school choice. In addition, The Charter School Committee conducted surveys with residents of several Greenville County neighborhoods and received tremendous support and interest from members of the local community. In fact, we distributed more than 500 hundred flyers/surveys to interested local residents. We collected much more support surveys from local parents than we had anticipated. In order to keep the charter school application at a reasonable size, parents of 359 school aged-students (approximately 215 families) returned our surveys and the copies of the collected surveys were attached to the application package in Appendix item ACADEMIC PLAN a. Educational Program i. Student Population The GREEN Charter School shall use traditional grade levels and admit eligible students from grades kindergarten through twelve. The enrollment projections for the K-12 grades of the school during the term of the charter are provided below. The GREEN Charter School aims to create a diverse learning community that welcomes Greenville County families seeking excellence in education. With high expectations at the center of both academics and discipline, the GREEN 19

21 Charter School will attract families who desire a rigorous, experiential, whole-child approach to education. The GREEN Charter School will identify students by grade level and will be open to all eligible kindergarten through sixth grade Greenville County students in the fall of 2013, adding a grade level each year. In keeping with our small school philosophy, the GREEN Charter School will have at least two classes per grade level with a projected student to teacher distribution of sixteen to one (Kindergarten), eighteen to one (Primary), and twenty to one for the rest (See also Appendix item 3). YEAR SCHOOL GRADE LEVEL K Kindergarten P P P EL EL EL EL EL HS HS HS 11 HS 12 ADM The GREEN Charter School shall serve the general student population with no preference in regards to enrollment. The GREEN Charter School reserves the right to amend the projections 20

22 for the second grade and later school years, based on the first year's enrollment trends, building capacity, and other logistical concerns. The GREEN Charter School shall seek approval for the amendment by the South Carolina Public Charter School District (the "School District"). ii. Goals and Objectives As described below, the GREEN Charter School addresses the six legislated purposes of charter schools per the South Carolina Charter Schools Act of 1996 (SECTION ). ii.1. Improve student learning To improve student learning, the GREEN Charter School will: Equip students with the skills necessary to access, apply, and create knowledge based upon South Carolina s Common Core Standards (adopted July 2010). Employ highly-qualified teaching staff based on educational experience, National Board Certification, and an articulated philosophy that demonstrates an alignment with the school s mission. Require teachers to develop instruction based on Revised Bloom s Taxonomy and formative assessment data. Help students develop the necessary 21 st century skills in critical thinking, communicating, collaborating, and using technology to be globally competitive. Infuse each student s educational experience with a deliberate connection to the environment and nature. Drive decision-making with data from formative assessments, summative assessments, and projects. 21

23 Educate parents on the best way to support their students educational experience and allow parents to partner with the school to build trust, to advance transparency, and to bring about the best educational outcomes. Build strong relationships with students as a result of a small learning community. Provide opportunities for students to demonstrate their learning by volunteering in diverse community services. Incorporate technology and digital media in instruction for maximum student engagement and high relevance to real life. In an effort to sustain the school s mission and to improve student learning, the GREEN Charter School will structure its school day and calendar with time for teachers to participate in Professional Learning Communities and for students to form relationships outside of the school s walls by taking their learning into the community. We will encourage teachers to be innovative in their lesson design and to consider the connections between curriculum and the environment. Place Based Education, an education theory, promotes taking the lessons outside the four walls of the classroom, which is exactly what the GREEN Charter School embraces. ii.2. Increase learning opportunities for all students To increase learning opportunities for all students, the GREEN Charter School will: Provide a variety of authentic assessments based on students learning styles. Differentiate instruction in an effort to allow students to experience success so that they will readily take on more rigorous academic challenges. Design lessons in a strategic way to stimulate learning through the senses because of our 22

24 effort to take learning outside the classroom and into nature. Partner with community entities, like I-CAR, Shi Center for Sustainability at Furman University, Palmetto Clean Energy, Thurso Power Systems so that students will see what they learn is used each day in a variety of careers. Pursue external opportunities in the community for students to show what they know, to job shadow, to bond with their community, to interact with experts, and to advocate stewardship for the environment. Understanding that all students need to be able to apply their learning, according to Revised Bloom s Taxonomy, the GREEN Charter School is unique in that it will afford students the opportunity to use built-in flex days to go out into the community to put their learning to work. These community institutions include the Greenville Zoo, South Carolina Forestry Commission, Sewee Environmental Education Center, Upstate Forever, Greenville Forward, Habitat for Humanity, the YMCA, civic groups, and nursing and assisted living facilities. Students will also be able to volunteer in the community to model conservation and ecological preservation, and engage in production of renewable energy. Speaking to civil society organizations will build their 21 st century communication skills. ii.3. Encourage the use of productive teaching methods To encourage the use of productive teaching methods, the GREEN Charter School will: Use technology for student engagement and to leverage expertise from around the globe. Expand course offerings through South Carolina Virtual School Program and other institutions with appropriate virtual course offerings. 23

25 Refine the use of project-based learning for both formative and summative assessment. Couple the National Environmental Education Foundation plan with daily instruction, which will teach our students to be good stewards of the environment. Partner regularly with institutions, such as the Greenville Zoo, Shi Center for Sustainability at Furman University, Palmetto Clean Energy, South Carolina Forestry Commission, Sewee Environmental Education Center, Upstate Forever, Greenville Forward, and Thurso Power Systems to offer students unique insight into how their content knowledge connects to the real world. Use nature to promote student learning in areas such as complex systems, literary themes, mathematical patterns, and historical events, policies, and inventions. On the cutting edge in South Carolina, the GREEN Charter School will be the first high school in the state to use environmental literacy and renewable energy as the lens from which we teach all subject areas. Students will see how math connects with nature in areas such as patterns. Students will see how nature and humans are part of a complex, interconnected system. Students will see how American policy has affected nature. Finally, students will see how universal themes in literature are repeated in nature. By coupling the National Environmental Education Foundation plan with the rigorous South Carolina Educational Standards, the GREEN Charter School will be on the forefront of the green schools movement. We are prepared to lead our state in showing the country that rigorous academic standards do not have to be compromised in order to promote environmental literacy and renewable energy amongst our youth. The leaders of the GREEN Charter School know from experience that depth of curriculum trumps breadth. In other words, sacrificing disconnected, factual based instruction for rich, meaningful, personalized 24

26 instruction results in having students that are college and career ready. Students who routinely use project-based learning to show what they know typically outscore students who have been exposed to traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. ii.4. Establish new forms of accountability for schools The GREEN Charter School will follow the South Carolina State Department of Education s Division of Accountability guidelines. The GREEN Charter School will implement required federal programs, and all state-mandated testing will be administered. Emphasis will be placed on the growth of the student. Since the GREEN Charter School is a data-oriented school, data will be compiled on each student, and teachers will make instructional decisions based on data. In addition, formative and summative data will drive teachers instructional decision-making. ii.5. Create new professional opportunities for teachers, including the opportunities to be responsible for the learning program at the school site To create new professional opportunities for teachers, the GREEN Charter School will: Facilitate teachers relationships with business and community in order to see how their subject area is embedded in real world applications. Provide time and CEU s for online professional development during workdays. Encourage teachers to seek certification through various programs offered by National Energy Education Development (NEED) Project, South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control s Environmental Education program and South Carolina Energy Office s Renewable Energy program in order to further their understanding of renewable energy and environmental issues. 25

27 Protect and value time for professional learning communities and utilize it to affect change within the school. Invite teachers to serve on the school leadership team, to serve on the data team, and/or to conduct action research for the betterment of the school in order to build leadership capacity within the school. Allow teachers the opportunity to attend content-specific professional development, to show evidence of its use based on classroom observations, and to add feedback in professional learning communities. There is a paradigm shift concerning school leadership in recent years. Time and research have shown that a top-down leadership approach is the least effective form of management because it sends teachers the message that their voices are not heard and their suggestions are not valued. Instead, the new style of leadership, called shared leadership, empowers teachers to voice their thoughts and concerns, and to exercise their budding leadership skills. It also affords administrators the benefit of a wealth of ideas so as to create the best possible learning outcomes for students. ii.6. Assist South Carolina in reaching academic excellence To provide parents and students with expanded choices in the type of educational opportunities that are available within the public school system, the GREEN Charter School will: Welcome parents and other community members into the school for tours or observations of our innovative teaching practices. Create a learning community in which students receive individualized assistance from 26

28 caring professionals. Offer after school tutoring to remediate, enhance, or enrich classroom instruction depending upon student needs. Encourage faculty members and approved community members to establish extracurricular clubs, organizations, and sports teams to cultivate outside interests for the well-rounded student. Work with community partners to offer occasions for students to learn outside the classroom. Ask students to teach the public about environmental ethics in public forums such as fall festivals, civic clubs and social groups. Give students a voice in establishing green practices and norms for the school with opportunities for extending those green practices throughout the community. Extend learning outside of the school building by traveling with students to places that bolster the school s mission. Invite guest speakers in person and through digital media to address students to share their expertise in real-world experience, and to enhance subject area content. Specific Goals and Objectives The primary learning objective of the GREEN Charter School will be to demonstrate continuous improvement among its students. The following objectives are presented with the caveat that the school has not opened and therefore has no baseline data for its students. More importantly, the school will use the School Improvement Planning process to develop subsequent learning 27

29 objectives based upon the experience(s) and learning results obtained in the first year. The following will be the GREEN Charter School s goals and objectives during its charter term: Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3 through 8 who meet the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS ** ) English Language Art Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3 through 8 who demonstrate exemplary performance in meeting the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) English Language Art Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3 through 8 who meet the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Mathematics Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3 through 8 who demonstrate exemplary performance in ** As mandated in Chapter 18, Title 59 of the 1976 Code, the Education Accountability Act was amended (May 2008) to provide for the development of a new statewide assessment program. This program, known as the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS), was first administered in the spring of The PASS is administered to South Carolina public school students, including charter school students in grades three through eight. PASS includes tests in five subject areas: writing, English language arts (reading and research), mathematics, science, and social studies. For spring 2012, only those students in grades 5 and 8 take the writing test. All students in grades three through eight take the PASS English language arts (ELA) and mathematics tests. All students in grades 4 and 7 take both the science and social studies tests. Students in grades 3, 5, 6, and 8 take either the science or the social studies test. Approximately half of the students in each of these grades are randomly assigned to take the PASS science test; the other half are assigned to take the social studies test in each of these grades (per school). The three PASS performance levels are categories that reflect the overall knowledge and skills exhibited by students on each test: Exemplary - The student demonstrated exemplary performance in meeting the grade-level standard. Met - The student met the grade-level standard. Not Met - The student did not meet the grade-level standard. 28

30 meeting the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Mathematics Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 4 and 7 who meet the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Science Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 4 and 7 who demonstrate exemplary performance in meeting the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Science Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3, 5, 6 and 8 who meet the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Science Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3, 5, 6 and 8 who demonstrate exemplary performance in meeting the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Science Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 4 and 7 who meet the grade level standards on the 29

31 Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Social Studies Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 4 and 7 who demonstrate exemplary performance in meeting the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Social Studies Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3, 5, 6 and 8 who meet the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Social Studies Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 3, 5, 6 and 8 who demonstrate exemplary performance in meeting the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Social Studies Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 5 and 8 who meet the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) Writing Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students in grades 5 and 8 who demonstrate exemplary performance in meeting the grade level standards on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) 30

32 Writing Test will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students by the end of tenth grade who pass The High School Assessment Program (HSAP ) in English Language Art in meeting the graduation requirement will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given instruction using the SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students by the end of tenth grade who pass The High School Assessment Program (HSAP) in Mathematics in meeting the graduation requirement will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Percentage of lowest 25% students making learning growth in math as measured by PASS Math will be at least 50%. Percentage of lowest 25% students making learning growth in math as measured by PASS Reading will be at least 50%. Given a school-wide emphasis on instruction for mastery of SC State Standards and/or Common Core State Standards, the percentage of students who meet the requirements for graduation, upon completion of grade twelve, will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Given a school-wide emphasis, the percentage of students receiving college acceptance upon graduation will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. The High School Assessment Program (HSAP) assesses selected South Carolina academic standards in English language arts and mathematics that students have had opportunity to learn by the end of the tenth grade. 31

33 In light of graduation requirements, the percentage of students mastery on the End of Course (EOC) assessments in required courses, such as Algebra 1/Math for the Technologies 2, English 1, US History and the Constitution, and Biology 1/Applied Biology 2, as becomes available, will be at a rate of equal or exceeding the county and state average percentage. Grades K - 2 The mean growth from fall to spring in reading and mathematics will be at least 1 year as evidenced by the outcomes from the fall and spring administrations of internal benchmarks such as Diagnostic Reading Assessment (DAR) in reading and Tools for Early Assessment in Math (TEAM) and student portfolios. The GREEN Charter School will also utilize appropriate assessments to include Test Generator in-house assessments, on-going assessments provided by the text, district/state mandated assessments to establish baseline performance data in Reading during the school s first year and then show improvement in learning gains in subsequent years. Additional objectives will be established in the School Improvement Plan. Other core subjects will be evaluated using teacher made assessments and report card grades. In addition to the PASS, HSAP, EOC, PSAT, SAT, or ACT tests, the GREEN Charter School will also conduct other methods of assessing students' mastery of performance outcomes, such as facilitator observation, peer- and self-evaluations, teacher tests and quizzes, projects, presentations, exhibitions, and portfolios. Student portfolios will show not only students best work, but also drafts of student work that will demonstrate progress. Ongoing Progress Reports and Report Cards of student performance will be utilized as reflective and guidance tools. The objectives and goals in the GREEN Charter School s curriculum are built upon the SC State 32

34 Standards and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) as adopted. Standards can be found at: The faculty of the school will be provided and trained on CCSS to ensure that lesson plans and yearly plans align with the CCSS. All required supplements and materials will be provided to faculty to implement CCSS. The GREEN Charter School s curriculum will focus on clear and measurable expectations for student learning and covers the main subject areas of Reading/Language Arts, Writing, Mathematics, Social Studies, and Science. The curriculum will continuously reflect high quality instruction and implement research-based strategies, innovations and activities that facilitate achievement for all students. The GREEN Charter School s curriculum is aligned with the CCSS and student progress will be assessed with the school generated assessments and state/district assessments. Samples from standards are presented in Appendix item 4. The faculty and administrators will analyze information obtained from classroom and state/district assessments to evaluate academic strengths and weaknesses of individual students. Data is derived from formal and informal assessments supporting data driven decision making when determining adjustments that may need to be made to the curriculum. Teachers will plan for instruction, using lesson plans aligned with CCSS, state approved resources and appropriate instructional strategies. Instruction is designed to address new skills acquisition as well as addressing the achievement gaps in student performance. The SC State has developed State Standards, and adopts CCSS that stipulate a comprehensive plan for the instructional program. The Principal, Department Chairs and lead teachers develop Scope and Sequence documents that guide the organization and pacing of 33

35 instruction. Classroom teachers implement Best Practices that include examples of techniques and strategies, which effectively promote improved student achievement. Classroom and school-wide interim assessments are a critical component of the teaching and learning process. Teachers will assess student learning frequently to ensure academic success. In addition, interim assessments that mimic the state test format will provide tools for adjusting and refining curriculum and instruction so that all students have the opportunity for indepth learning to be successful on the state tests. The GREEN Charter School will provide tutoring for students whose assessment results indicate a need for further instruction in any essential skill area. Extended learning opportunities will be made available for all students at all academic levels of achievement. Classroom teachers and administrative staff will monitor student progress on a continuous basis. Informal student/teacher conferences, principal visits to classrooms, and examinations of test results are ways a student s progress is monitored. The GREEN Charter School recognizes that a culturally diverse student population requires individualized methods of instruction delivery. Multicultural themes will teach students tolerance for the ethnically and/or culturally diverse population served by the school. With tolerance comes understanding, thus, creating a community of students who are committed to working together to assist in creating a school environment that is conducive to learning. iii. Academic Standards The Charter School adopts the South Carolina Academic Standards and Common Core State Standards as adopted for elementary, middle and high school levels, as the minimum academic standards of the school. These standards are grade level specific for each subject and can be 34

36 found at the Office of Curriculum and Standards website. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Mathematics were adopted by South Carolina as its standards in English Language Arts and Mathematics in July of The standards will be fully implemented in school year as follows: School Year Implementation Plan Transition Year Transition Year Bridge Year (CCSS will be used for instructional purposes during this school year.) Full Implementation The curriculum shall be aligned with the South Carolina Academic Standards and No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 as well as the CCSS. Therefore, the following South Carolina Academic Standards in core subjects are targeted. When the transition happens, the School will follow the CCSS. Science Using the extensive resources of our partners, we plan to provide an inquiry-based science education in addition to prominent features of our green theme. We will offer integrated science in grades 6-8 with a focus on building strong habits of mind and investigative skills. Our high school science program includes Physical Science, Earth Science, Physics, Biology (1,2), Applied Biology (1,2), Chemistry (1,2), AP Biology, AP Chemistry, AP Physics, and

37 Environmental Science. We will also offer robust internships, community-based fieldwork, and exploratory opportunities. The Science Electives related to our green theme will be offered both in middle and high school levels. These electives will focus on energy use, energy efficiency, and new energy technologies from K-12, such as The Science of Energy, Renewable and Nonrenewable Sources of Energy, Electricity, Efficiency and Conservation, and Synthesis of Energy Information. The GREEN Charter School will implement the NEED Project curriculum, 5 which is aligned with National Science Standards as well as SC curriculum standards. The details of NEED curriculum correlation can be found in Appendix item 4. The study of science is essential to the mission of the GREEN Charter School, especially given the school s focus on renewable energy. Through curious inquiry, diligent observation, and technical skill, our students will be prepared not only to articulate the scientific issues that face our world but to help solve them as well. To do so requires knowledge of the bedrock disciplines of science as well as an understanding of the fact that science is, at its core, interdisciplinary. Our school will provide series of rigorous, interesting, and inspiring courses in both unified science and specific topics that require students to demonstrate their mastery and explore the real world of science research and practice beyond the classroom. With that in mind, at the end of each year all students will participate in the GREEN Charter School Science Fair where they will publicly present and defend their science research to external audiences from the scientific community. In our high school program, we will offer subject-specific courses that utilize college-preparatory textbooks, lab-based experiences, and the resources of our many science and environmental partners. The science curriculum will be guided by the course standards specified in the South Carolina Science Academic Standards (2005). With NAEP scores, TIMSS reports, and 36

38 international benchmarks indicating drastic reform is imperative in science within the United States, the GREEN Charter School will support an inquiry-based approach to learning valued knowledge in science through authentic experiences of questioning, designing, reasoning, analyzing, and communicating. Teachers will be expected to elicit critical thinking from their students through activities, reading assignments, debates, discussions, case studies, experiments, and student-driven research. Students will explore science concepts in depth in all of their classes and experience enrichment through clubs (Sierra Club, Science Olympiad), fieldtrips (universities, private labs, businesses), and internships through community partners (I-CAR, Greenville Zoo, Shi Center for Sustainability at Furman University, Thurso Power Systems). The followings are the standards per grade level. Grade Skills SC Science Standards Grade K The students will develop an understanding of: K-1, K-2, K- Scientific inquiry, including the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a simple scientific investigation. 3, K-4, K-5 Nonstandard units of measurement The characteristics of organisms. (Life Science) The distinct structures of human body and the different functions they serve. (Life Science) Seasonal weather changes. (Earth Science) That objects can be described by their observable properties. (Physical Science) Grade 1 The students will develop an understanding of: 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, Scientific inquiry, including the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a simple scientific investigation. 1-4, 1-5 The special characteristics and needs of plants that allow them to survive in their own distinct environments. (Life Science) The features of the sky and the patterns of the Sun and the Moon. (Earth Science) The properties of Earth materials. (Earth Science) Recognize the observable properties of water 37

39 Grade 2 Grade 3 Grade 4 The positions and motions of objects. (Physical Science) The students will develop an understanding of: Scientific inquiry, including the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a simple scientific investigation. Carry out simple scientific investigations to answer questions about familiar objects and events The needs and characteristics of animals as they interact in their own distinct environments. (Life Science) Daily and seasonal weather conditions. (Earth Science) Carry out procedures to measure and record daily weather conditions Force and motion by applying the properties of magnetism. (Physical Science) The students will develop an understanding of: Infer meaning from data communicated in graphs, tables, and diagrams Classify objects or events in sequential order Scientific inquiry, including the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a simple scientific investigation. The structures, characteristics, and adaptations of organisms that allow them to function and survive within their habitats. (Life Science) Explain how water and other substances change from one state to another. Identify sources of heat and exemplify ways that heat can be produced. How motion and sound are affected by a push or pull on an object and the vibration of an object. (Physical Science) The students will develop an understanding of: Scientific inquiry, including the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a simple scientific investigation. Summarize the characteristics of a simple scientific investigation. Distinguish among observations, predictions, and inferences. The characteristics and patterns of behavior that allow organisms to survive in their own distinct environments. (Life Science) 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, , 3-2, 3-4, , 4-2, 4-3, 4-4,

40 Grade 5 Grade 6 The properties, movements, and locations of objects in the solar system. (Earth Science) How the Sun affects Earth. How the rotation of Earth results in day and night. Recognize the purpose of telescopes. Weather patterns and phenomena. (Earth Science) Prediction of weather from data collected through observation and measurements. Classification of clouds according to their three basic types. The properties of light and electricity. (Physical Science) The basic properties of light. The properties of magnets and electromagnets. The students will develop an understanding of: Scientific inquiry, including the foundations of technological design and the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a controlled scientific investigation. Independent (manipulated), dependent (responding), and controlled variables in an experiment What a hypothesis is. Relationships among biotic and abiotic factors within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (Life Science) Features, processes, and changes in Earth s land and oceans. (Earth Science) The Comparison between continental and oceanic landforms. Properties of matter. (Physical Science) The nature of force and motion. (Physical Science) The motion of an object in terms of position, direction, and speed. The students will develop an understanding of: Technological design and scientific inquiry, including process skills, mathematical thinking, controlled investigative design and analysis, and problem solving. The classification of organisms, objects, and materials according to their physical characteristics by using a dichotomous key. Structures, processes, and responses of plants that allow them to survive and reproduce. (Life Science) The characteristic structures of various groups of plants. Structures, processes, and responses of animals that 5-1, 5-2, 5-3, 5-4, , 6-2, 6-3, 6-4,

41 Grade 7 Grade 8 allow them to survive and reproduce. (Life Science) The relationship between Earth s atmospheric properties and processes and its weather and climate. (Earth Science) The law of conservation of energy and the properties of energy and work. (Physical Science) Explain how energy can be transformed from one form to another in accordance with the law of conservation of energy. Explain how the design of simple machines helps reduce the amount of force required to do work. The students will develop an understanding of: Technological design and scientific inquiry, including process skills, mathematical thinking, controlled investigative design and analysis, and problem solving. The structure and function of cells, cellular reproduction, and heredity. (Life Science) How genetic information is passed from parent to offspring. The difference between inherited traits and those acquired from environmental factors. The functions and interconnections of the major human body systems, including the breakdown in structure or function that disease causes. (Life Science) How organisms interact with and respond to the biotic and abiotic components of their environment. (Earth Science, Life Science) Explain the interaction among changes in the environment due to natural hazards (including landslides, wildfires, and floods), changes in populations, and limiting factors. Classify resources as renewable or nonrenewable and explain the implications of their depletion and the importance of conservation. The classifications and properties of matter and the changes that matter undergoes. (Physical Science) Use the periodic table to identify the basic organization of elements and groups of elements Explain how a balanced chemical equation supports the law of conservation of matter. The students will develop an understanding of: Illustrate the vast diversity of life that has been present on Earth over time by using the geologic time 7-1, 7-2, 7-3, 7-4, , 8-3, 8-5,

42 scale. Explain how biological adaptations of populations enhance their survival in a particular environment. Earth s biological diversity over time. (Life Science, Earth Science) Summarize the importance of minerals, ores, and fossil fuels as Earth resources on the basis of their physical and chemical properties. Identify and illustrate geologic features of South Carolina and other regions of the world Materials that determine the structure of Earth and the processes that have altered this structure. (Earth Science) The characteristics, structure, and predictable motions of celestial bodies. (Earth Science) The effects of forces on the motion of an object. (Physical Science) The properties and behaviors of waves. (Physical Science) Compare the wavelength and energy of waves in various parts of the electromagnetic spectrum Physical The students will develop an understanding of: PS-1, PS-2, Science How scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. PS-4, PS-5 The structure and properties of atoms. Explain the consequences that the use of nuclear applications (including medical technologies, nuclear power plants, and nuclear weapons) can have. Use the atomic number and the mass number to calculate the number of protons, neutrons, and/or electrons for a given isotope of an element. Various properties and classifications of matter. Chemical reactions and the classifications, structures, and properties of chemical compounds. Explain the effects of temperature, concentration, surface area, and the presence of a catalyst on reaction rates. The nature of forces and motion. The nature, conservation, and transformation of energy. The nature and properties of mechanical and electromagnetic waves. Biology The students will develop an understanding of: B-1, B-3, B-4, 41

43 Chemistry How scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. The structure and function of cells and their organelles. The flow of energy within and between living systems. The overall process by which photosynthesis converts solar energy into chemical energy and interpret the chemical equation for the process. Illustrate the flow of energy through ecosystems (including food chains, food webs, energy pyramids, number pyramids, and biomass pyramids). The molecular basis of heredity. Biological evolution and the diversity of life. The interrelationships among organisms and the biotic and abiotic components of their environments. Explain how the interrelationships among organisms (including predation, competition, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism) generate stability within ecosystems. Explain how human activities (including population growth, technology, and consumption of resources) affect the physical and chemical cycles and processes of Earth. Explain how ecosystems maintain themselves through naturally occurring processes (including maintaining the quality of the atmosphere, generating soils, controlling the hydrologic cycle, disposing of wastes, and recycling nutrients). The students will develop an understanding of: How scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. Atomic structure and nuclear processes. The structures and classifications of chemical compounds. Predict the type of bonding (ionic or covalent) and the shape of simple compounds by using Lewis dot structures and oxidation numbers. The types, the causes, and the effects of chemical reactions. The structure and behavior of the different phases of B-5, B-6 C-1, C-3, C-2, C-5, C-6 42

44 Physics Earth Science matter. The nature and properties of various types of chemical solutions. The students will develop an understanding of: How scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. The principles of force and motion and relationships between them. The conservation, transfer, and transformation of mechanical energy. The properties of electricity and magnetism and the relationships between them. The properties and behaviors of mechanical and electromagnetic waves. The properties and behaviors of light and optics. Nuclear physics and modern physics. The principles of thermodynamics. The students will develop an understanding of: How scientific inquiry and technological design, including mathematical analysis, can be used appropriately to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions. The structure and properties of the universe. The properties of the solar system that support the theory of its formation along with the planets. The internal and external dynamics of solid Earth. Summarize the formation of ores and fossil fuels and the impact on the environment that the use of these fuels has had. The dynamics of Earth s atmosphere. Summarize possible causes of and evidence for past and present global climate changes. Summarize the evidence for the likely impact of human activities on the atmosphere Earth s freshwater and ocean systems. The effects of the transfer of solar energy and geothermal energy on the oceans of Earth Analyze environments to determine possible sources of water pollution (including industrial waste, agriculture, domestic waste, and transportation devices). The dynamic relationship between Earth s conditions over geologic time and the diversity of its organisms. ***Two of physics standards 6 through 10 must be taught in addition to standards 1 through 5. P-1, P-2, P-3, P-4, P-5, P-7, P-10, P-8 ES-1, ES-2, ES-3, ES-4, ES-5, ES-6 43

45 Mathematics The mathematics curriculum will offer mathematics courses for grades K-8. The mathematics curriculum in high school will provide a sequence of rigorous courses beginning with Algebra in the 9 th grade and leading to advanced mathematics for all students above the Algebra II level. The math courses at the GREEN Charter School will be aligned to meet and exceed the expectations of the South Carolina Mathematics Academic Standards (2007) as well as CCSS as adopted based upon the premise that project-based learning will be integrated into every mathematics course in the school. By designing problems that are relevant, realistic, and rigorous with an emphasis on student interests, teachers can promote inductive reasoning and build computational skills that will endure through college or career pathways. It is our hope that each student is prepared if he or she wants to take an AP mathematics in their senior year at the GREEN Charter School and proper instructional responses will be provided to students in need. Students will be asked to model mathematical theories and predict outcomes using algorithms so that math becomes hands-on as well as minds-on. The following SC Mathematics standards are targeted and transition will occur to CCSS as adopted. Grade Skills SC Mathematics Standards Grade K Students will develop an understanding of: K-2, K-3, K-4, Develop a sense of quantity and numeral relationships, sets, and place values. K-5 Develop a sense of repeating and growing patterns and classification based on attributes. Develop a sense of two- and three-dimensional geometric shapes and relative positions in space. 1 Recognize coin values and the measurement concepts of length, weight, time, and temperature. 44

46 Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 Students will develop an understanding of: An understanding of quantity and numeral relationships; the relationship among addition, subtraction, and related basic facts; and the connections among numeric, oral and writtenword forms of whole numbers. Recognize numeric patterns, addition and subtraction. Recognize directions in space. The value of combinations of coins and the measurement of length, weight, time, and temperature. Collecting, organizing and interpreting data and of making predictions on the basis of data. Students will develop an understanding of: The base-ten numeration system; place values; and accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods of adding and subtracting whole numbers. Numeric patterns and quantitative and qualitative change. Basic spatial reasoning and the connection between the identification of basic attributes and the classification of three-dimensional shapes. The value of combinations of coins and bills and the measurement of length, weight, time, and temperature. Creating questions to collect data, organizing data, describing trends of a data set, and making predictions based on data. Students will develop an understanding of: The representation of whole numbers and fractional parts; the addition and subtraction of whole numbers; accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods of multiplying whole numbers; and the relationships among multiplication, division, and related basic facts. Numeric patterns, symbols as representations of unknown quantity, and situations showing increase over time. The connection between the identification of basic attributes and the classification of twodimensional shapes. Length, time, weight, and liquid volume measurements; the relationships between systems of measure; accurate, efficient, and generalizable 1-2, 1-3, 1-5, , 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, , 3-3, 3-4, 3-5,

47 Grade 4 Grade 5 methods of determining the perimeters of polygon; and the values and combinations of coins required to make change. Organizing, interpreting, analyzing and making predictions about data, the benefits of multiple representations of a data set, and the basic concepts of probability. Students will develop an understanding of: Decimal notation as an extension of the placevalue system; the relationships between fractions and decimals; the multiplication of whole numbers; and accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods of dividing whole numbers, adding decimals, and subtracting decimals. Numeric and nonnumeric patterns, the representation of simple mathematical relationships, and the application of procedures to find the value of an unknown. The relationship between two- and threedimensional shapes, the use of transformations to determine congruency, and the representation of location and movement within the first quadrant of a coordinate system. Elapsed time; conversions within the U.S. Customary System; and accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods of determining area. The impact of data-collection methods, the appropriate graph for categorical or numerical data, and the analysis of possible outcomes for a simple event. Students will develop an understanding of: The place-value system; the division of whole numbers; the addition and subtraction of decimals; the relationships among whole numbers, fractions, and decimals; and accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods of adding and subtracting fractions. The use of patterns, relations, functions models, structures, and algebraic symbols to represent quantitative relationships and will analyze change in various contexts. Congruency, spatial relationships, and relationships among the properties of quadrilaterals. The units and systems of measurement and the application of tools and formulas to determine 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, , 5-3, 5-4, 5-5,

48 Grade 6 Grade 7 measurement. Investigation design, the effect of data- collection methods on a data set, the interpretation and application of the measures of central tendency, and the application of basic concepts of probability. Students will develop an understanding of: The concept of whole-number percentages, integers, and ratio and rate; the addition and subtraction of fractions; accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods of multiplying and dividing fractions and decimals; and the use of exponential notation to represent whole numbers. Writing, interpreting, and using mathematical expressions, equations, and inequalities. Shape, location, and movement within a coordinate system; similarity, complementary, and supplementary angles; and the relationship between line and rotational symmetry. Surface area; the perimeter and area of irregular shapes; the relationships among the circumference, diameter, and radius of a circle; the use of proportions to determine unit rates; and the use of scale to determine distance. The relationships within one population or sample. Students will develop an understanding of: The representation of rational numbers, percentages, and square roots of perfect squares; the application of ratios, rates, and proportions to solve problems; accurate, efficient, and generalizable methods for operations with integers; the multiplication and division of fractions and decimals; and the inverse relationship between squaring and finding the square roots of perfect squares. Proportional relationships. Proportional reasoning, tessellations, the use of geometric properties to make deductive arguments, the results of the intersection of geometric shapes in a plane, and the relationship among angles formed when a transversal intersects two parallel lines. How to use ratio and proportion to solve problems involving scale factors and rates and how to use one-step unit analysis to convert between and within the U.S. Customary System and the metric 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, 6-5, , 7-3, 7-4, 7-5,

49 Grade 8 Elementary Algebra Intermediate Algebra Geometry system. The relationships between two populations or samples. Students will develop an understanding of: Operations with integers, the effects of multiplying and dividing with rational numbers, the comparative magnitude of rational and irrational numbers, the approximation of cube and square roots, and the application of proportional reasoning. Equations, inequalities, and linear functions. The Pythagorean theorem; the use of ordered pairs, equations, intercepts, and intersections to locate points and lines in a coordinate plane; and the effect of a dilation in a coordinate plane. The proportionality of similar figures; the necessary levels of accuracy and precision in measurement; the use of formulas to determine circumference, perimeter, area, and volume; and the use of conversions within and between the U.S. Customary System and the metric system. The relationships between two variables within one population or sample. Students will develop an understanding of: Problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation. The real number system and operations involving exponents, matrices, and algebraic expressions. Relationships and functions. The procedures for writing and solving linear equations and inequalities. The graphs and characteristics of linear equations and inequalities. Quadratic relationships and functions. Students will develop an understanding of: Problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation. Functions, systems of equations, and systems of linear inequalities. Algebraic expressions and nonlinear functions. Conic sections. Sequences and series. Students will develop an understanding of: Problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation. 8-2, 8-3, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6 EA-1, EA-2, EA-3, EA-4, EA-5, EA-6 IA-1, IA-2, IA- 4, IA-5, IA-6 G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, G-5, G-6, G-7 48

50 Precalculus Data Analysis and Probability The properties of basic geometric figures and the relationships between and among them. The properties and special segments of triangles and the relationships between and among triangles. The properties of quadrilaterals and other polygons and the relationships between and among them. The properties of circles, the lines that intersect them, and the use of their special segments. Transformations, coordinate geometry, and vectors. The surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects. Students will develop an understanding of: Problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation. The characteristics and behaviors of functions and the effect of operations on functions. The behaviors of polynomial and rational functions. The behaviors of exponential and logarithmic functions. The behaviors of trigonometric functions. The behavior of conic sections both geometrically and algebraically. Students will develop an understanding of: Problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation. The design of a statistical study. The methodology for collecting, organizing, displaying, and interpreting data. Basic statistical methods of analyzing data. The basic concepts of probability. PC-1, PC-2, PC-3, PC-4, PC-5, PC-6 DA-1, DA-2, DA-3, DA-4, DA-5 English/Language Arts English/Language Arts will be offered at each grade level with an honors format option in high school. The language arts curriculum will be based on the South Carolina English Language Arts Standards (2008) as well as CCSS, which are nationally adopted standards with rigorous literacy expectations and embedded 21 st century skills. The standards are based upon college and career 49

51 ready anchor standards that were developed to drive the curriculum and focus skills on the most important characteristics needed for a seamless college or career transition. These standards were designed to expose students to a variety of texts, including both print and non-print texts. Grade Skills SC English Language Arts Standard Grade K Grade 1 Grade 2 Grade 3 The student will: Begin to read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts in print and nonprint formats. Begin to create written work that has a clear focus, sufficient detail, coherent organization, effective use of voice, and correct use of the conventions of written Standard American English. Begin to write for a variety of purposes and audiences. The student will: Read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts in print and non-print formats Create written work that has a clear focus, sufficient detail, coherent organization, effective use of voice, and correct use of the conventions of written Standard American English Write for a variety of purposes and audiences The student will: Read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts in print and non-print formats Use word analysis and vocabulary strategies to read fluently Create written work that has a clear focus, sufficient detail, coherent organization, effective use of voice, and correct use of the conventions of written Standard American English Write for a variety of purposes and audiences Access and use information from a variety of sources The student will: Read and comprehend a variety of literary and K-1, K-2, K-4, K-5 1-1, 1-2, 1-4, , 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, 2-5, , 3-2, 3-3, 3-4,

52 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Grade 7 informational texts in print and non-print formats Use word analysis and vocabulary strategies to read fluently. Create written work that has a clear focus, sufficient detail, coherent organization, effective use of voice, and correct use of the conventions of written Standard American English Create written descriptions about people, places, or events. The student will: Read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts in print and non-print formats Use word analysis and vocabulary strategies to read fluently Create multiple-paragraph compositions that include a central idea with supporting details and use appropriate transitions between paragraphs. Create narratives containing details and a sequence of events that develop a plot. The student will: Read and comprehend a variety of literary texts in print and non-print formats Read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and non-print formats Interpret the meaning of idioms and euphemisms encountered in texts. Create multiple-paragraph compositions that include a central idea with supporting details and use appropriate transitions between paragraphs. Create narratives that have a fully developed plot and a consistent point of view. The student will: Read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts in print and non-print formats Use context clues to generate the meanings of unfamiliar and multiple-meaning words. Create written work that has a clear focus, sufficient detail, coherent organization, effective use of voice, and correct use of the conventions of written Standard American English Create persuasive writings that develop a central idea with supporting evidence and use language appropriate for the specific audience. The student will: Analyze literary texts to draw conclusions and 4-1, 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, , 5-2, 5-4, , 6-2, 6-3, 6-4, , 7-2, 7-3, 7-4,

53 Grade 8 English 1 English 2 make inferences. Analyze central ideas within and across informational texts. Use context clues to generate the meanings of unfamiliar and multiple-meaning words. Organize written works using prewriting techniques, discussions, graphic organizers, models, and outlines. Revise writing to improve clarity, tone, voice, content, and the development of ideas. Create narratives that communicate the significance of an issue of importance and use language appropriate for the purpose and the audience. The student will: The student will read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts. Compare/contrast ideas within and across literary texts to make inferences. Use context clues to generate the meanings of unfamiliar and multiple-meaning words. Create multiple-paragraph compositions that include a central idea with supporting details and use appropriate transitions between paragraphs. The student will: The student will read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts. Compare/contrast information within and across texts to draw conclusions and make inferences. The student will use word analysis and vocabulary strategies to read fluently. Create multiple-paragraph compositions that have an introduction and a conclusion, include a coherent thesis, and use support The student will write for a variety of purposes and audiences. The student will: The student will read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts. Compare/contrast ideas within and across literary texts to make inferences. The student will use word analysis and vocabulary strategies to read fluently. Create informational pieces that use language appropriate for the specific audience. 8-1, 8-2, 8-3, 8-4, E1-1, E1-2, E1-3, E1-4, E1-5, E2-1, E2-2, E2-3, E2-5 52

54 English 3 English 4 Create narrative pieces that use figurative language and word choice to create tone and mood. Create descriptive pieces that use sensory images and vivid word choice. Create persuasive pieces that develop a clearly stated thesis and use support. Create technical pieces that use clear and precise language suitable for the purpose and audience. The student will: The student will read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts. The student will use word analysis and vocabulary strategies to read fluently. Use context clues to determine the meaning of technical terms and other unfamiliar words. Compose effective pieces of writing to respond to prompts in on- demand situations. The student will: The student will read and comprehend a variety of literary and informational texts. Explain how British history and culture have influenced the use and development of the English language. Create clear and concise career-oriented and technical writings Use direct quotations, paraphrasing, or summaries to incorporate into written, oral, auditory, or visual works the information gathered from a variety of research sources. E3-1, E3-2, E3-3, E3-5 E4-1, E4-2, E4-3, E4-5, E4-6, Social Studies The faculty and staff of the GREEN Charter School feel strongly that our students must have a solid background in history, the social studies, and government to be a highly functioning global citizen in the 21 st century. The social studies curriculum standards are based on the South Carolina Social Studies Academic Standards (2011). After a student s sophomore year, he/she will have an opportunity to take psychology or sociology to help prepare them for an advanced placement social science in his/her senior year. Social Studies classes will be taught in a hands- 53

55 on, project-based approach, relying on important primary source documents to address rigorous literacy standards along with technology to enhance the delivery of content knowledge or quality products created by students. Classroom debates and Socratic seminars will be commonly used teaching strategies to elicit student response and raise student engagement. Grade Skills SC Social Studies Standards Kindergarten The students will develop an understanding of: K-2, K-3, K-4 Foundations of His or her surroundings Social Studies: Children as The purpose of rules and the role of authority figures in a child s life Citizens The values that American democracy represents and upholds The way families live and work together Grade 1 Foundations of Social Studies: Families Grade 2 Foundations of Social Studies: Communities today as well as in the past. The students will develop an understanding of: How families interact with their environment How government functions and how government affects families The principles of American democracy and the role of citizens in upholding those principles How individuals, families, and communities live and work together in America and around the world The students will develop an understanding of: The local community as well as the fact that geography influences not only the development of communities but also the interactions between people and the environment. 1-1, 1-2, 1-3, , 2-2, 2-3, 2-4, The structure and function of local, state, and national government. The role of goods and services and supply and demand in a community. Cultural contributions made by people from the various regions in the United States Grade 3 The students will develop an understanding of: 3-1, 3-2, 3-3, 54

56 South Carolina Studies Grade 4 United States Studies to 1865 Grade 5 United States Studies: 1865 to the Present Places and regions in South Carolina and the role of human systems in the state. The exploration and settlement of South Carolina The American Revolution and South Carolina s role in the development of the new American nation Life in the antebellum period, the causes and effects of the Civil War, and the impact of Reconstruction in South Carolina. The major developments in South Carolina in the late nineteenth and the twentieth century. The students will develop an understanding of: Political, economic, and geographic reasons for the exploration of the New World. Summarize the spread of Native American populations using the Landbridge Theory The Columbian Exchange How the settlement of North America was influenced by the interactions of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans. The Declaration of Independence The conflict between the American colonies and England. The beginnings of America as a nation and the establishment of the new government. The American Revolution Westward expansion of the United States and its impact on the institution of slavery. The causes, the course, and the effects of the American Civil War. The students will develop an understanding of: Reconstruction and its impact on the United States. The continued westward expansion of the United States. Major domestic and foreign developments that contributed to the United States becoming a world power. American economic challenges in the 1920s and 1930s and world conflict in the 1940s. The social, economic and political events that influenced the United States during the Cold War era. 3-4, , 4-2, 4-3, 4-4, 4-5, , 5-2, 5-3, 5-4, 5-5,

57 Grade 6 Early Cultures to 1600 Grade 7 Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present Grade 8 South Carolina: One of the United States The political, social, economic, and environmental challenges faced by the United States during the period from the collapse of the Soviet Union to the present. The students will develop an understanding of: The development of the cradles of civilization as people moved from a nomadic existence to a settled life. Life in ancient civilizations and their contributions to the modern world. Changing political, social, and economic cultures in Asia, Africa and the Americas. The Middle Ages and the emergence of nation-states in Europe. The impact of the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Age of Exploration on Europe and the rest of the world. The students will develop an understanding of: The growth and impact of global trade on world civilizations after 1600 Colonialism The concepts of limited government and unlimited government as they functioned in Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Independence movements that occurred throughout the world from 1770 through 1900 World Wars I and II International developments during the Cold War era. The significant political, economic, geographic, scientific, technological, and cultural changes as well as the advancements that have taken place throughout the world from the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 to the present day. The students will develop an understanding of: The settlement of South Carolina and the United States by Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. The causes of the American Revolution and the beginnings of the new nation, with an emphasis on South Carolina s role in the development of that nation. 6-1, 6-2, 6-4, 6-5, , 7-2, 7-3, 7-5, , 8-2, 8-4, 8-5, 8-6,

58 World Geography (elective) World History from 1300: The Making of the Modern World The multiple events that led to the Civil War. Reconstruction, industrialization, and Progressivism on society and politics in South Carolina in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The role of South Carolina in the nation in the early twentieth century. The impact on South Carolina of significant events of the late twentieth and early twentyfirst centuries. The students will develop an understanding of: The physical processes that shape the patterns of Earth s surface, including the dynamics of the atmosphere, biosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere The characteristics, distribution, and migration of human populations on Earth s surface The role that geography plays in economic development The processes, patterns, and functions of human settlement. How cooperation and conflict among people influence the division and control of Earth s surface. How human actions modify the physical environment; how physical systems affect human systems; and how resources change in meaning, use, distribution, and importance. Analyze policy decisions regarding the use of resources in different regions of the world, including how the demand for resources impacts economies, population distribution, and the environment. The students will develop an understanding of: The major factors that facilitated exchanges among groups of people and how exchanges influenced those people in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries The benefits and costs of the growth of kingdoms into empires from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries The impact of religious movements throughout the world in the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries WG-2, WG-3, WG-5, WG-7, WG-8 MWH-1, MWH-2, MWH-3, MWH-4, MWH-6, MWH-7, MWH-8 57

59 United States History and the Constitution (required) Economics (required) The conflicts of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Europe, America, Africa, and Asia. The development of nation-states and empires in the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. The causes and consequences of global warfare in the first half of the twentieth century. The causes and consequences of decolonization in the second half of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century. The students will develop an understanding of: The development of democracy in the United States. The Declaration of Independence and the American Revolution on establishing the ideals of a democratic republic. How economic developments and the westward movement impacted regional differences and democracy in the early nineteenth century. The causes of the Civil War and the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America. The industrial development in the 19 th and 20 th centuries and its consequences. Domestic and foreign developments that contributed to the emergence of the United States as a world power in the twentieth century. The conflict between traditionalism and progressivism in the 1920s and the economic collapse and the political response to the economic crisis in the 1930s. The impact of World War II on the United States. The students will develop an understanding of: How scarcity and choice impact the decisions of families, businesses, communities, and nations. How markets facilitate exchange and how market regulation costs both consumers and producers. USHC-1, USHC-2, USHC-3, USH-4, USHC-5, USHC-6, USHC-7 ECON-1, ECON-2, ECON-3, ECON-4 58

60 United States Government (required) Business cycles, inflation, deflation, savings rates, and employment. How trade among nations affects markets, employment, economic growth, and other activity in the domestic economy. How personal financial decisions affect an individual s present and future economic status. The students will develop an understanding of: The role and relationship of the citizen to government in democratic, republican, authoritarian, and totalitarian systems. Foundational American political principles and the historical events and philosophical ideas that shaped the development and application of these principles. The basic organization and function of United States government on national, state, and local levels and the role of federalism in addressing the distribution of power. Civil rights and civil liberties, the role of American citizens in the American political system, and distinctive expressions of American political culture. USG-1, USG- 2, USG-3, USG-4 World Languages We plan to greatly exceed the South Carolina Academic Standards for Modern and Classical Languages (2006) in this area by offering Spanish in grades 6 and 7 for a half-year, in grade 8 for a full year, and in grades 9-11 as required courses. In addition, we are exploring ways to partner with cultural and academic institutions to offer additional world languages, both as a way to support global awareness and to provide native Spanish-speakers and, to those who prefer another language option an additional college-preparatory experience. The GREEN Charter School will adopt and meet the standards stated within the South Carolina Academic Standards for Modern and Classical Languages as indicated below: 59

61 Level Skills SC Academic Standards for Modern and Classical Languages Beginning Students will be able to: 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, Engage in basic conversations (i.e., provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions). 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.1, 4.2 Understand and interpret written and spoken language on a variety of topics. Identify aural, visual, and context clues in authentic target-language materials (both oral and written). Identify the main idea in authentic target-language materials. Respond to simple directions in the target language. Present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience. Use the target language to express personal likes or dislikes. Use the target language to dramatize simple authentic materials Explain the relationship between the practices and the perspectives of the cultures studied. Use the target language to identify the cultural practices particular to the target culture. Use the target language to identify tangible products and symbols of the target culture. Use the target language to identify and participate in artistic expressions of the target culture (e.g., songs, literature, dance, artworks) Reinforce and further knowledge of other disciplines through the foreign language. Acquire information and recognize the distinctive viewpoints that are only available through the foreign language and its cultures. Understand the nature of language through comparisons of the language studied and their own. Share examples of the target language and culture with people encountered outside of the classroom setting. Identify examples of the target culture (e.g., restaurants, festivals, dramatic productions) in the local or regional community. Developing Students will be able to: Engage in conversations, provide and obtain 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 3.1, 60

62 Expanding information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions. Use the target language to give directions and ask questions for clarification; understand directions given in the target language. Use the target language to ask and answer complex questions and to provide and request clarification when needed. Use aural, visual, and context clues to derive meaning from authentic target language materials. Respond appropriately to more complex directions and commands given in the target language. Present information, concepts, and ideas to an audience of listeners or readers on a variety of topics. Use the target language to summarize the main ideas of age-appropriate authentic materials. Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between the practices and the perspectives of the cultures studied. Use the target language to describe behaviors and traits that are characteristic of everyday life in the target culture. Use the target language to describe the use of tangible products and symbols of the target culture. Use the target language to describe social, economic, and political perspectives within the target culture. Locate resources and summarize information in the target language to further knowledge in other subject areas. Use the target language to describe viewpoints expressed in sources intended for native speakers. Use high-frequency target-language idioms. Describe how the target language and English have influenced each other. Use the target language to converse with targetlanguage speakers encountered outside of the classroom setting. Students will be able to: Engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and 3.2, 4.1, , 1.2, 1.3, 4.1, 4.2, 61

63 exchange opinions. Use the target language to give directions for managing an unexpected situation; understand directions given in the target language for managing such a situation. Use the target language to exchange opinions and beliefs with others Use the target language to ask and answer openended questions and to sustain conversation. Respond to complex directions, instructions, and commands given in the target language. Apply diverse strategies to derive meaning and discern details from authentic target language materials. Use the target language to summarize and analyze authentic materials. Communicate information in the target language in multi-paragraph-length oral and written presentations. Integrate appropriate words, phrases, behaviors, and idioms into personal interactions in the target culture. Use the target language to analyze the various perspectives on current social issues. Use the target language to explain the impact on current issues and world events that social, economic, and political perspectives within the target culture have had. Use the target language to summarize viewpoints within the target culture that are expressed in sources intended for native speakers. Use the target language to analyze practices that are particular to the target culture with those of his or her native culture. GREEN-Related Theme Electives In terms of the GREEN Charter School s focus on renewable energy and environmental literacy, we will utilize the nationally acclaimed NEED (National Energy Education Development) Project s resources, including professional development opportunities for our teachers. Students at all grade levels will learn about the forms of energy heat, light, motion, sound, nuclear 62

64 energy, and electrical energy with age-appropriate, hands-on explorations that emphasize the scientific process and experimental design. A newly revised EnergyWorks curriculum gives elementary classrooms additional activities to teach concepts of heat, light, sound, motion, growth, and technology. The NEED Project curriculum provides comprehensive, objective information and activities on the energy sources that fuel our country, including their economic and environmental impacts. Students explore the history of energy, energy in current events, and consider future energy development opportunities and challenges. They understand that certain energy sources may be better choices for specific energy needs, and they discuss and debate the energy sources we use today and will use in the future. The NEED Project continually updates its curriculum with the most up-to-date information available. With updates, the GREEN Charter School will make use of these new resources. Most importantly, the NEED Project s curriculum incorporates activities to help synthesize energy information and create valuable connections between science and social science and the application of knowledge to decision making. Students will undertake problembased learning activities and explore possible opportunities and challenges for many energy decisions. Below is the NEED Curriculum Matrix indicating the topics and activities to be covered at different grade levels. 63

65 Introductory Activities Step One: Science of Energy Step Two: Sources of Energy Primary (K-2) Elementary (3-5) Intermediate (6-8) Secondary (9-12) Energy Games and Energy Games and Energy Games and Energy Games and Icebreakers Icebreakers Icebreakers Icebreakers Energy Polls Energy Polls Energy Polls Energy Polls Primary Science of Energy Energy Flows Energy Flows Energy Flows Secondary Science of Energy Works EnergyWorks Energy Science of Energy Science of Energy Thermodynamics Energy Stroies and Elementary Energy More Infobook Energy Enigma Energy Enigma Primary Energy Elementary Infobook Infobook Activities Energy Expos Energy Expos Primary Infobook Exploring Activities Energy Expos Energy from the Sun Hydroelectricity Exploring Nuclear The Sun and its Energy Energy in the Balance Energy from the Wind Energy Water and Energy Energy on Public Lands Energy from Uranium Exploring Photovoltaics Energy Stories and Energy of Moving Wind is Energy More Water Exploring Wind Energy Liquefied Natural Gas: LNG Energy on Public Lands Fossil Fuels to Products Ocean Energy Fossil Fuels to Products Great Energy Debate U.S. Energy Geography Great Energy Debate H2 Educated Liquefied Natural Gas: Wonders of the Sun H2 Educate LNG Liquefied Natural Gas: Wonders of Water LNG Marine Energy Secondary Energy Wonders of Wind Marine Energy Infobook Ocean Energy U.S. Energy Geography U.S. Energy Geography 64

66 Electricity and Magnetism Step Four: Transportation Energy Stories and More ElectroWorks Current Energy Affair Current Energy Affair Wonders of Magnets Wonders of Magnets ElectroWorks Mission Possible Mission Possible Energy Stories and More Elementary Transportation Fuels Infobook Energy Expos Energy Expos Energy Expos H2 Educate H2 Educate Energy Stories and More Transportation Rock Performances Transportation Fuels Debate Transportation Fuels Enigma Transportation Fuels Infobook Transportation Rock Performances Transportation Fuels Debate Transportation Fuels Enigma Transportation Fuels Infobook Transportation Rock Performances 65

67 Step Five: Efficiency and Conservation Step Six: Synthesis and Reinforcement Primary (K-2) Elementary (3-5) Intermediate (6-8) Secondary (9-12) Energy Conservation Energy Conservation All About Trash Building Buddies Contract Contract Energy Conservation Building Buddies Contract Energy Expos Energy Expos Exploring Climate Today in Energy Energy Expos Energy House Change Using and Saving Monitoring and Learning and Energy Energy House Mentoring Conserving Monitoring and Museum of Solid Waste Museum of Solid Waste Mentoring and Energy and Energy Saving Energy at Home and School Plug Loads Plug Loads Saving Energy at Home Saving Energy at Home Talking Trash and School and School Today in Energy Understanding Climate Change School Energy Survey Energy Around the Carbon Capture and Energy Fair World Energy Analysis Storage NEED Songbook Energy Carnival Energy and Our Rivers Energy Analysis Primary Energy Carnival Energy Fair Energy Around the World Energy and Our Rivers Energy Around the World Energy in the Balance Energy Carnival Energy Jeopardy Energy Jeopardy Energy Carnival Energy Math Challenge Energy Math Challenge Energy Jeopardy Energy on Stage Energy on Stage Energy Math Challenge Exploring Energy Exploring Energy Energy on Stage Global Trading Game Global Trading Game Global Trading Game Great Energy Rock Performances Greek Mythology and Energy Great Energy Rock Performances Greek Mythology and Energy Great Energy Rock Performances NEED Songbook 66

68 Mystery World Tour Mystery World Tour Yesterday in Energy NEED Songbook NEED Songbook This Mine of Mine This Mine of Mine Yesterday in Energy Yesterday in Energy Step Seven: Energy Polls Energy Polls Energy Polls Energy Polls Evaluation Question Bank Question Bank Question Bank Question Bank Step Eight: Recognition Youth Awards Program Youth Awards Program Youth Awards Program Youth Awards Program 67

69 Attaining Academic Standards- Gathering Data and Monitoring Student Performance Student records from previous schools will be collected and reviewed for baseline data on each student. More specifically, the GREEN Charter School will be established using multiple measures of student academic performance at the GREEN Charter School and the SC Assessment Programs, such as PASS, HSAP and EOC. Students performance grades in subject areas and state assessments will determine whether the students achieve the academic standards covered at each grade level. For instance, at the middle school level, a letter grade of C or above in the yearly average (average of two semesters grades rounded to the nearest integer) shall be required for students to pass a course. At the high school level, a final grade of C or above shall be required for a successful completion of a course. The baseline levels of academic achievement established during the first academic year will be compared to academic achievement levels in prior years, when data is available, in order to assess rates of prior academic progress and the baseline rates of academic progress for GREEN Charter School students. In addition to standardized test scores, other baseline data may include report card grades, attendance records, and behavioral records (including in-school and out-of-school suspensions as well as exemplary behavior). In the case of Exceptional Student Education (ESE), Individual Education Plans (IEP) will be secured and the Individual ELL Student Plans will be obtained for English language learners (ELL). This data will be made available to teachers who will assess progress against the baseline data. In order to achieve the yearly goals and objectives the GREEN Charter School will institute the periodic assessment program throughout the year. The GREEN Charter School s 68

70 assessment procedure will provide valid, reliable, and timely information to teachers in order to modify their instruction, monitor student progress, select appropriate classroom activities, and use assessment results effectively. The goal is to inform teachers about the effectiveness of their teaching and progress made by students in order to ensure continuous progress. Grade level chairs will communicate with teachers to determine areas of student strengths and weaknesses as demonstrated by class work assignments and assessment results. Each teacher will use data to determine the instructional focus of whole group lessons. Item-analysis of internal benchmarks and chapter tests will be used to re-teach questions that students missed most frequently. Response to Intervention (RtI) model will guide the GREEN Charter School in implementing a tiered approach to instructional delivery that includes interventions with increasing intensity, based on students needs. Teachers play an active role in the RtI problem solving approach to use the data to define the problem, analyze the data to determine its cause, implement a plan and then evaluate to see if the plan is working. As part of the RtI model, making informed instructional decisions based on data is a dynamic on-going process; it could be on a weekly or biweekly basis, or after each progress monitoring period, depending on need. Minimally, it must be reviewed after the results of each progress monitoring period and when any Benchmark Assessment Test data is available. Classroom teachers will be trained in the process of daily progress monitoring analysis, using informal data, such as student work maintained in folders or portfolios in their classrooms, and classroom-based assessments that demonstrate whether or not students progress toward mastery of benchmarks aligned with their Instructional Focus Calendars. The educational strengths and needs of students will be monitored on both an individual and school-wide basis. As discussed above, the school assessment procedures will serve as a 69

71 feedback system to guide teachers in lesson planning, individualizing the instruction, and informing students, teachers and parents about areas of student success and areas in need of improvement. The results of prior-year standardized tests and student records will be used to determine the best educational setting for the students (e.g. appropriate course selection, tutoring, services, etc.). The results of all administered tests such as state and district-wide exams, standardized tests, diagnostics tests, and classroom assessment will be stored and maintained through an online reporting system. The data will be accessible online with a secure Internet connection. Parents and students who have an Internet connection will be able to see them on-line. The results will also be shared with students in the classroom. Parents who do not have an Internet connection will see the results in quarterly report cards. Quarterly report cards, with detailed information about the students progress, will be provided to parents and students. The report cards will include classroom assessment results, attendance, student conduct, and teachers narrative comments that will help parents and students progress toward yearly goals. School administrators will also monitor student progress through on-line reporting system. In addition, parents will be informed through progress reports, parent conferences, and other forms of written and oral communication that the parents may be comfortable utilizing. At any time of the year teachers and/or administrators will contact parents to inform them of poor student progress and ask for a meeting. A student interim progress report will be utilized to communicate students current performance. Teachers of the failing courses, an administrator, and student will be present in the meeting. The goal of the meeting will be to use problemsolving strategies to isolate the problem and lay out a working plan that will eventually ensure 70

72 the student success to achieve the expected outcomes. In addition, to effectively monitor student performance to meet or exceed academic standards, the GREEN Charter School will: Use data to inform decision-making about teaching and learning Use a comprehensive assessment system to provide feedback for improvement in instructional practices and student performance Use classroom-based assessments to provide robust measures of students' academic, cognitive, and metacognitive skills Identify performance targets, indicators, and measures for comparing and improving effectiveness Take appropriate and timely action to improve areas of identified needs. These key factors will ensure that the GREEN Charter School instructional program meets or exceeds the academic standards adopted by the State Board of Education. The GREEN Charter School will monitor student achievement and attainment of academic standards via teaching and assessing based on the adopted standards, i.e., implementing standards-based instruction. Standards-based instruction is characterized by content standards, which define what students should know and be able to do, and performance indicators, which describe how well students need to achieve in those content standards. The instructional staff plans, teaches, assesses, and reports within this framework. In support of this process, professional development, teaching resources, and a database-driven reporting system, (developed and readily made available to the GREEN Charter School by the project director) shall be utilized. National Study of School Evaluation Technical Guide,

73 In addition to the GREEN Charter School's systematic efforts, parents will be provided clear and accessible information about the expectations from their students on an ongoing basis with an online reporting and communication system where they can track the progress of the student in correlation to those expectations. This will open an additional path for the GREEN Charter School to be alerted about students who are not performing at the expected levels. iv. Educational and Curricular Program 1) Proposed Curriculum The GREEN Charter School s curriculum will be based on SC curriculum standards and CCSS as adopted. The said curriculum below is subject to change in the case of unpredicted issues. For instance, if the materials are unavailable or become excessively cost-prohibitive, the school reserves the right to utilize alternative materials of a similar nature in consultation with SCPCSD. ELEMENTARY CURRICULUM Language Art The primary focus of the language arts program will be to help students use the reading process effectively. Students will be able to select and use pre-reading strategies that are appropriate to the text such as discussion, making predictions, brainstorming, generating questions, and previewing in order to anticipate content, purpose and organization of a reading selection. Reading will not be passive, but rather an interactive process involving the text itself, the reader, and the context of the reading situation. In addition, students will use writing processes 72

74 effectively. They will be able to select and use appropriate pre-writing strategies, such as brainstorming, graphic organizers and outlines. Briefly, the students will be prepared to use viewing and speaking strategies effectively and understand the nature and power of language. The GREEN Charter School will use the state-approved Houghton Mifflin curriculum series as the Elementary Comprehensive Core Reading and Language Arts program. The GREEN Charter School s text selection may be modified as per the Sponsor s text adoption and modification to the Comprehensive Core Reading Program (CCRP) throughout the duration of the charter. The CCRP correlates to all Reading and Language Arts SC State Standards as well as CCSS and addresses the five areas of reading: phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. The CCRP is the tool used to provide initial and differentiated instruction and is used to expose and instruct students on grade level. All students will participate in a daily, 90-minute block of uninterrupted reading instruction following the high quality, explicit, and systematic initial instruction in the Houghton Mifflin curriculum. The CCRP provides explicit lessons for whole group instruction that includes introduction of skills, modeling, teaching, independent and guided application, and review of skills and concepts. Techniques such as modeling, pre-viewing and predicting, visualizing, summarizing and direct instruction in strategic reading are embedded throughout the program. The Comprehensive Core Reading Program (CCRP) provides guidance to teachers in delivering differentiated instruction for diverse learners within the reading block. The program contains integral instructional sequences coordinated by strand of instruction and are carefully planned to move from cognitively simple skills to more complex skills. Daily lessons for small groupdifferentiated instruction revolves around using leveled materials to provide numerous practice opportunities for mastery of skills and strategies. 73

75 Houghton Mifflin is a research-proven program that provides students with explicit instruction that focuses on phonics, word learning activities, the use of leveled books, ongoing assessments (Emerging Literacy Survey, grades K-1; Phonics/Decoding Screening Test, grades 1-6; Leveled Reading Passages Assessment, grades K-6; Lexia Quick Phonics Assessment, Theme Skills Test, Spiral Reviews, and observation checklists in the Teacher's Assessment Handbook), reading fluency, oral reading skills, and the development of independent reading. Its framework also includes fluency instruction, screening instruments, student practice lessons, text comprehension instruction, coordinated instructional sequences, and ample opportunities for students to practice what they have learned. This core series contains tools for progress monitoring, data management, safety-net interventions, sound instructional materials, and significant professional development support. Activities are organized to meet the needs of on-level learners, advanced learners, belowlevel learners and English-language learners. The program integrates a scope and sequence within the daily lesson plans that affords teachers guidance in delivering strategy and skill instruction based on student needs. Aligned instructional materials, such as decodable books and leveled books, are used for individual and group practice opportunities. A variety of assessment opportunities, both informal and formal, are included in the comprehensive core reading program and are used regularly to monitor students progress and match students with appropriately leveled text. The Response to Intervention (RtI) model will guide the GREEN Charter School with implementing a tiered approach to instructional delivery that includes fidelity of instruction using the core program and interventions of increasingly higher intensity, based on the differentiated needs of students. This multi-tiered approach to providing services and interventions to students 74

76 at increasing levels of intensity is based on progress monitoring and data analysis. Problem solving at all tier levels is a cyclical process that involves analyzing the data to identify the problem and determine why the problem is occurring, implementing an instructional plan to target specific differentiated student needs, and finally evaluating the plan to ensure effective response to the intervention. As part of Tier I universal instruction, all students will be provided a daily, 90-minute block of uninterrupted reading instruction following the high quality, explicit, and systematic initial instruction of the Houghton Mifflin Comprehensive Core Reading Program (CCRP). Houghton Mifflin program is an explicit, systematic, and interactive instructional design focused on the six essential elements of reading instruction (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, oral language, and comprehension). The six elements of reading instruction includes: Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness, or manipulating phonemes in words, is a necessary pre-requisite for successful phonics instruction and learning the decoding process. In an extensive meta-analysis of 52 studies, the National Reading Panel (2000) determined that teaching children phonemic awareness was highly effective under a variety of teaching conditions, grades, and age levels, significantly improving reading more than instruction that lacked explicit lessons in phonemic awareness. Phonemic Awareness instruction in the Houghton Mifflin programs is based on this research, and supports the attainment of beginning levels of understanding and skill that is driven primarily by instruction and practice in the use of phonemic decoding strategies in reading (Perfetti, Beck, Bell, & Hughes, 1987; Wagner, et al., 1997). 75

77 Phonics Phonics instruction focuses on the acquisition of letter-sound correspondences and their use in reading and spelling. In Houghton Mifflin programs, phonics is taught sequentially and cumulatively with multiple opportunities for applying the skills into decodable text. The programs include daily lessons to ensure that students are explicitly taught the process of blending individual sounds into words. Trophies and Treasures provide phonics instruction based on scientific research showing that systematic, explicit phonics instruction is a valuable and essential part of a successful reading program (Chall, 1996; Foorman, Francis, Fletcher, Schatschneider, & Mehta, 1998). Fluency Fluency in reading is the ability to read text accurately and with proper expression at an appropriate speed. According the National Reading Panel (2000), fluency is one of several critical factors necessary for reading comprehension: If text is read in a laborious and inefficient manner, it will be difficult for the child to remember what has been read and to relate the ideas expressed in the text to his or her background knowledge. The ability to process text accurately and effortlessly includes blending words together quickly and instantaneous recognition of highfrequency words. Fluent reading develops over time, starting in kindergarten and first grade with lessons on phonemic awareness, phonics, and automaticity of word recognition. Lessons on these key components of fluency are included in both the Houghton Mifflin programs, along with daily opportunities for teachers to model fluent reading through read alouds, demonstrations, shared reading, and modeled strategies. The programs also include lessons on reader s theatre, choral reading, echo reading, books on tape, and repeated readings, all strategies shown to improve 76

78 reading fluency. Vocabulary Lessons on word meaning, strategies for making vocabulary connections, and the link between vocabulary and comprehension are embedded into each daily reading lesson and all parts of the 90-minute reading block. According to Donald Bear (2005), research supports explicit and systematic vocabulary instruction involving active study of words before, during, and after reading text. Houghton Mifflin Programs provide daily opportunities for students to learn vocabulary through extensive reading in rich contexts, oral language development, multiple encounters with words, and direct teaching of key ideas, concepts, and connections to other words. Oral Language Oral language is an important link in the process of children's learning and thinking development, providing a foundation for the development of other language-based skills, including reading and writing. It is through speech that children learn to organize their thinking and focus their ideas (Lyle, 1993). A variety of oral language based activities are incorporated throughout both core programs, including partner pair, guided practice, summarizing and retelling, picture chats, and weekly Talk About It lessons. These activities build children's vocabulary, increase communication skills, and foster connections with language in print form. 77

79 Comprehension Comprehension is the key element in reading. It includes making sense of words, connecting ideas between text and prior knowledge, and constructing and organizing meaning from print. Readers must be able to understand the meaning of the literal words read and create a broader understanding of the meaning implied from the text (Kintsch, 1998). The process of comprehension is strategic and interactive, involving the ability to apply, synthesize, and interact with what is being read (Adams, 1998; Harvey & Goudvis, 2000; Moats, 2000). The National Reading Panel (2000) identified strategies that have been shown to have a firm scientific basis for improving reading comprehension, including monitoring comprehension, using graphic organizers, answering questions, generating questions, recognizing text structures, and summarizing. Both comprehensive core programs feature systematic and explicit comprehension instruction using these strategies. The instruction builds prior background knowledge, and applies metacognitive skills and multi-level questioning to help students maintain comprehension that supports the promotion of higher-level thinking. Direct comprehension instruction is provided through explicit explanations of strategies, teacher modeling, and guided practice. Students are given multiple opportunities to apply these strategies through teacher support with leveled text during small group instruction and independent reading. Supplemental resources can be used to differentiate instruction for all students (Tiers I, II, and III). When data shows that students need additional explicit and intensive instruction in one specific component of reading (i.e., oral language, phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, OR comprehension) supplemental resources can be used as an extension beyond the universal Tier I initial instruction of a Comprehensive Core Reading Program (CCRP) for all students. As part of Tier II (strategic) or III (intensive) intervention instruction, Supplemental 78

80 Intervention Reading Programs (SIRP) will be implemented to provide targeted intervention support to meet the specific differentiated needs of struggling readers. Elementary Mathematics Math Curriculum incorporates SC State Standards for Math and adopted CCSS in Math. The incorporation of world-class standards has necessitated a revision of the K-5 Curriculum for Math. The goal of the new standards is to develop a citizenry that has the ability to compete in the world market. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item 4. Accepted as a philosophy that all children can learn, the GREEN Charter School will not track students into large groups, but will instead provide individualized tutoring, small group work and extra practices for those students who need more time to master complex concepts. The GREEN Charter School s mathematics curriculum will be very focused. It will enable students to: 1. Understand that mathematics is the study of patterns and relationships; 2. Become familiar with some of those patterns and relationships; and 3. Learn to use them in daily life. Students will have extensive experience in making data, tables, graphs and geometric sketches and will be able to use them to clearly describe a wide variety of patterns and relationships. Students will examine the limitations of mathematical models in describing and predicting events in the real world. They will be encouraged to state their own criteria for what is a satisfactory result and to discuss their judgments in terms of their purpose. Students will be able to understand the mathematical significance of the arithmetic and algorithmic operations that they perform. By focusing on the 'why' behind the algorithmic 79

81 procedures, the GREEN Charter School will be preparing students for the further study of mathematics as well as the quantitative literacy of daily life. According to the National Council of Mathematics Teachers, a shift is needed from traditional 'paper and pencil' approaches that emphasize computation and rote learning to an approach that emphasizes attainment of mathematical insight, reasoning and problem solving skills. The GREEN Charter School will focus on creating a developmentally appropriate math curriculum where children are encouraged to understand the conceptual bases and quantitative analysis of mathematical relations. The GREEN Charter School believes that the logical thought processes of mathematics are necessary to the development of critical thinking. Through exposure to the basic courses, students not only attain the computational skills needed for everyday life but also develop their ability to think clearly and to present their thoughts in a precise, well-organized fashion. The program will be flexible in that it satisfies the needs of students who are not particularly mathematically-oriented, while providing the challenge and interest necessary for those who want a sound mathematical background on which to base further study. The mathematics curriculum will be integrated throughout the entire the GREEN Charter School curriculum to the greatest extent possible. It will offer a range of courses to meet students different developmental and ability levels. In order to implement the mathematics curriculum, the GREEN Charter School will adopt the proven instructional mathematics curricula, Everyday Mathematics and Project M3: Mentoring Mathematical Minds that will be discussed in detail later on. In addition to Everyday Mathematics and Project M3: Mentoring Mathematical Minds, manipulatives will be integrated into math classes. One reason that students struggle in 80

82 mathematics is that they consider it to be a highly abstract subject. Using manipulatives can be a very effective tool to help students move from abstract thinking to concrete thinking (Stein, & Bovalino, 2001). *** Manipulatives such as pattern blocks, fraction circles, and square tiles can contribute to student understanding of mathematical ideas by giving them concrete ways to compare and operate on quantities. However, the use of manipulatives is not enough for conceptual understanding [National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM), 2000]. It is important that teachers guide students in discovering mathematical ideas such that lessons will be designed to teach rather than to show students how to work problems step-by-step. The GREEN Charter School believes that students should actively construct their own knowledge within the academic environment. Additionally, students need to work with multiple representations such as concrete materials, graphs, verbal statements, tables and/or symbols to have a richer understanding of mathematical concepts. By using manipulatives, School will help students focus on mathematical ideas rather than mass calculation. In order to enhance the students understanding of mathematics, the teachers will use the navigations series published by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. The GREEN Charter School recognizes that the mathematics teachers subject-area content and pedagogical knowledge will affect the students achievement level. In order to increase the teachers knowledge in both areas, the GREEN Charter School will schedule workshops every semester to discuss mathematical tasks and the best ways to teach them to *** Stein, M. K., & Bovalino, J. W. (2001). Manipulatives: One piece of the Puzzle. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School. Vol.6, 6, 356. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2000). Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, Va.: NCTM. 81

83 students. Moreover, the GREEN Charter School will encourage the teachers to plan their lessons collaboratively to encourage sharing of ideas and to improve teachers instructional skills. If a student struggles to comprehend any mathematical concept, a mentor or classroom teacher will spend time with the student to provide guidance and technical assistance in that area. Students who continue to have difficulties in math will be enrolled in an intensive math support course, as well as a grade level math course, to help them close the gap in their knowledge. Small group instruction may be provided two days per week on those strands that students need direct instruction for improvement. Math teachers may offer after-school help-sessions for students in the targeted groups. Additional measures may be taken, such as tutorial programs, extended-day services, retention, and modification of curriculum choices, if they are required to meet the students needs. Teachers will keep a record of attendance in math help-sessions and correlate this to math grade improvement at the end of each nine weeks. After-school tutors and teachers will report to each student's classroom teacher on the student's progress as a result of receiving consistent assistance. The classroom teachers will identify those math strands that are weak for each student in the targeted groups. Assignments will be prepared to remediate weak skills. Teachers will customize the instruction and conduct small focus groups to address specific strands that each group needs. Everyday Mathematics Everyday Mathematics is a comprehensive Pre-K through 6th grade mathematics curriculum developed by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project. It is currently used by over 4.3 million students in over 220,000 classrooms. Everyday Mathematics correlates and meets the CCSS ( 82

84 Curriculum Features There are a number of features that distinguish the Everyday Mathematics curriculum. These include: Real-life Problem Solving Everyday Mathematics emphasizes the application of mathematics to real world situations. Numbers, skills and mathematical concepts are not presented in isolation, but are linked to situations and contexts that are relevant to everyday lives. The curriculum also provides suggestions on incorporating mathematics into daily classroom routines and other subject areas. Balanced Instruction Each Everyday Mathematics lesson includes time for whole-group instruction as well as small group, partner, or individual activities. These activities balance teacher-directed instruction with opportunities for open-ended, hands-on explorations, long-term projects and on-going practice. Multiple Methods for Basic Skills Practice Everyday Mathematics provides numerous methods for basic skills practice and review. These include written and choral fact drills, mental math routines, practice with fact triangles (flash cards of fact families), daily sets of review problems called Math Boxes, homework, timed tests and a wide variety of math games. Emphasis on Communication Throughout the Everyday Mathematics curriculum students are encouraged to explain and discuss their mathematical thinking, in their own words. Opportunities to verbalize their thoughts and strategies give children the chance to clarify their thinking and gain insights from others. 83

85 Enhanced Home/School Partnerships Daily Home Links (Grades K to 3) and Study Links (Grades 4-6) provide opportunities for family members to participate in the students' mathematical learning. Study Links are provided for most lessons in grades 4-6, and all grades include periodic letters to help keep parents informed about their children's experience with Everyday Mathematics Appropriate Use of Technology Everyday Mathematics teaches students how to use technology appropriately. The curriculum includes many activities in which learning is extended and enhanced through the use of calculators. At the same time, all activities intended to reinforce basic computation skills are clearly marked with a no calculator sign. Underlying the Everyday Mathematics curriculum are six strands of knowledge: Algebra; Data and Chance; Geometry; Measurement; Numeration and Order; Patterns, Functions, and Sequences; Operations; and Reference Frames. At each grade level, learning targets are identified for each of the six strands. During the 1980s, a consensus emerged about how best to teach mathematics to children. The NCTM Standards (1989) expressed that consensus. Everyday Mathematics is based largely on the same body of research that led to the Standards consensus. Everyday Mathematics has been the subject of numerous studies, and the data is overwhelmingly positive, and it received the highest rating of any published curriculum reviewed by the Department of Education's What Works Clearinghouse. Research The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) looked at elementary school math curricula designed to promote math knowledge and skills among elementary school students (average ages 5 to 10 84

86 years). Because there is some variation in how elementary school is organized across school districts, this review defined elementary school as a school with any of the grades, K through 5. Curricula included in this review are replicable, materials-based instructional programs that cover one or more of the following content areas: numbers, arithmetic, geometry, pre-algebra, measurement, graphing, and logical reasoning. This review considered only core, comprehensive math curricula. Core math curricula are defined as instructional programs that extend over the course of one semester or more, are central to students regular school instruction, and are based on any combination of text materials, manipulatives, computer software, videotapes, and other materials. This review focuses on student achievement in mathematics as the key outcome. The findings in this topic report summarize the first wave of WWC elementary school math intervention reports produced in We looked at 340 studies. Of these, 237 were assessments of interventions that qualified for our review; the other 103 could not be categorized by intervention.3 Of the 237 studies, 9 studies of 5 curricula met our evidence standards, 2 without reservations and 7 with reservations. Altogether, the WWC looked at 73 interventions: 5 had studies that met WWC standards with or without reservations, 67 had studies that did not meet WWC evidence screens, and 1 had a single-case study, which is still under review. (The identification of eligible programs ended in September 2005, and that of eligible studies, in July 2006.) In looking at the one outcome domain for the five elementary school math curricula: Everyday Mathematics had potentially positive effects on math achievement. Four other curricula had no discernible effects on math achievement. Project M3: Mentoring Mathematical Minds 85

87 Project M3 is a research-based mathematics program for gifted and talented students in grades 3, 4 and 5. Development of this program was funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Jacob K. Javits Program. Project M3, Mentoring Mathematical Minds, is a 5-year collaborative research effort of faculty at the University of Connecticut, Northern Kentucky University, and Boston University and teachers, administrators and students in 10 schools of varying socioeconomic levels in Connecticut and Kentucky. Project M3 was researched under the direction of the Neag School of Education at the University of Connecticut. Rather than focusing on computation, as many mathematics curricula do, Project M3 units focus on increasing the depth and complexity of the mathematics in which talented students are engaged. In other words, these young mathematicians are engaged in conceptual understanding rather than the application of rote formulas. This is achieved through an emphasis on mathematical discourse, both written and verbal, within the classroom and on problem solving and the spirit of inquiry. The units combine this increase in depth and complexity, emphasis on mathematical discourse, and focus on problem solving and inquiry with the NCTM Content and Process Standards and with best practices in the field of gifted and talented curriculum development to create the type of mathematics that is both truly challenging and enjoyable for mathematically talented students. The goals of the program include the following: Creating challenging and motivational curriculum units for students; Providing ongoing professional development for teachers; Increasing math achievement and attitudes toward math in talented and diverse students;

88 Narrowing the gap in math achievement for students with talent potential from economically disadvantaged backgrounds, those with limited English proficiency, and minorities. Award Winner: Project M3 has won awards from the curriculum studies division of the National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC) for three consecutive years. The Level 4 unit At the Mall with Algebra: Working with Equations and Variables is the winner of the NAGC Curriculum Studies 2006 Award, and was judged to be an exemplary model of curriculum for high-ability learners. **** The two previous units winning this award are Unraveling the Mystery of the MoLi Stone, the winner of the NAGC Curriculum Studies 2005 Award, and What's the ME in Measurement All About?, the winner of the NAGC Curriculum Studies 2004 Award. Curriculum Units: Project M3 has created a total of 12 curriculum units of advanced mathematics accompanied by professional development as well as one differentiated unit for students of all ability levels. In each unit of the Project M3 series, students explore an interesting simulated or real-life problem connected to their world and use their Mathematician s Journals to think, write, and act like mathematicians to solve the problem. Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Number and Operations Unraveling the mystery of the MoLi stone: Place value and Factors, multiples, and leftovers: Linking multiplication and Treasures from Attic: Exploring Fractions **** 87

89 Numeration. Division. Algebra Awesome Algebra: Looking for Patterns and Generalizations. At the mall with Algebra. Working with variables and Equations. Record makers and breakers: Using Algebra to Analyze Change. Geometry and Measurement What is the Me in Measurement All About? Getting into Shapes. Exploring 2- and 3- dimensional shapes. Funkytown Funhouse: Focusing on Proportional Reasoning and Similarity. Data Analysis and Probability Digging for Data: The Search within Research. Analyze this!: Representing and Interpreting Data. What are your chances? Exploration of Probability. The curriculum design follows the tenets of The Multiple Menu Model: A Practical Guide for Developing Differentiated Curriculum (Renzulli, Leppien, & Hays, 2000) and The Parallel Curriculum, A Design to Develop High Potential and Challenge High-Ability Learners (Tomlinson, Kaplan, Renzulli, Purcell, Leppien & Burns, 2002) were recently published by the National Association of Gifted Children. This model adheres to the belief that most, if not all, learners should work consistently with concept-focused curriculum, tasks that call for high level thought, and products that ask students to extend and use what they learned in meaningful ways (Tomlinson et al., 2002, p.13). This model is used as the basis for the design of the curriculum, focusing on the Core Curriculum with the Big Ideas of Mathematics in each unit and the Curriculum of Practice, an outgrowth of the Multiple Menu Model. Using the Multiple Menu Model, we will help students assume the role of mathematicians as they develop critical and creative thinking skills in solving 88

90 real world problems. Projects will be included in the units and used as a way for students to pursue some of their own interests. Renzulli's Enrichment Triad Model (Renzulli, 1977; Gubbins, 1995) is one of the instructional approaches; students will choose a topic to investigate, receive support and coaching from the teacher, and produce a product for a real audience. Professional Development: Teachers will receive training to increase their mathematical background in content areas and to use teaching strategies developed to promote enrichment learning and mathematical discourse within the classroom. During the first three summers, the teachers implementing the curriculum units will receive the training. Teams of teachers will receive training on curriculum differentiation in grades 3, 4 and 5. A strong focus will be placed on developing mathematical discourse to encourage students to think deeply about the mathematics. This training will take place during the summer for a 2-week period and during the school year (approximately 4 inservice days). Teachers will receive and keep resource materials and manipulatives that support the curriculum units. Ongoing technical assistance in the classroom will include videotaping of lessons with conferencing to help teachers reflect on their teaching by witnessing the discourse in the classroom. Teachers can communicate with each other across schools and with the project staff on a regular basis through the Internet portal that has been recently initiated. This technology will also allow teachers to be abreast of latest developments in the field of mathematics education and gifted education by providing links to resources and articles of interest. 89

91 Results: The results of the Project M3 have been very promising. The students in the program have made statistically significant gains on the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBS) and on open-ended response questions from the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Furthermore, they have scored significantly higher than a comparison group of mathematically talented students on these standardized tests. Not only have the students made quantitative gains in their mathematics achievement, but the teachers also report a change in their students attitudes toward mathematics. As one teacher said, The children love math. They look forward to math class every day! In previous math classes, children literally cried when they came to problem solving. These kids enjoy problem solving because of the program. This increase in enjoyment of mathematics is accompanied by a sense of accomplishment at being able to communicate mathematically. This is embodied by one student s comment, I can do it. I can write about math. Furthermore, the project has been successful at identifying mathematically promising students from underrepresented groups. This success has carried over to the School level. One curriculum coordinator commented, The M3 project has prompted us to look more closely at the academic ability of the students who have been identified to participate in the program We have identified more minority and ESOL students than ever before. Elementary Science The science program is designed to use a constructive view of learning skills, sequences, and subject knowledge. The GREEN Charter School believes that the curriculum and instructional 90

92 strategies must first build the student's own reality before introducing new content. Understanding science comes from relating new experiences to what the students already know, not from simply adding new knowledge. Some examples of standards are presented in Appendix item 4. The sequence of instruction will begin with addressing the misconceptions or alternate understandings that the students have about the topic. Then, the students will engage in activities that help construct or reconstruct meaning. The science curriculum will include strategies to: Encourage students to make their ideas explicit and present them with events that challenge their ideas; Encourage the process of hypothesizing and generating alternative inspirations of models, enabling the students to explore these alternatives in informal and non-threatening ways, particularly through group discussion, and providing opportunities for students to use their new ideas in a wide ranges of situations so that they can appreciate their utility. The GREEN Charter School s renewable energy-oriented science curriculum will concentrate more on an experimental, hands-on approach while building on students abstract knowledge of science. The GREEN Charter School will implement the proven instructional science curricula, the Science and Technology for Children (STC) and Project NEED to reach this goal. Science is a dynamic, ever-changing discipline, and students will be encouraged to use computers and internet, plan and organize projects, hypothesize, analyze data, and draw conclusions from tests they will create. The major purpose of the science curriculum will be to teach the students to become self-reliant and independent problem-solvers; it is designed to create a high level of interest in learning that will become personalized and individualized. 91

93 The science curriculum will prepare students to achieve the state standards by incorporating a hands-on approach to learning of central science themes: matter and energy, force and motion, earth and space, processes of life, and the scientific method. Teachers will utilize the state standards, while incorporating FCAT test item specifications from the State of SC in their daily lesson plans. Additionally, students will participate in hands-on science experiments. In grades 4-8, students will be encouraged to participate in competitions such as Science Fair, Science Olympiad, Science Bowl, where they will be able to explore and investigate the steps to the scientific method. Furthermore, the students will be required to take an elective class related to the GREEN Charter School s green theme from the Project NEED curriculum matrix, which was presented in the Academic Standards section. The Science and Technology for Children (STC ) General Description Science and Technology for Children (STC ) is a complete science program for children in grades K 6, which was developed by the National Science Resources Center (NSRC), a nonprofit organization jointly operated by the Smithsonian Institution and the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering and Institute of Medicine to address the critical problem presented by A Nation at Risk report. The NSRC began developing STC in 1988; the curriculum was completed in The program correlates with the SC science standards. Filled with innovative hands-on activities designed to motivate young students, it is the result of a joint effort by some of the leaders in the fields of education and science. Its mission is

94 to improve the learning and teaching of science for all children in the United States and throughout the world. STC curriculum offers innovative, comprehensive 24 units for students in grades 1 through 6. It covers four broad topic areas: life, earth, and physical sciences and technological design. The curriculum is flexible with respect to grade level and units: it also may be used at a level below or above the designated grade level to meet specific needs. Each STC unit was written by a teacher-developer working in collaboration with educators, scientists, and evaluators, as well as with science editors and illustrators. All units were field-tested in demographically diverse classrooms throughout the United States. Input from teachers and students who participated in the field tests, as well as recommendations provided by an independent evaluator, were incorporated into the final version of the text. Each STC Unit provides a series of lessons that follow a carefully constructed conceptual sequenceone that builds both student understanding and skills using an inquiry approach design around current knowledge about how children learn. Because the science concepts and skills taught in later unit lessons build on those from earlier ones, all STC lessons are prearranged accordingly and included during unit instruction. STC will engage adolescent in inquiry-based science learning and revive the natural curiosity typically found in young children but unfortunately discouraged in traditional elementary school science programs. As they progress through STC modules, students will take greater responsibility for their own learning, eventually planning and conducting their own experimental procedures, devising their own data tables, and analyzing their own results. Keeping inquiry at the center of the learning process fosters student curiosity and enables http// 93

95 students to learn new concepts in a real-world setting. The primary goals of the STC program are to: Make available a sequence of learning activities that fully address the National Science Education Standards. Engage students directly with natural phenomena, the tools of science, real-world problems, and technological design challenges. Build on students prior knowledge and experiences and allow them to apply problemsolving strategies in new contexts. Provide opportunities for students to test procedures collect and analyze data, use data to support conclusions, and communicate findings. Develop in all students the skills and knowledge necessary to open paths to careers in science and technology. Foster positive attitudes toward science. The NSRC follows a rigorous research and development process to ensure that the STC modules are scientifically accurate. NSRC curriculum developers work with master teachers and scientists across the nation to ensure that the learning activities in each module are effective in the classroom and reflect current scientific thinking. NSRC developer designed special apparatuses for many of the activities, testing each piece of equipment to perfect its design while making sure that all STC activities are safe for elementary school use. After field-testing, materials and apparatuses were revised, based on feedback from students and teachers. NSRC developers have worked closely with Carolina Supply Company to establish exact specifications for each item in every module and to monitor quality control during production. 94

96 Lessons within each STC module also follow a carefully constructed conceptual sequence one that builds both students understanding and skills using an inquiry approach designed around current knowledge about how children learn. STC modules follow a planned sequence of conceptual development as shown in the Table below. Grade Levels Life and Earth Sciences Physical Science and Technology STC K-1 Organisms Weather Solids and Liquids Comparing and Measuring 2-3 The Life Soils Changes Balancing and Cycle of Weighing Butterflies Sound Plant Growth Rocks and Minerals Chemical Tests and Development 4-5 Animal Land and Water Electric Circuits Motion and Studies Design Ecosystems Food Chemistry Micro worlds Floating and 95

97 Sinking Experiments with Plants Measuring Time Magnets and Motors The Technology of Paper Table: Summary of STC Modules. High-quality professional development is an essential component of the STC program. Professional development courses are offered through the National Science Resources Center (NSRC) Professional Development Center (PDC). The PDC offers courses that move teachers through all levels of the proficiency continuum from novice to expert. PDC Courses provide teachers with the opportunity to learn and practice the skills needed to create supportive classroom environments for student inquiry. PDC Courses are available to existing and new users of STC, district science specialists, teacher leaders, and educators planning to adopt a new science curriculum. PDC Courses model the inquiry approach and are designed by the curriculum developers for STC, presented by NSRC PDC-certified trainers, designed to promote integration of educational technology and technological design in the classroom, and tailored to the National Science Education Standards. ***** Results: A science education program that is judged to be effective typically includes a number of elements (such as exemplary curriculum, professional development, and community support) that work together. The most recognizable indicator of a science education program s effectiveness, however, is the outcome of the student assessment-student test scores. Educational ***** 96

98 studies show that student learning increases after the use of STC Program. Below are some examples of the impact that STC has made in students learning in school districts across the U. S. that have adopted STC as a science curriculum. A study conducted in Michigan showed that students in school districts that used the NSRC s Science and Technology for Children (STC elementary curriculum) performed better on the Michigan Educational Assessment Program (MEAP) for Science than those who did not. The study compared the results from 15 STC school districts in affluent, moderate, and poor districts (socioeconomic categories aggregated according to the percentage of students who qualify for free or reduced-price lunch) with the results from districts using a textbook approach to science education. Ten of the 15 STC districts, including two of the low-income districts, improved their scores of the MEAP at a greater rate than the state average. During its eight-year partnership with the NSRC, Washington State Department of Education has increased the number of school districts implementing research-based science education programs from a few pilot districts to districts that serve 75% of the state s student population. Statewide data show significant improvement in student learning in schools that have fully implemented the NSRC reform model such as STC, with a strong emphasis on teacher professional development. The science reform effort in this economically deprived rural community shows that an investment in science education provides an excellent return in other areas of the curriculum as well. The Valle Imperial Project in Science (VIPS) is a NSF funded Local Systemic Initiative serving approximately 22,500 K-6 students and 1100 teachers in

99 school districts in Imperial County, California. Imperial County ranks highest in poverty of all 58 California counties with 66% of students receiving free/reduced lunches, and 47% of the students are English language learners. The El Centro Elementary School District implemented a reform effort following the NSRC model, including researchbased instructional materials such as STC. Students in Imperial Valley public schools who have been taught using inquiry methods significantly outperform their classmates who have had traditional (textbook-based) science instruction. Stanford Achievement Test results indicate that the longer students are enrolled in research-based science programs, the better they perform on nationally normed science, writing, and mathematics tests. Project NEED As discussed earlier, students will be introduced to the GREEN Charter School s green theme through elective science courses related to energy. Project NEED (National Energy Education Development) curriculum and guidelines will be utilized. The NEED curriculum is aligned with SC standards in science ( The curriculum matrix is outlined in Academic Standards section above. The following curriculum materials will be used from the NEED curriculum at the elementary level: Primary (K-2) Energy Fair NEED Songbook Primary Energy Carnival Primary Energy Infobook Primary Science of Energy 98

100 Primary Stories and More Pretzel Power Saving Energy at Home and School The Sun and Its Energy Today in Energy Trash Flipbook Using and Saving Energy Water and Energy Wind is Energy Wonders of Magnets Elementary (3-5) Biodiesel Building Buddies ElectroWorks Energy Carnival Energy Conservation Contract Elementary Energy Energy And Our Rivers Energy Around the World Energy Fair Energy Flows Energy House Energy in the Balance Energy Jeopardy Energy Math Challenge Energy on Public Lands Energy on Stage Energy Rock Performances Energy Source Expo Energy Stories and More EnergyWorks Ethanol Exploring Energy Global Trading Game Liquified Natural Gas: LNG Mystery World Tour NEED Songbook Ocean Energy Pretzel Power Saving Energy Expo 99

101 Saving Energy at Home and School Schools Going Solar Science of Energy Talking Trash This Mine of Mine Today in Energy Transparent Energy Transportation Fuels Expo Transportation Fuels Info Transportation Rock Performances U.S. Energy Geography Wind For Schools Wonders of Magnets Wonders of the Sun Wonders of Water Wonders of Wind Yesterday in Energy Elementary Social Studies This curriculum will promote students understanding of historical, geographical, and civic knowledge and their application of this knowledge to today s diverse world culture. In the early grades (kindergarten through second) students learn about the world with which they are most familiar: home, school, the neighborhood, and the broader Greenville community. These grades will use the Houghton Mifflin social studies series. Titles include My World (kindergarten), School and Family (first grade), and Neighborhoods (second grade). Third grade introduces children to the history of our state and teaches them about South Carolina's geography, jobs, and government, Scott Foresman s Social Studies: South Carolina. The remaining elementary years will focus on the story of the United States based on important events, people, and policies that have led us to become the country we are today. Scott Foresman publishes both textbooks. Fourth grade classes use Building a Nation while fifth graders use Growth of a Nation. The program will prepare students to have an understanding of multiple cultures, tolerance, and 100

102 respect for the world beyond our borders and therefore encourage them to become global citizens. The social studies program will provide each student with a broad background in the social sciences. Within each class, the faculty-student exchange will be strongly encouraged. Students will be encouraged to think critically and to form opinions consistent with historical facts. From the earliest events of recorded history, through the development of family life, culture and the arts, to the development of governments and countries driven by geographical exploration, the wars of history and the stories they tell, from yesterday to today, students will have the unique opportunity to pursue their curiosity and respond to the State Standards by participating in the discovery of man and his contributions to the whole of humanity. Samples of standards are presented in Appendix item 4. Middle School Language Arts MIDDLE SCHOOL CURRICULUM The primary focus of the language arts program will help students use the reading process effectively, select and use pre-reading strategies that are appropriate to the text such as discussion, making predictions, brainstorming, generating questions, and previewing (to anticipate content, purpose and organization of a reading selection). In addition, the students will use writing processes effectively, select and use appropriate pre-writing strategies such as brainstorming, graphic organizers and outlines. Briefly, the students will be prepared to use viewing and speaking, strategies effectively and understand the nature and power of language. The core of the curriculum will incorporate and be aligned with the State Standards and Next CCSS. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item

103 The GREEN Charter School will use the state-approved Holt McDougal Littell Series or other state-adopted text as Language Arts program. The program helps students develop the essential skills of reading carefully, thinking critically, listening intently and speaking and writing persuasively. Students are an integral part of the reading process. Instruction is aligned to mastery of the State Standards and employs before, during and after reading strategies. Students use Socratic questioning techniques to increase critical thinking and develop skills in formulating their own questions to guide their inquiry. The purpose is to provide educational experiences that develop English language arts concepts and skills. The content will include, but not be limited to the study of literature, the use of the writing process, and the application of reading, listening, speaking, critical thinking and study skills. Information on how language arts skills apply to daily life and work will also be provided. The purpose of this course is to develop the ability to use, interpret, and appreciate spoken and written English. All students at all levels need rich experiences with good literature. An ideal program moves beyond strict adherence to a set of materials, and is centered on themes appropriate to given groups of students. Literature will include multicultural selections of traditional classical and modern works. A quality literature program includes biographies, essays, and other nonfiction, as well as poetry, drama, stories, and novels. Reading/Literature and Writing will be taught across the curriculum. Students will perform plays, sing songs and play music, read novels as related to the theme for the quarter and demonstrate comprehension and understanding through book reports and oral presentations. Multicultural activities such as cultural demonstrations, speakers with international experiences, dressing in cultural costumes will be used. 102

104 Students will read and analyze increasingly challenging and complex works of poetry and prose, representing a wide range of styles and genre. Students will acquire the ability to read critically, to identify stylistic and rhetorical devices of poetry and prose, and will develop understanding of the relationship between literary form and content. They will receive intensive training in English composition, including conventions of syntax and punctuation, and they will demonstrate competence in written assignments. Students will practice expository writing, with strong emphasis on proper sentence and paragraph and essay organization; they will also learn to prepare memos, business letters and newspaper reports. The writing of research papers (i.e., essays that discuss and rely extensively on sources) will be required throughout the curriculum; students will learn how to identify appropriate sources, form a bibliography, organize the paper and acknowledge sources properly. Students will also have the opportunity to develop the techniques of creative writing and the composition of poetry in forms commonly found in English-language verse (such as ballad, blank verse, sonnet, free verse, heroic couplets). The GREEN Charter School will follow the state course descriptions for the following courses to be offered in grades 6-8: GRADE COURSE 6 Language Arts I 6 Language Arts I Advanced 7 Language Arts II 7 Language Arts II Advanced 8 Language Arts III 103

105 8 Language Arts III Advanced 6-8 Intensive Reading ****** Middle School Mathematics Mathematics curriculum is one of the most focused curricula in the GREEN Charter School. Students will have considerable experience in making data, tables, graphs, and geometric sketches and using them, along with symbols and clear English, to describe a wide variety of patterns and relationships. Students will examine the limitations of mathematical models in describing and predicting events in real world. They will be encouraged to state their own criteria for what is a satisfactory result to discuss their judgments in terms of their purpose. Students will be able to understand the mathematical significance of the operations while performing arithmetic operations. By focusing on the why behind the algorithmic procedures, we will prepare students for further study of mathematics as well as the quantitative literacy of daily life. The mathematics curriculum is integrated throughout the curriculum as much as possible. The Math Curriculum will align with State Math Standards and CCSS. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item 4. Accepted as a philosophy that all children can learn, The GREEN Charter School will not jump students into large groups, but will instead provide individualized tutoring, small group work and extra practices for those students who need more time to master complex concepts. ****** A balanced literacy model will include instruction in phonics, reading comprehension, interpretation of literature, writing and reading fluency. Reading intervention such as Read XL, Jamestown Reading Navigator, and Accelerated Reader (AR) will be provided to assist students who need additional help and support to stop the flow of failure and to bring students to grade level through a series of effective strategies. Intervention is administered in addition to each student s regular reading instruction. 104

106 According to the National Council of Mathematics Teachers, a shift is needed from traditional paper and pencil approaches, which emphasize computation and rote learning, to an approach that emphasizes the child gaining mathematical insight, reasoning and problem solving skills. The GREEN Charter School will focus on creating a developmentally appropriate math curriculum where children are encouraged to understand the conceptual bases and quantitative analysis of mathematical relations. The GREEN Charter School believes that the logical thought processes of mathematics are necessary to the development of critical thinking. Through exposure to the basic courses, students not only attain the computational skills needed for everyday life but also develop their ability to think clearly and to present their thoughts in a precise, well-organized fashion. The program will be flexible in that it satisfies the needs of students who are not particularly mathematically oriented, while providing the challenge and interest necessary for those who want a sound mathematical background on which to base further study. The Mathematics curriculum will be aligned with NCTM Principles and State Standards and CCSS for Mathematics. In order to implement mathematics curriculum, the NCTM Principles School is committed to adopt the proven instructional mathematics curricula, the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) and the College Preparatory Mathematics (CPM). The NCTM Principles School will follow the state course descriptions for the following courses to be offered in grades 6-8. The purposes of these courses are to provide instruction and promote academic excellence in basic mathematic skills, geometry, algebra, problem solving, and mathematical reasoning. The content will include, but not be limited to operations, numeration, whole numbers, fractions, decimals, percentages, ratio and proportion, equations, inequalities, functions, expressions, properties, constructions, area, volume, proofs, limits derivatives, 105

107 integrals and the development of logical reasoning skills. These skills and in preparation for the SC Assessment Test, are essential for a student to succeed within the real world work environment. These courses cover concepts and materials that are aligned to the SC State Standards and CCSS. GRADE COURSE 6 Pre-Algebra I 6 Pre-Algebra I Advanced 6-8 Intensive Mathematics* 7 Pre-Algebra II 7 Pre-Algebra II Advanced 8 Pre-Algebra III 8 Algebra I ** 8 Geometry ** *Students requiring further strengthening in mathematics will be enrolled in Intensive Mathematics. ** High School Credit(s) for Students in Grades 7, and 8 - Students may enroll in selected high school courses for the purposes of pursuing a more challenging program of study. Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) With funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF) in , and in , the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP) developed a complete mathematics curriculum for middle school teachers and students. CMP helps students and teachers develop understanding of important mathematical concepts, skills, procedures, and ways of thinking and reasoning, in number, geometry, measurement, algebra, probability and statistics. CMP is based on research, and was field-tested in diverse sites across the country with approximately 45,000 students and 106

108 390 teachers. Each unit, in both and development periods, went through at least 3 cycles of field testing. A growing body of research and evaluation reports (2006 Evaluation Booklet, New Studies, CMP Literature Review 2008) indicates that CMP outperforms non-cmp curricula on tests of problem-solving ability, equals or outperforms non- CMP curricula on skills tests, and promotes long term retention. The U.S. Department of Education announced CMP is one of five curricula to achieve exemplary status. On Wednesday, October 6, 1999, the Assistant Secretary for Educational Research and Improvement from the U.S. Department of Education, C. Kent McGuire announced the results of a review conducted by the Mathematics and Science Education Expert Panel. Out of 61 programs that were submitted for the review with, ten received recognition from the U.S. Department of Education; five received the highest recognition of exemplary ; and five received the recognition of promising. Connected Mathematics is the only middle school program identified as exemplary. The CMP is headquartered at Michigan State University, and was funded from by the National Science Foundation. Project directors are Glenda Lappan, William Fitzgerald, and Elizabeth Phillips of Michigan State University; James Fey of the University of Maryland; and Susan Friel of the University of North Carolina. CMP is currently implemented more than 2,200 schools in all 50 states plus Washington, D.C., and Puerto Rico. General Description: CMP is a mathematics curriculum for middle school students that are designed to foster knowledge and skill in using the vocabulary, forms of representation, materials, tools, techniques, and intellectual methods of the discipline of mathematics. CMP is intended to enable students to define and solve problems with reason, insight, inventiveness, and technical 107

109 proficiency. The development of CMP has focused on the tight alignment of curriculum, instruction, and assessment. The overall project goal is to enable all students to reason and communicate proficiently in mathematics. CMP development has been guided by five instructional themes: 1. Mathematical Investigations: The curriculum is organized around big ideas in Mathematics clusters of important, related mathematical concepts, processes, ways of thinking, skills, and problem-solving strategies - that are studied in depth with the development of deep understanding as a goal. 2. Reasoning: Students grow in their ability to reason effectively with information represented in pictorial, graphic, numeric, symbolic, and verbal forms, and to move flexibly among these representations. 3. Teaching for Understanding: Instruction emphasizes inquiry and discovery of mathematical ideas through investigation of rich problem situations. 4. Connections: The curriculum emphasizes significant connections among various mathematical topics and problems in other school subjects. The curriculum offers an opportunity to revisit and deepen understanding of ideas over time. 5. Technology: Selection of mathematical goals and teaching approaches reflects the information processing capabilities of calculators and computers and the fundamental changes these tools are making in the way people learn and apply their knowledge. CMP Instructional Model 108

110 Problem-centered teaching opens the mathematics classroom to exploring, conjecturing, reasoning, and communicating. The Connected Mathematics teacher materials are organized around an instructional model that supports this kind of teaching. This model is very different from the "transmission" model in which teachers tell students facts and demonstrate procedures and then students memorize the facts and practice the procedures. The CMP model looks at instruction in three phases: launching, exploring, and summarizing. The following text describes the three instructional phases and provides the general kinds of questions that are asked. Specific notes and questions for each problem are provided in the Teacher's Guides. Launch In the first phase, the teacher launches the problem with the whole class. This involves helping students understand the problem setting, the mathematical context, and the challenge. The following questions can help the teacher prepare for the launch: What are students expected to do? What do the students need to know to understand the context of the story and the challenge of the problem? What difficulties can I foresee for students? How can I keep from giving away too much of the problem solution? The launch phase is also the time when the teacher introduces new ideas, clarifies definitions, reviews old concepts, and connects the problem to past experiences of the students. It is critical that, while giving students a clear picture of what is expected, the teacher leaves the potential of the task intact. He or she must be careful to not tell too much and consequently lower the 109

111 challenge of the task to something routine, or to cut off the rich array of strategies that may evolve from a more open launch of the problem. Explore The nature of the problem determines whether students work individually, in pairs, in small groups, or occasionally as a whole class to solve the problem during the explore phase. The Teacher's Guide suggests an appropriate grouping. As students work, they gather data, share ideas, look for patterns, make conjectures, and develop problem-solving strategies. It is inevitable that students will exhibit variation in their progress. The teacher's role during this phase is to move about the classroom, observing individual performance and encouraging ontask behavior. The teacher helps students persevere in their work by asking appropriate questions and providing confirmation and redirection where needed. For students who are interested in and capable of deeper investigation, the teacher may provide extra questions related to the problem. These questions are called Going Further and are provided in the explore discussion in the Teacher's Guide. Suggestions for helping students who may be struggling are also provided in the Teacher's Guide. The explore part of the instruction is an appropriate place to attend to differentiated learning. The following questions will help the teacher prepare for the explore phase: How will I organize the students to explore this problem? (Individuals? Pairs? Groups? Whole class?) What materials will students need? How should students record and report their work? What different strategies can I anticipate they might use? 110

112 What questions can I ask to encourage student conversation, thinking, and learning? What questions can I ask to focus their thinking if they become frustrated or off-task? What questions can I ask to challenge students if the initial question is "answered"? As the teacher moves about the classroom during the explore, she or he should attend to the following questions: What difficulties are students having? How can I help without giving away the solution? What strategies are students using? Are they correct? How will I use these strategies during the summary? Summarize It is during the summary that the teacher guides the students to reach the mathematical goals of the problem and to connect their new understanding to prior mathematical goals and problems in the unit. The summary phase of instruction begins when most students have gathered sufficient data or made sufficient progress toward solving the problem. In this phase, students present and discuss their solutions as well as the strategies they used to approach the problem, organize the data, and find the solution. During the discussion, the teacher helps students enhance their conceptual understanding of the mathematics in the problem and guides them in refining their strategies into efficient, effective, generalizable problem-solving techniques or algorithms. Although the teacher leads the summary discussion, students play a significant role. Ideally, they should pose conjectures, question each others, offer alternatives, provide reasons, refine their strategies and conjectures, and make connections. As a result of the discussion, 111

113 students should become more skillful at using the ideas and techniques that come out of the experience with the problem. If it is appropriate, the summary can end by posing a problem or two that checks students' understanding of the mathematical goal(s) that have been developed at this point in time. Check For Understanding questions occur occasionally in the summary in the Teacher's Guide. These questions help the teacher to assess the degree to which students are developing their mathematical knowledge. The following questions will help the teacher prepare for the summary: How can I help the students make sense of and appreciate the variety of methods that may be used? How can I orchestrate the discussion so that students summarize their thinking about the problem? What questions can guide the discussion? What concepts or strategies need to be emphasized? What ideas do not need closure at this time? What definitions or strategies do we need to generalize? What connections and extensions can be made? What new questions might arise and how do I handle them? What can I do to follow up, practice, or apply the ideas after the summary? CMP is a problem-centered curriculum. It is organized into units that address mathematical ideas through a series of investigations. Each investigation contains problems for teachers and 112

114 students to explore. As students explore a series of connected problems, they develop deep understandings of important mathematical concepts embedded within the problems. Results: The Iowa Test of Basic Skills math subtest and a standards-based problem-solving test were administered to CMP and non-cmp students in grades six, seven, and eight. On the problemsolving test, CMP students significantly outperformed non-cmp students. On the ITBS, CMP sixth and seventh graders performed as well as their non-cmp counterparts, and CMP eighth graders significantly outperformed those not in CMP. In a study of proportional reasoning, CMP students at all levels again significantly outperformed non-cmp students. The Effects of Connected Mathematics Project 2 on Student Performance (November 14, 2008) This independent efficacy research study, conducted by Dr. Rebecca Eddy of Claremont Graduate University s Institute of Organizational and Program Evaluation Research, reported that CMP2 students demonstrated significantly greater gains in problem-solving, math communication, and math reasoning strategies than their peers using other math programs as evidenced by performance on the Balanced Assessment of Mathematics (BAM). In addition, CMP2 students demonstrated significant improvement from pre-test to post-test in the areas of concepts and problems, estimation, and computations as evidenced by performance on the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). The difference in achievement between Latino students and Caucasian students on the BAM assessment was significantly smaller than the difference between Caucasian and Latino students who used other math programs. The research studies and reports are separated into three categories: those studies conducted by the CMP team during the last year of field testing, those studies conducted by other 113

115 professionals who have investigated the effects of CMP in a variety of settings since its publication, and various state and district reports of achievement data. The summaries indicate any special populations involved in each study. The results consistently show that: CMP is an effective middle school curriculum that is accessible to all students. CMP students do as well as, or better than, non-cmp students on tests of basic skills. CMP students outperform non-cmp students on tests of problem- solving ability, conceptual understanding, and proportional reasoning. CMP students can use basic skills to solve important mathematical problems and are able to communicate their reasoning and understanding. By the end of grade 8, CMP students show a considerable ability to solve non-routine algebra problems and demonstrate a strong understanding of linear functions and a beginning understanding of exponential and quadratic functions. More details can be found at In addition, there are numerous studies conducted on the effectiveness of CMP. Research findings can be found at: College Preparatory Mathematics (CPM) 114

116 College Preparatory Mathematics (CPM) is a complete, balanced mathematics program for middle school and high school students who want to learn the basics and more. CPM includes a two-year middle school curriculum and a high school program of Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2, Math Analysis (Pre-Calculus), and Calculus accepted by every college and university in the country. CPM students are prepared to know fundamental skills and procedures, understand concepts, and acquire an array of problem solving strategies so that they will be prepared to be successful in college mathematics courses and the workplace of the 21 st century. In line with the requests of leaders of high-tech industries, CPM students learn to work together in study teams on challenging problems. Under the careful guidance of their teachers, CPM students explore the major concepts of middle school and high school mathematics in a variety of ways designed to provide them with several means to solve math problems. CPM students are assisted in making the transition to higher mathematics by solving problems that illuminate concepts in four major ways: numerically, symbolically, graphically, and verbally. Deep ideas are spread over weeks or months as students engage and re-engage the same concepts in a wide variety of contexts and degrees of difficulty with frequent opportunities to cement their understanding of basic ideas and their intellectual connections. As a result of the carefully designed problem sequence of the books, CPM students score at least as well but usually somewhat better (and often substantially better) on standard multiple choice exams than students in traditional classes. On written response questions, CPM students score 30-40% higher. Transcript studies indicate that very high ability CPM students who take Algebra 1 in the 8th grade are 60% more likely to enroll in calculus classes in high school than students in traditional classes at the same school. At the same time, average students are significantly more likely to persist in mathematics than students in traditional classes. SAT9 115

117 scores for 175 California CPM high schools are six to ten percent higher than the state average. College Board SAT scores increased by an average of 11 points in 25 schools that have used CPM for three years or longer. The goal of CPM Educational Program is simple: improve the effectiveness of secondary mathematics instruction by incorporating contemporary knowledge about how people learn into student texts and teacher methodology. CPM is built on the fundamentals of the existing mathematics curriculum and incorporates the mathematics necessary for success in the 21 st century. CPM has helped more than 4,000,000 students make sense of mathematics and see both the power and the beauty of the subject. What Is The CPM Curriculum? College Preparatory Mathematics (CPM) is a middle grades and secondary mathematics program that integrates basic skills and topics with conceptual understanding and problem solving strategies to achieve a complete and balanced mathematics curriculum. The two middle grades courses are designed to prepare students for Algebra. CPM high school courses parallel the course sequence of Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2, and Mathematical Analysis. CPM also offers a lab and investigation-based AP Calculus course. The CPM curriculum uses a variety of teaching methodologies, including lecture, class discussions, manipulatives, and structured study teams. During class, students are actively working on guided investigations, much like math labs, to develop mathematical concepts and problem solving skills. Teachers lecture regularly and summarize lessons based on observed needs of the students. Basic skills and procedures are practiced as exercises over several weeks as well as integrated into challenging application problems. 116

118 Program Quality: Reviewers noted that College Preparatory Mathematics learning goals are aligned with NCTM standards, and content strands are carried through all levels of the curriculum. The program is rigorous and provides familiarity and practice with numerous mathematical concepts (e.g., algebraic notation, algorithms, and geometric representations in Mathematics 1). The reviewers found that the overall program goals are well aligned, challenging, clear, and appropriate for the intended student population (lower level ability to advanced students). Each of the four courses is built on a few core ideas that are developed and deepened over a four-year period, thereby allowing students more time to master a concept. The program strategies emphasize active learning and group work; students are introduced to problem solving, communication, and reasoning through laboratory experiments and real-world applications. Support materials are provided in the student texts to help them review and evaluate their progress. The reviewers noted ample evidence for the application of skills through problems that engage the students in both individual and collaborative work and address a variety of learning styles. Concepts are developed through guided instruction, individual and team-work, tactile and kinesthetic activities, data collection, class-work, and homework. Students are encouraged to develop a positive attitude and become more aware of their own thinking about problems and to describe their efforts both orally and in writing. An assessment handbook is provided in the teacher editions and outlines a variety of options for integrating assessment into instruction, e.g., investigations, portfolios, projects, presentations, problem solving, and daily performance assessment. The wide variety of approaches presented in the teacher s program materials includes methods for assessing depth, 117

119 flexibility, and application of learning. The student self-assessment component was viewed by the reviewers as a strong component of the assessment handbook. Program Effectiveness and Success: College Preparatory Mathematics has been designated an exemplary mathematics program. CPM has shown consistent evidence of improved student performance in a variety of studies that employ comparison groups and large sample sizes. Nine separate studies examined the achievement of approximately 30,000 California students in diverse settings. A variety of instruments was used to assess growth in mathematics achievement, including multiple choice assessments from the Math Diagnostic Testing Program (a well-established program that produces multiple-choice examinations for use by California high schools to provide diagnostic data and by colleges as placement tests), open-ended written response items which were processed by the University of California at Davis, the SAT mathematics exams, and California s Golden State Examination (a test to assess students in many disciplines for high achievement). Several studies examined possible differences in achievement produced by CPM for both genders, students of various ethnic groups, and students at different places on the performance spectrum. Results demonstrated that CPM works equally well for students of all characteristics. Usefulness to Others: Reviewers noted that the program is well developed with a solid curriculum and supportive teacher-training component. The program has been used in both accelerated and regular classes from Grade 7 to early college, in block scheduling structures, and in a variety of geographic and 118

120 multi-ethnic locations that include non-native English speakers, and students with learning disabilities. Educational Significance: The CPM program is consistent with the NCTM standards that suggest that real-life problems be used to show students that the mathematical concepts they are learning will be used after they leave the classroom. Each unit in CPM is based on real-life themes and built around appropriate mathematical concepts. The CPM curriculum, designated as one of five "Exemplary Mathematics Programs" by the U.S. Department of Education in October, 1999 is taught by more than 3,000 teachers in more than 900 schools across the country. It was originally a grant-funded curriculum and assessment development project located in Sacramento County, California. When the first edition of Algebra 1 was released in 1992, there were about 200 teachers using CPM materials, mostly in seven urban sites in California. By the school year there were more than 2,000 teachers using CPM materials, mostly in California, with about 100 teachers located in Washington State, Wisconsin, Illinois, Pennsylvania, and Washington, D.C. Today CPM is used in more than 40 states. The CPM program presents mathematical ideas in contexts that help students make sense of otherwise abstract principles. Students are taught how to gather and organize information about problems, break problems into smaller parts, and look for patterns that lead to solutions. Each course is built around several core ideas that are used to develop related topics, skills and procedures. Students master skills and come to understand ideas over several days and weeks. Much of their classroom time is spent doing guided investigations much like a math lab that develop ideas in concrete, visual ways. They also apply their learning to realistic problems that require more than merely mimicking examples of rules 119

121 What Makes the CPM Curriculum Effective? The CPM curriculum is effective because of its unique emphasis of both basic skills and problem solving strategies. Where other mathematics programs emphasize only the mechanics of mathematics, the CPM materials develop the basics while encouraging students to understand ideas, see relationships between them, and apply mathematical principles to complex problems. CPM courses prepare students for the global marketplace they will face after graduation, either in institutions of higher learning or in the job market. When Were The CPM Materials Tested? Each CPM high school course was piloted for three years by at least 50 teachers with 30,000 students. The preliminary edition of the middle school program was used by 40,000 students in By the end of CPM s first decade, more than 2,500,000 students had taken a CPM math class. During the high school piloting period, CPM conducted studies comparing CPM and non- CPM student performance on traditional multiple choice exams and end-of-the-year word problems requiring a written response. These studies involved more than 30,000 students. All of the comparative research to date between students using other textbooks and students using CPM has shown that CPM students do somewhat better (and in some studies, much better) on multiple-choice tests and significantly better on challenging word problems. CPM teachers report that more of their students continue with the next year of college preparatory mathematics (e.g., Algebra 1 students enroll in Geometry) than before they adopted it. Schools that had low enrollment in Mathematical Analysis and few, if any, AP calculus students now have fully enrolled sections of these courses. CPM students earn significantly more awards on the 120

122 California Golden State Examination than students in past years and students in the same school using traditional textbooks. Professional Development Resources and Program Costs: Teachers using the materials for the first time are required to attend 3 to 5 days of introductory workshops during the summer and 5 all-day workshops during the school year. Workshops, offered by the developers of CPM, are held in more than 15 locations throughout California and at several sites around the United States. The workshops include introductions to the CPM methodologies and course content, as well as alternative assessment, cooperative learning, questioning strategies, and classroom management skills. Based on previous experience of the developers, CPM materials are implemented most effectively when new CPM teachers work with a partner or group of colleagues in a school or district. For more detail see Middle School Science The science program is designed to use a constructive view of learning skills, sequences, and science knowledge. It is believed that we must build students own reality when introducing content. In science, effective teaching comes from relating the new experiences to what students already know, not from simply adding new knowledge to what students know. The Science Curriculum will incorporate SC State Standards for Science and National State Science Standards. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item 4. The sequence of instruction necessarily begins with misconceptions or alternate understandings that the students 121

123 have about the topic. Thus, it engages students in activities that help construct or reconstruct meaning. Science class strategies include: Encouraging students to make their ideas explicit, presenting them with events that challenge their ideas; Encouraging the process of hypothesizing, and the generation of alternative inspirations of models, enabling the students to explore these alternatives in informal and friendly ways, particularly through group discussion, and providing opportunities for students to use their new ideas in wide range of situations so that they can appreciate their utility. The GREEN Charter School s science-oriented curriculum will concentrate more on an experimental, hands-on approach to their current definition of science while increasing the abstract knowledge of science. Science is a dynamic ever-changing discipline; thus student will be encouraged to use computers and the Internet, plan and organize projects, hypothesize, analyze data, and draw conclusions from tests they will create. The major purpose of the science curriculum is to teach children to become self-reliant, independent problem-solvers, concentrated in science subjects, which are merged with life in a consistent manner with what is known about how adolescents think of them. It is designed to create a high level of interest in learning that will become personalized and individualized. The GREEN Charter School believes as a philosophy that science empowers students to understand our world and how it works. Science, therefore, is the key that opens the doors that help students discover their own unique and important gifts. The GREEN Charter School will implement Glencoe Science series and the Project NEED in science teaching. The Science curriculum will prepare students to achieve the State 122

124 Standards by incorporating a hands-on approach to learning of the central science themes: matter and energy, force and motion, earth and space, processes of life, and the scientific method. In Middle School, the science curriculum uses an inquiry approach to science to teach students science concepts. In grades 6-8 students learn life, earth and physical sciences. In sixth grade the curriculum emphasizes physical science, in seventh life science, and in 8th grade the earth-space sciences. Students will have access to science laboratory facilities to conduct science investigations. The purpose of the science courses offered is to provide students with a broad knowledge of scientific concepts. All of the science courses are designed to promote a sense of inquiry through laboratory experiences and to develop critical thinking skills. The GREEN Charter School will follow the state course descriptions for the following courses to be offered in grades 6-8. GRADE COURSE 6 Comprehensive Science I 6 Comprehensive Science I Advanced 7 Comprehensive Science II 7 Comprehensive Science II Advanced 8 Comprehensive Science III 8 Comprehensive Science III Advanced 8 Biology* * High School Credit(s) for Students in Grades 7, and 8 - Students may enroll in selected senior high school courses for the purposes of pursuing a more challenging program of study. Project NEED 123

125 Students will be introduced to the GREEN Charter School s green theme via elective science courses related to energy in addition to their core science courses. Project NEED (National Energy Education Development) curriculum and guidelines will be used. The NEED curriculum is aligned with SC standards in science ( The NEED curriculum matrix is shown in Academic Standards section above. The following curriculum materials will be used from the NEED curriculum in middle level: Intermediate (6-8) Biodiesel Current Energy Affair ElectroWorks Energy And Our Rivers Energy Around the World Energy Carnival Energy Enigma Energy Flows Energy from the Wind Energy from Uranium Energy House Energy Jeopardy Energy Math Challenge Energy of Moving Water Energy on Public Lands Energy on Stage Energy Rock Performances Energy Source Expo EnergyWorks Ethanol Exploring Energy Energy from the Sun Fossil Fuels to Products Global Trading Game Great Energy Debate (Great Energy Debate board) H2 Educate Intermediate Energy 124

126 Learning and Conserving Liquified Natural Gas: LNG Mission Possible Monitoring and Mentoring Museum of Solid Waste and Energy Mystery World Tour NEED Songbook Ocean Energy Plug Loads Saving Energy Expo Saving Energy at Home and School Schools Going Solar Science of Energy Transparent Energy Transportation Fuels Enigma Transportation Fuels Expo Transportation Fuels Debate Transportation Fuels Infobook Transportation Fuels Rock Performances Understanding Climate Change U.S. Energy Geography Wind For Schools Yesterday in Energy Middle School Social Studies The Social Studies curriculum includes the study of related knowledge and modes of inquiry selected from history, the humanities, and the social sciences, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, geography, history, law, philosophy, political science, psychology, religion, and sociology. Thematic units have been designed that integrate the various subjects and address key areas of social studies in alignment with State Standards. Character education components (respect, honesty, responsibility, self-control, tolerance, kindness, citizenship and cooperation) will be emphasized individually through thematic lessons and group projects. 125

127 Social Studies education will promote loyalty and love of country and community, and it will prepare students to participate intelligently in public affairs. Its component disciplines foster in students the knowledge and skills needed to understand current political and social issues. Social studies education will provide students with an understanding of the democratic principles and ideals upon which good citizenship is founded and an understanding of the world beyond their borders. Lessons will be designed to teach students to effectively analyze historical evidence, use sources effectively, detect potential bias in resources due to cultural influences, and argue empathetically. Thematic units will be designed that integrate the various subjects: Time, Continuity, and Change (History); People, Places, and Environments (Geography); Government and the Citizen (Civics and Government); Additionally, the GREEN Charter School will include the following Social Studies topics in the Social Studies curriculum: African-American History Requirement Holocaust Requirement Hispanic Contributions to the United States Requirement Women s Contributions to the United States Requirement Veterans Contributions Recognition Celebrate Freedom Week Instruction - shall be in accordance with district guidelines. Character Education - Instruction in the nine core character education values (The nine core values are citizenship, cooperation, fairness, honesty, integrity, kindness, pursuit of excellence, respect, and responsibility). The middle school years will broaden our students' knowledge as they learn about other places 126

128 and people in the world. They gain an understanding of the importance of the past and the conditions that have brought countries and regions to their present states today. Sixth grade Social Studies is based on the history of early world cultures from their beginnings until the 1500's. The government, geography and economies of various civilizations and time periods are integrated chronologically throughout the year as students learn about long-ago places and events. The sixth grade textbook will be Glencoe/McGraw-Hill's Human Heritage or another state adopted textbook. Seventh grade social studies will continue the study of world cultures with a focus on the changes that have occurred in Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas from 1600 to the present. Students examine the history and geography of the societies that developed concurrently during this period, including the growing interaction among these societies as well as the exchange of ideas, beliefs, technologies, and commodities. Teachers will be encouraged to use a wide variety of resources in their teaching of this content. Eighth grade Social Studies is the history of South Carolina and the United States from the earliest settlements until the beginning of the 20 th century. Government, geography and economics are integrated chronologically throughout the year. Two texts are incorporated in the curriculum, Clairmont's South Carolina: The History of an American State and Holt, Rinehart & Winston's Call to Freedom or another state adopted textbook. HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM The GREEN Charter School will have a rigorous college preparatory curriculum in the core subject areas to engage students. Since there will be a transition from middle school to high school, the students adaptation to the high school environment will be much easier. Students will 127

129 already be equipped with intense study and higher level thinking skills during this transition. The GREEN Charter School will seek to increase students knowledge base in each succeeding grade level, always moving forward and building upon the preceding acquired knowledge, to ensure the student builds capacity and is college ready and college bound, and without the need for remediation once he/she gets there. Furthermore, the GREEN Charter School curriculum will prepare all students for success in postsecondary education to ensure all students meet and/or exceed the requirements for high school graduation, including mastery of all respective state standards as evidenced by meeting or exceeding goals and objectives. The GREEN Charter School s curriculum will not ignore the students who need remediation or not making adequate progress towards mastery of the State Standards and/or students with special learning needs (e.g., ELL students and students with disabilities) designed. To serve students of all ability levels, those students will have access to supervised study time and tutoring services during non-school hours (e.g., after school, weekend studies and whenever possible, to accelerate and/or remediate student achievement). In order to meet the graduation requirements, students will be exposed to full range of academic courses. Advanced academic programs will be available through honors and Advanced Placement courses for those students who wish to pursue an advanced academic program. The GREEN Charter School will provide opportunities for Dual Enrollment Courses at institutions of higher education and/or through Virtual School to earn additional credits. All students at the GREEN Charter School will be encouraged to maximize their academic potential by taking the most rigorous program in which they can be successful. The graduation path will include opportunities to take rigorous academic courses designed to prepare students for their future academic and career choices. 128

130 To assist students and parents with this task, the GREEN Charter School will provide each student in sixth through ninth grade and their parents with information concerning high school graduation options, including the respective curriculum requirements for those options, so that students and their parents can have a program of study that best fits their needs. Four-year, 24-Credit Program for graduation for all students will be in place. This program requires students to take at least 24 credits in core content areas. Students are required to take: Subjects Units Required English/Language Arts 4.0 Mathematics 4.0 Science 3.0 U.S. History and Constitution 1.0 Economics.5 U.S. Government.5 Other Social Studies 1.0 Physical Education or Junior ROTC 1.0 Computer Science (Incl. keyboarding) 1.0 Foreign Language 2.0 Electives 6.0 TOTAL 24 As needed, remediation courses (Intensive Reading, Intensive Reading Plus, and/or Intensive Mathematics) will be offered for those students who qualify for said intensive programs as a result of not meeting grade level proficiency and/or mastering respective standards, as evidenced by their achievement scores and results on the state tests. High School Language Arts The GREEN Charter School will align its Language Art curriculum with the State and CCSS. It will provide teachers a systematic framework for literacy instruction to focus on the teaching of reading and writing throughout all areas of the curriculum, and additionally will provide core and 129

131 supplemental reading intervention programming for every child who is reading below grade level. The Language Arts program will reflect critical and creative thinking and a harmonious balance of its several components, including reading, writing, speaking, listening and viewing. Teachers will address all State Standards and CCSS for Language Arts instruction. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item 4. The GREEN Charter School will implement research-based strategies that have proven successful in teaching reading, including, but not limited, to: teaching reading for authentic meaning- making literacy experiences for pleasure to be informed and to perform a task; using high quality literature; providing explicit, systemic instruction that is purposeful and where the student is told what, why and how they are learning (explicit) and the instruction builds on their prior knowledge skills and concepts (systematic); designating an uninterrupted reading block and utilizing state-adopted textbooks and programs. The purpose of the GREEN Charter School s Language Arts program is to provide instruction and promote academic excellence in reading, writing, oral communications, and the interpretation of literature. Instruction in language arts will continuously emphasize fundamental functions of language. The content will include, but not be limited to, the study and interpretation of traditional and contemporary literature, application of the writing process, formal grammar and usage in preparation for the PSAT/NMSQT, SAT, and ACT sections of Writing and English, effective use of speaking and listening skills, higher-order reading skills in preparation for the State and other required Assessment Test, and study skills enabling success in school and beyond when entering the world of work. For students reading below grade level, remedial action will be taken and formalized assistance given, including but not limited to implementation of reading program. 130

132 Writing: As part of the Language Arts Curriculum, students will enhance writing skills through daily writing assignments in various modes, including, but not limited to, expressive, persuasive and narrative. All students at the school will be required to write across the curriculum on a daily basis. As part of the Writing program, students will respond and be instructed utilization of SAT and ACT prompts regularly, as well as emphasis in the writing process, especially in grades 11-12, will occur. Each class will be responsible for on-going writing projects, including but not limited to daily lessons, that is embedded within the thematic unit of study. Writing skills that enhance the students ability to perform well on the writing assessments. Writing will be incorporated into the curriculum and formal grammar and usage instruction will be provided, especially in preparation for PSAT, SAT, and ACT sections on Writing and English. Four years of High School English are required for graduation. Students will be placed in the appropriate English course on the basis of scores on standardized tests, past performance in classes, and teacher recommendations. Course content for these courses will be delivered in accordance with course descriptions provided by the Department of Education. Course delivery will ensure teachers cover concepts and utilize materials aligned to the State Standards and CCSS. In addition, Regular and Honors English courses will emphasize benchmarks for grades 9 and 10, and specific emphasis will be given to SAT Critical Reading and ACT Reading at grades 11 and 12. Students who are reading below grade level based on state assessments will be placed in an intensive reading class in addition to their core Language Art classes. To that end, the GREEN Charter School will follow the state course descriptions for the below listed courses with fidelity: 131

133 COURSE TITLE GRADE LEVEL CREDIT Intensive Reading English I 9 1 English I Honors 9 1 English II 10 1 English II Honors 10 1 English III 11 1 English III Honors 11 1 English IV 12 1 English IV Honors 12 1 AP English Language and Composition 11/12 1 AP English Literature 11/12 1 The GREEN Charter School will use Holt McDougal series or other State adopted textbooks for standard and AP classes. In addition, programs such as Read XL, Jamestown Reading Navigator, and Accelerated Reader (AR) will be implemented for those students reading below grade level expectations. High School Mathematics The GREEN Charter School will focus on creating a developmentally appropriate math curriculum where children are encouraged to understand the conceptual bases and quantitative analysis of mathematical relations. The GREEN Charter School believes that the logical thought processes of mathematics are necessary to the development of critical thinking. Through 132

134 exposure to the basic courses, students not only attain the computational skills needed for everyday life but also develop their ability to think clearly and to present their thoughts in a precise, well-organized fashion. The program will be flexible in that it satisfies the needs of students who are not particularly mathematically oriented, while providing the challenge and interest necessary for those who want a sound mathematical background on which to base further study. The GREEN Charter School will not jump students into large groups, but will instead provide individualized tutoring, small group work and extra practices for those students who need more time to master complex concepts. According to the National Council of Mathematics Teachers, a shift is needed from traditional paper and pencil approaches that emphasize computation and rote learning to an approach which emphasizes the child gaining mathematical insight, reasoning, and problem solving skills. The GREEN Charter School will implement the adopted sate standards as well as CCSS, as the base for instruction. The new mathematics standards are organized into familiar Bodies of Knowledge such as: Algebra; Geometry; Trigonometry; Calculus; Probability; Statistics; Discrete Mathematics; and Financial Literacy, making students college-ready at the conclusion of their High School career. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item 4. The GREEN Charter School math curriculum will use the six principles for school mathematics by National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) as a guide to when developing its program: Equity. Excellence in mathematics education requires equity high expectations and strong support for all students. Curriculum. A curriculum is more than a collection of activities: it must be coherent, focused on important mathematics, and well articulated across the grades. 133

135 Teaching. Effective mathematics teaching requires understanding what students know and need to learn and then challenging and supporting them to learn it well. Learning. Students must learn mathematics with understanding, actively building new knowledge from experience and prior knowledge. Assessment. Assessment should support the learning of important mathematics and furnish useful information to both teachers and students. Technology. Technology is essential in teaching and learning mathematics; it influences the mathematics that is taught and enhances students' learning. Proper delivery of instruction drives academic success, and when teachers know the learners, know their resources, and are aware of the strategies needed to improve student learning. Therefore, the delivery of instruction will include determining students current mathematical skills, matching instructional strategies and assessments to the objectives, and planning instruction that is appropriate and challenging to students at all levels. The GREEN Charter School will use research-based curriculum that is rigorous and standards-based. Some of the curriculum, programs, texts, and curriculum supplements the school intends to use to deliver Mathematics instruction and achieve student mastery of the standards, include: In addition to the College Preparatory Mathematics (CPM) for high school level discussed earlier; the GREEN Charter School will incorporate the state-adopted textbooks, proven effective and selected according to the content to be delivered from publishers, such as: Holt McDougal, Key Curriculum Press, Prentice Hall, Glencoe, Carnegie Learning, Inc. Bedford, Freeman and Worth Publishing Group. The GREEN Charter School s curriculum is designed to serve students of all ability levels, and therefore, students in need of remediation or not making adequate progress towards 134

136 mastery of the State Standards and/or students with special learning needs (e.g., ELL students and students with disabilities) will have access to supervised study time and tutoring services during non-school hours (e.g., after school, weekends, etc. and whenever possible, to accelerate and/or remediate student achievement). Additionally, struggling students will receive the additional time and support they need in order to be successful. The GREEN Charter School will also address the needs of advanced learners at all grade levels, via rigorous and relevant coursework offered to students, who by virtue of outstanding abilities, are capable of high performance and require differentiated educational programs beyond those normally provided by the regular school program in order to realize their contributions to self and society. Some of these options within the Mathematics branch include: Honors courses Advanced placement program Dual enrollment program Technology will also be integrated into the mathematics curriculum to enable students to explore, visualize, solve and better describe the concepts they are learning. Moreover, technology is an essential tool that will be integrated in mathematics lessons to facilitate the teaching and learning of mathematics and allow students to organize and visualize mathematics concepts. Graphing software, calculators, computers, and interactive white-boards are some of critical technology tools that will be used as part of an effective mathematics program. The following is a list of required and elective courses to be offered at the GREEN Charter School: 135

137 COURSE TITLE GRADE LEVEL CREDIT Algebra I Algebra I Honors 9 1 Geometry Geometry Honors Algebra II Algebra II Honors Advanced Topics in Mathematics Probability and Statistics with Applications Pre-Calculus AP Calculus AB Trigonometry Intensive Math High School Science The purpose of the courses offered is to provide students with a broad knowledge of scientific concepts and provide a solid foundation for students to pursue postsecondary education. All science courses are designed to promote a sense of inquiry through laboratory experiences and to develop critical thinking skills. The GREEN Charter School will develop Professional Learning Communities of science teachers to help students: Examine and explore student misconceptions and provide opportunities for students to apply concepts in the real world Explore their surroundings for evidence of cause and effect relationships 136

138 Work on hands on interactive activities and write to compare and contrast biological and environmental concepts Conduct laboratory investigations during and after school hours to increase scientific thinking. One of the ways in which students will be encouraged to build upon their knowledge and understanding of science is through the process of scientific inquiry; considerable emphasis is placed in the science curricula to engage students in this process. The Science curriculum will be aligned with the State Standards for Science and the content standards of the National Science Education Standards. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item 4. Students will be engaged in science inquiry to construct an understanding of science concepts through their own investigations and analyses. Classroom teaching strategies will emphasize active learning, both individually and in groups. Students will be introduced to problem solving, communication and reasoning through experiments, modeling, investigations and real-world applications. The instruction will include the use of manipulatives, discovery method, inquiry, higher-order thinking skills, technology, context-based problem-solving activities, cooperativelearning groups, and verbal and written communication. In addition, science teachers will incorporate at least one period of laboratory experience per week into their instruction as hands-on science learning experiences. The GREEN Charter School will have a Science Team to participate local and national competitions such as a science fair, science bowl, Science Olympiad. The GREEN Charter School will apply the graduation requirements in Science curriculum as it is implemented. The following is a list of the courses that may be offered: 137

139 COURSE TITLE GRADE LEVEL CREDIT Earth Space Science 9 1 Earth Space Science Honors 9 1 Biology Biology I Honors AP Biology Chemistry Chemistry Honors AP Chemistry Environmental Science Physical Science Anatomy and Physiology 11 1 Physics Physics Honors Anatomy and Physiology Honors Marine Science Honors Green Theme Related Electives State-adopted textbooks, proven effective and selected according to the content to be delivered from publishers, will include publishers such as Bedford, Freeman and Worth Publishing Group, Prentice Hall, Glencoe, Holt McDougal, It's About Time, Herff Jones Education Division, McGraw Hill. Students will be required to take at least 2 electives from the Green-themed courses. The Green-theme related electives will cover the following from the project NEED curriculum: Secondary (9-12) 138

140 Biodiesel Carbon Capture and Storage Current Energy Affair Energy Analysis a companion to the Energy Information Administration's Energy Perspectives Energy And Our Rivers Energy Around the World Energy Carnival Energy Conservation Contract Energy Enigma Energy Flows Energy Jeopardy Energy Math Challenge Energy on Stage Energy on Public Lands Energy Rock Performances Energy Source Expo Ethanol Exploring Climate Change and Carbon Cycle Simulation Exploring Hydroelectricity Exploring Photovoltaics Exploring Nuclear Energy Exploring Wind Energy Fossil Fuels to Products Global Trading Great Energy Debate H2 Educate Learning and Conserving Liquid Natural Gas: LNG Marine Energy Mission Possible Museum of Solid Waste and Energy Plug Loads and Plug Load Saving Energy Expo Saving Energy at Home and School School Energy Survey Schools Going Solar Secondary Science of Energy Secondary Energy Transparent Energy The Future is Today - Transportation Fuels 139

141 Thermodynamics Transportation Fuels Enigma Transportation Fuels Expo Transportation Fuels Debate Transportation Fuels Rock Performances U.S. Energy Geography Wind For Schools Yesterday in Energy High School Social Studies Social Studies education will promote loyalty and love of country and community, and it will prepare students to participate intelligently in public affairs. Its component disciplines foster in students the knowledge and skills needed to understand current political and social issues. Social studies education will provide students with an understanding of the democratic principles and ideals upon which good citizenship is founded and an understanding of the world beyond their borders. The main purpose for the Social Studies program will be to promote civic competence and ensure that the values and ideals that have shaped our democratic nation continue to be instilled in our youth. The comprehensive social studies program will: Emphasize content, concepts, and skills from the social sciences, the humanities, and, where appropriate, mathematics, and the natural sciences; Reflect a clear commitment to democratic beliefs and values; Encourage civic responsibility and active participation; Promote high expectations for all students; Incorporate a multicultural perspective; Reinforce the development of a global perspective; 140

142 Promote understanding of social, political, and economic institutions; Encourage student involvement in community service; Focus on the identification of the potential solutions to local, national, and world problems; Involve students in their learning by using a variety of teaching strategies and instructional materials; and Promote an interdisciplinary approach to learning. The Social Studies curriculum will be delivered via State Standards, State-adopted and researchbased texts, and will address all Social Studies graduation requirements as applicable. Some examples of Standards are presented in Appendix item 4. The GREEN Charter School will ensure all state mandates and standards and course content are in place as specified in the course content description provided by the State. Additionally, some of the topics in the Social Studies curriculum: - African-American History History of African peoples before the political conflicts that led to the development of slavery, the passage to America, the enslavement experience, abolition, and the contributions of African Americans to society. - Holocaust History of the Holocaust ( ), the systematic, planned annihilation of European Jews and other groups by Nazi Germany, a watershed event in the history of humanity, to be taught in a manner that leads to an investigation of human behavior, an understanding of the ramifications 141

143 of prejudice, racism, and stereotyping, and an examination of what it means to be a responsible and respectful person, for the purposes of encouraging tolerance of diversity in a pluralistic society and for nurturing and protecting democratic values and institutions.. - Hispanic Contributions to the United States - Women s Contributions to the United States - Veterans Contributions Recognition - Character Education Instruction in the nine core character education values (The nine core values are citizenship, cooperation, fairness, honesty, integrity, kindness, pursuit of excellence, respect, and responsibility). State-adopted textbooks, proven effective and selected according to the content to be delivered from publishers, will include publishers such as Bedford, Freeman and Worth Publishing Group, Prentice Hall, Glencoe, Holt McDougal Littell, McGraw Hill, Houghton Mifflin, or other state adopted textbooks as applicable Students will be required to successfully complete three credits of Social Studies in fulfillment of graduation requirements. After the completion of the core courses, the GREEN Charter School will encourage and recommend that students continue to take at least one social studies course per year, as applicable, as an elective. The following is a list of the Social Sciences courses that may be offered at the GREEN Charter School: 142

144 COURSE TITLE GRADE LEVEL CREDIT World History 9 1 World History Honors 9 1 AP World History American History 11 1 American History Honors 11 1 AP American History American Government American Government Honors AP US Government and Politics AP Comparative Government and Politics Economics Economics Honors AP Macroeconomics AP Microeconomics AP European History World Cultural Geography Latin American History Psychology I Psychology II AP Psychology The GREEN Charter School will offer variety of electives and extracurricular programs in addition to core academic areas and NEED curriculum. The followings summarize some of these electives and extracurricular programs. 143

145 TECHNOLOGY The GREEN Charter School will equip its classrooms with multi-media, high-speed computers and other hardware with high-speed internet access. In addition to technology utilized in elective courses listed below, the GREEN Charter School will utilize SMART boards, along with the purchase of document cameras, various integrated learning systems and professional development related to such systems, plus other hardware and peripherals to increase staff, teacher, parent and student access to a wide range of advanced equipment that facilitates operations, improves instruction, and encourages the use of 21 st century technology. The GREEN Charter School will adopt the National Educational Technology Standards for Students for Primary (K-2), Intermediate (3-5) and Middle Grades (6-8). The GREEN Charter School will follow these standards, and the use of technology will play a major role in the education of each student. The power of information technology has had more impact on today s world than any other recent technology. It is transforming economies and creating a demand for new skills in which imagination, knowledge, intellect and higher-order thinking are essential ingredients. The Internet and the union of information and communication technologies are changing the way we all live, work, play and, most relevantly, the way we learn. In addition to becoming a way of life, technology has particular effectiveness with all levels of learners. Enrichment and remediation are equally enhanced through the use of appropriate technological experiences and presentations. Our approach is to integrate technology throughout the curriculum and to establish at each grade a stronger foundation for future growth. To facilitate the effective use of technology at the GREEN Charter School: Regular, specific training for teachers will be conducted regarding technology integration into all aspects of the whole curriculum; 144

146 There will be networked computers with Internet access and other multimedia equipment; Technology as a specific curricular element will be implemented at the earliest point in K and spiral throughout each succeeding year with increasingly complex tasks and activities. The goal of the technology curriculum is to provide our students with the technology tools and competencies they need to become independent and effective users of technology. Primary (K - 2) level students will: Learn basic computer terms; Become familiar with computer hardware; Learn proper use and care of computer equipment; Learn beginning keyboarding skills and simple file management; Use appropriate school-wide networked programs in a computer lab or the classroom; Use multimedia programs to produce a simple product; Be exposed to websites on the Internet with teacher use to support curricular content; Be familiar with through classroom collaborations with other classes or schools; Discuss ethical/legal use of online resources; Participate in at least one class multimedia project during the year. Intermediate (3-5) level students will: Learn intermediate computer terms; Demonstrate familiarity with computer hardware; 145

147 Lear proper use and care of equipment; Learn to use computer peripherals and other multi-media hardware; Learn keyboarding skills and file management; Use appropriate school-wide networked programs in a computer lab or the classroom; Use word processing programs in a real world context to write stories, poems and type reports; Create news reports; Use multimedia-authoring programs to produce a product; Access multimedia and online resources for research; Use to collaborate with other students or classes; Demonstrate an understanding of ethical/legal conduct in using online resources; Complete at least one multimedia project per year (done in a small group, with a partner, or individually, as appropriate). Middle School students, grades 6-8, will have the opportunity to enroll in courses such as Keyboarding, Introduction to Technology and Computer Applications in accordance with the State Course Code Directory. In high school, the following is a list of technology courses that may be offered in accordance with the State Course Code Directory: Business Systems and Technology, Business Software Applications 1, Business Software Applications 2, Web Design 1, Web Design 2, Web Design 3 and Programming. Additional elective courses may be offered under this heading to address student s curricular needs. 146

148 FOREIGN LANGUAGES The GREEN Charter School recognizes that there is a growing international interdependence among nations, which demands that the United States develop citizens with a sound understanding of international and cross-cultural issues and the ability to communicate in more than one language. The GREEN Charter School intends to develop students understanding of international and cross-cultural issues as well as their ability to communicate in more than one language. Thus, the school will implement Spanish and/or another language as a foreign language program for both non-speaking and Spanish-speaking students. Foreign Language K-5: The School will focus on developing students understanding of international and cross-cultural issues as well as their ability to communicate in more than one language. Thus, the school will implement Spanish as a foreign language program for both nonspeaking and Spanish-speaking students in grades K-5. Grades 6-8: The school will implement the Spanish for Spanish Speakers course if it has a 10% or more Hispanic Population. Hispanic students will be tested for Spanish Language Level using placement tests as determined by the Sponsor. The essential content of this Spanish for Spanish Speakers course will be to reinforce and build grammar, vocabulary, comprehension and critical thinking skills that will be transferred to the English language. This course at the middle school level will significantly increase students opportunities to enroll in Spanish Advanced Placement Language and Literature courses in high school. In general, two credits of sequential foreign language instruction is required at the secondary level as a prerequisite for admission to many state colleges and universities. A student whose native language is not English is exempt of this 147

149 requirement, provided that the student demonstrates proficiency in his/her native language. High school credit will be offered to Middle School students who complete the appropriate course work. High school (9-12): The following is a list of the courses that may be offered in high school: Spanish I - (Non-Speakers), Spanish II - (Non-Speakers), Spanish for Spanish Sp I, Spanish for Spanish Sp II, Spanish for Spanish Sp III Honors, Spanish for Spanish Sp IV, AP Spanish Language and AP Spanish Literature. PHYSICAL EDUCATION The Physical Education program will consist of the minimum 150 minutes of PE per week for grades K-5, and will communicate knowledge, offer group experiences, teach the joy of effort and achievement, and build lasting recreational interests. The program will strive to be in step with the current practices and procedures in education and to contribute to the all-around development and education of students. The physical education program will follow the State Standards, including prescribed times for engagement in physical education, the course code guidelines and the National Standards for Physical Education instruction. Middle school students will take Physical Education class as for at least one semester in each grade level. The program will include many components including team sports, health education and instruction regarding appropriate dietary habits. Fitness assessments will be a regular component of these classes. All students will participate in physical education classes, and all students will be encouraged to participate in after-school athletic programs. This class may be waived for a student who meets one of the following criteria: The student is enrolled or required to enroll in a remedial course. 148

150 The student s parent indicates in writing to the school that: 1) The parent requests that the student enrolled in another course from among those courses offered as options by the school district, i.e., art, music, language, OR 2) The student is participating in physical activities outside the school day, which are equal to or in excess of the mandated requirement, i.e., afterschool sports, dance classes, physical activity as part of an afterschool program. Grades 6-8 Courses for Physical Education: Comp PE I (0.5) Sem 1 and 2 Comp PE II (0.5) Sem. 1 and 2 Comp PE III (0.5) Sem. 1 and 2 The GREEN Charter School s physical education program in high school will meet the graduation requirements. The physical education program will also expand beyond the school grounds, allowing students to experience and appreciate a wide range of physical activities outside of school, and will be structured to include opportunities for forms of self-reflection, communication, and teamwork. The following is a list of courses that may be offered at the high school level: Personal Fitness, Team Sports I, Team Sports II, Health I-Life Management Skills, and HOPE. ARTS and MUSIC Visual and performing arts will be integrated into all areas of the curriculum. Art activities will reinforce the exploration of various cultures and provide students an opportunity to explore their own cultural heritage. The GREEN Charter School will present shows and displays for parents 149

151 and community members to celebrate the rich cultural diversity of the community as expressed by the creativity and talent of the students. Often, the Arts will be integrated and used to demonstrate mastery of core subject Benchmarks. Students use of these art forms will be encouraged as means to discover, enhance and demonstrate mastery of other core subject Benchmarks. The teaching and study of the Arts will be developmentally appropriate for each student. The emphasis will be on increasing awareness and appreciation of art, their individual talents, and interest in the talents others. The Arts curriculum will also emphasize discovery of the intrinsic value of art and music through active learning. Middle school students will have the opportunity to choose a fine arts component as an elective during the regular school day. The courses that may be offered include music, art, band and chorus. In high school level, the GREEN Charter School may offer the following to meet the graduation requirements: Drama I, Drama II, Drama III, Drawing and Painting I, Drawing and Painting II, Drawing and Painting III, Art Appreciation, Chorus I, and Chorus II. EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES In addition to afterschool and/or weekend tutoring, the GREEN Charter School will offer variety of extracurricular activities to support its core curriculum. The programs will be open to all students. There will be academic, athletic, social, cultural, leadership community service, and recreation activities based on student and teacher interests. Some of the offerings may be: Academic Athletics Campus-Related 150

152 Math Olympiad Science Olympiad Science Fair Club History Fair Club Technology Club Academic Bowl Club Odyssey of the Mind Debate Club/Team National Honor Society Community Service/ Awareness/Activism Animal Club Canned Food Fundraising Environmental Boy/Girl Scouts Service Learning Club Model Union Student Government/Council Baseball Basketball Cheer/Spirit Squad Softball Soccer Volleyball Table Tennis Cultural/Artistic Arts and Crafts Photography Club Spanish Club Music Choir/Band Folk Dance Dance Club School Newspaper/Journalism Student Government/Council Yearbook 2) School Calendar and Daily Schedule The GREEN Charter School shall follow the Greenville County School District's academic calendar in the following areas: school days, snow days, testing schedule and student holidays. The GREEN Charter School assumes the School District shall follow the minimum 180 days requirement in accordance with S.C. Code Ann In case this assumption is not realized the GREEN Charter School shall add days to the end of the School District's calendar to 151

153 complete 180 days. Each day of the school shall consist of a minimum of six hours (360 min) instructional time. The school day start and end time shall be determined every year depending on such factors as the transportation means of faculty and students and instructional program needs and shall be publicized 60 days before the school's opening. Please see Appendix item 5 for sample school calendar and daily schedule. A typical elementary schedule would be as follow: Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday 8:00-8:30 Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast Breakfast Homeroom Homeroom Homeroom Homeroom Homeroom 8:30-9:30 Class Class Class Class Class 9:30-10:30 Class Class Class Class Class 10:30-11:30 Specials Specials Specials Specials Specials 11:30-12:10 L U N C H 12:10-12:25 RE C E S S 12:25-1:30 Class Class Class Class Class 1:30-2:30 Class Class Class Class Class 2:30-3:30 Specials Specials Specials Specials Specials Specials could be NEED Curriculum, PE, Media, Computer, Foreign Language, Art, Music Middle School Daily Schedule: The hours of instruction and calendar will be aligned with South Caroline State requirements regarding the number of minutes and credits required for instruction. Minimum of 6 hours of 152

154 instructional time with minimum of 30 minute lunch break will be in place daily. The following state requirements will be implemented in the middle school s instructional master schedule. Grade Language Math Science Social Electives Total Arts Studies Time Period 8:00-9:15 Homeroom First period 9:20-10:20 Second Period 10:25-11:25 Third Period 11:30-12:15 Lunch 12:20-1:20 Fourth Period 1:25-2:25 Fifth Period 2:30-3:30 Sixth period Electives can be NEED Curriculum, PE, Media, Computer, Foreign Language, Art, Music, Writing, Critical thinking, or Career research. Students who are performing below grade levels will be placed in intensive reading and math classes in addition to their core classes. High School Daily Schedule: The hours of instruction and calendar will be aligned with South Caroline State requirements regarding the number of minutes and credits required for instruction. Minimum of 6 Hours of 153

155 instructional time with minimum of 30 minute lunch break will be in place daily. The GREEN Charter School will offer all required core and elective of course offerings to meet the graduation requirements of a student. In the current graduation requirements for four-year and 24-Credit Program, students need to: Complete 14 credits in core content areas o 4 English Language Art o 4 Mathematics o 3 Science o 3 Social Science (US History and Constitution, Economics, US Government, other Social Studies) Complete 1 credit computer science Complete 1 credit in Physical Education or Junior ROTC Complete 2 credits foreign language Complete 6 elective credits High school will start about the same time as middle school. Each period will be between 45 to 60 minutes daily and there will be minimum of 6 periods a day. Each student will be scheduled based on their credit needs in order to graduate on time. 3) Strategies and Approaches The immediate focus of the GREEN Charter School is to prepare students for academic success as they further their education, to enable students to maintain a broad spectrum of options for their future endeavors, and to prepare them to be responsible and productive citizens. The 154

156 GREEN Charter School believes an educated citizen in the 21 st century must have the skills and understanding to participate and work productively in a multicultural, globally-oriented environment, including the skills required to use technology to its full potential. The GREEN Charter School believes that authentic learning and student efficacy develop best in structures that facilitate personalization and which are staffed by highly skillful teachers who care deeply about and trust each other, their students, and their families. The GREEN Charter School believes all students can learn and accomplish provided tasks. Interest in rigorous early education spans all demographic boundaries. The GREEN Charter School will seek to provide its diverse student body both an excellent and equitable education. The school's strong academic program will reduce achievement gaps by eliminating an important cause the insufficient mastery of basic knowledge and skills required for further academic achievement. The GREEN Charter School will use a variety of teaching methods to ensure mastery of appropriate skills, ideas, and knowledge for all students, regardless of race, gender, or family socioeconomic background. Founders of the GREEN Charter School, taking its roots from educational philosophers and learning theorists such as Dewey, Piaget, Vygotsky, Gardner, and Bronfenbrenner rely on evidence-based approaches and curricula for its operations. The GREEN Charter School s educational philosophy is based upon the maximum connection and continuity between school, home and the community to prepare students with strong academic and higher order skills. Continuity between home and school is facilitated through parent volunteering, communication and home visits. The connection with the community will be facilitated through collaboration with the local institutions such as universities, community colleges, and other local educational institutions. In addition to continuity between home and school and connection between 155

157 community and school, innovative instructional methods will be implemented by well-rounded teachers, administrators and staff. As a result, students will reach their maximum potential to contribute to the globalized and changing society. To this end, the GREEN Charter School adapts various principles and strategies that research has demonstrated to be effective for improving learning of students as well as providing additional opportunities for academically at risk students and academically gifted students. Curriculum-led Improvement: The curriculum-led improvement focuses on improving the quality, pattern and structure of day-by-day learning activities in the classroom to meet the best of national and international standards. Based on the recommendations by the Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education, the GREEN Charter School will have a curriculum that will 1) be designed based on what students have already learned, 2) specify what all students should know, understand, and be able to do, and 3) specify how students learning will be assessed. Technology-supported Instruction: A variety of technologies will be incorporated into instruction for a variety of goals, including: Technology for inquiry, Technology for communication, Technology for construction, and Technology for expression Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE; 1999). Designing Mathematics or Science Curriculum Programs: A Guide for Using Mathematics and Science Education Standards. Bruce, B. C., & Levin, J. A. (1997). Educational technology: Media for inquiry, communication, construction, and expression. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 17(1),

158 Assessment-Driven Instruction: Students progress will be monitored via an online Progress Monitoring System (PMS) where teachers can access and analyze students assessments results and use these results for educational and instructional planning. Cognitively-oriented Instruction: This type of instruction refers to instruction that promotes the use of metacognitive skills, such as reflecting their own thinking process, and developing effective learning strategies. This will be achieved when students are provided opportunities to solve problems, reflect on the process of task, and use critical thinking skills. Family-School-Community Partnership: Family involvement will be facilitated through classroom and school newsletters, parent-teacher conferences, regular home visits, parent volunteering, and family nights. Community partnership will be through collaboration with the local colleges, universities, and institutions by inviting professionals, visiting places of interests, and field trips. Extended Programs: Research shows that well-designed before and after school programs and extended weekend programs improve students academic skills, enhance students social and emotional well-being, and reduce rates of substance abuse, juvenile crime and vandalism. Before and after school programs and extended weekend programs (some at no-cost) will be offered. These programs will offer various activities such as homework help, tutoring, foreign language learning, sports, music and art. Snow, D. (2003). Noteworthy perspectives: Classroom strategies for helping at-risk students (rev. Ed.). Aurora, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning. 157

159 Community-centered Learning Environment will be created to help students build their confidence in themselves that they can do well, find the meaning and value in the material learned and feel that they are valued members of the learning community. ******* Small group activities and peer learning will also be used. Small Class Size: Research demonstrates that students are more engaged in learning activities and learn more when class size is smaller and teacher to child ratio will be kept lower. Specifically, the GREEN Charter School shall utilize the following instructional strategies (extensive discussion included in Appendix item 18) to enable students to accomplish the curriculum standards where appropriate: Science Inquiry Model Exemplary Computer-enhanced Support The Project-Based Instruction Contextual Learning (Real-life Context) Direct Instruction Higher Order Thinking Self-Directed Learning Supporting and Stimulating Student Comprehension Energy, power, and sustainability as treads that connects many disciplines Flow charts that connect all the major disciplines and connect knowledge and power to effective action, achievement, and fulfillment Part/whole integration of the curriculum to increase value and motivation ******* Davis, B. G. Motivating Students

160 Curriculum materials developed by the National Energy Education Development (NEED) Project will be the primary curriculum support source for science and sustainability subjects and the related classroom activities. 4) Curriculum Innovation The innovation of the GREEN Charter School will be use of exemplary curriculum delivered through a variety of proven instructional methods, while setting high academic expectations for all students and providing them with the means to reach their goals. The core curriculum will incorporate and be aligned with the South Caroline State Standards and will provide rigorous core courses customized to meet specific students needs. In addition, the GREEN Charter School s Green theme will be introduced across the grade levels utilizing NEED curriculum. Innovative instructional design that includes proven programs that work for all students including at risk as well as academically gifted students. In addition to proven successful programs, the GREEN Charter School staff will utilize current best practices in their teaching to improve student learning in all areas. The following list is not exhaustive and serves as a sampling of the instructional methods and strategies that will be utilized by the school faculty: Exemplary Computer-Enhanced Support Project-Based Instruction Interdisciplinary Learning Alternative Assessments Contextual Learning Direct Instruction Higher Order Thinking 159

161 Scientific Reasoning Skills Inquiry-Based Curriculum Integrating Science With Non-Science Curricula Language-Based Approach Multi-Sensory Approach To Learning Multiple Intelligence Data-Driven Supporting and Stimulating Student Comprehension Improving Motivation Encouraging Family Involvement/Home visits After school extracurricular activities/tutoring The following items will help school indirectly implementing innovative methods; School uniform as part of very successful discipline system, which creates an environment conducive to learning. Subject teachers in/after 4th Grade: The elementary school will have two parts. In the lower grades (Grades Kindergarten thru 3), the instruction will be carried out by classroom teachers. Students in upper grades (grades 4 and 5) will receive specialized subject teachers in Reading, Math and Science. College bound program in high school with AP classes and dual enrollment opportunities Option for Parents: With the approval of the charter proposal, a charter school cluster will be available for the communities; GREEN Elementary, Middle and High. These three components will share experience and know-how via a strong network comprised of 160

162 principals, administrators, teachers, parents, and students. All three components will combine their efforts to achieve their goals with the highest expectations, to best serve the local needs of their population. Small student-teacher ratio Home visits to close the gap between parent/students/teacher/administration Online student tracking system for parents to monitor student behavior and academic progress. 5) High School Diploma The GREEN Charter School adopts the following uniform grading scale: A= , B = 85-92, C = 77-84, D = 70-76, and below 70 = F. The grades shall be reported numerically in the report cards and the transcripts. At the middle school level, a letter grade of C or above in the yearly average (average of two semesters grades rounded to the nearest integer) shall be required for students to pass a course. In order to promote to the next grade level middle school students shall be required to pass all of the core courses and maintain a passing average grade in the exploratory segments. At the high school level, state core courses will be offered and students will be expected to graduate by completing the graduation requirements described below. In addition to the core courses, Advance Placement (AP) courses will be offered as early as the 10 th grade. The catalog of the courses that will be opened every year will depend on students' academic profile and their requests based on their previous academic fulfillment of the pre-requisites. Master schedules may be modified every year to meet students' course requests. The content standards of the 161

163 course offerings shall meet or exceed the aforementioned State Standards in respective high school courses. At the high school level, a final grade of C or above shall be required for a successful completion of a course. Students may make up their work within the Summer School program as any other School District student by paying respective tuitions, or the GREEN Charter School may decide to offer selected courses during the summer on a need basis to supplement or expand the School District's summer school program. The GREEN Charter School shall offer a South Carolina High School diploma with College Prep designation. Course requirements are modified as follows in order to align them with the GREEN Charter School's mission. Subjects Units Required English/Language Arts 4.0 Mathematics 4.0 Science 3.0 U.S. History and Constitution 1.0 Economics.5 U.S. Government.5 Other Social Studies 1.0 Physical Education or Junior ROTC 1.0 Computer Science (Incl. keyboarding) 1.0 Foreign Language 2.0 Electives 6.0 TOTAL 24 The total number of units required remains the same. The differences are as follows: One additional Science course will be required as an elective in all four years as opposed to three years of high school program. Foreign Language will be required at least two years. 162

164 Courses in the areas of Science, Math, English, Social Studies, and Foreign Language will be offered with the same course numbers and with the minimum content standards of the South Carolina Public Charter School District to make for smooth transitions in and out of the GREEN Charter School. This will also ease the State reporting process. A sample of course offerings is listed in above sections. Changes to this list may be made at the discretion of the GREEN Charter School Administration to better meet student needs from year to year. However, courses in the areas of Science, Math, English, and Social Studies that are required for a continuously enrolled student's graduation are guaranteed to be opened every year. The primary appeal of the GREEN Charter School will be its emphasis on renewable energy, environment, and science subjects as directed by the GREEN Charter School's Mission. In addition to the instructional strategies that will be effectively employed by the GREEN Charter School teaching staff, students will have a chance to participate in school-wide, local, national, and international science competitions or events such as Intel's Talent Search, Science Olympiads, and Olympiads in respective subjects such as Biology Olympiads. There will be clubs and extracurricular activities designed every school year and each student will be encouraged to participate in at least one of these teams. Elective courses that are consistent with the school s mission and purposes, yet may not be available in most high schools, will be designed and offered by the school. Exact course offerings for these electives may change from year to year depending on the demand and the expertise of the teaching staff. Some examples would be Organic Chemistry, Aerodynamics, or Thermodynamics. Field trips that will elevate the interest of the students to sustainability events will be utilized. An example would be a trip to one 163

165 of the National Space Centers or State Botanical Centers. Specific report rubrics that will be provided in advance of these trips will help guide students to discover scientific facts themselves. Student research groups will be formed to find and attend the various research opportunities at the universities across the nation. These and other similar type of activities may be funded from grants and/or fundraisers. The GREEN Charter School funds may be used depending on availability to supplement the funds upon approval of the GREEN Charter School's Governing Board. A semester long course is defined as 0.5 unit and a yearlong course is therefore a 1.0 unit. One Carnegie unit shall require at least 120 hours of seat time. A passing grade on the End of Course Examination shall be required to earn a credit as it is required by the State in specific courses. In addition to the completion of these Carnegie Units students shall have to pass the High School Exit Exam, i.e., the new High School Assessment Program Test as part of the graduation requirements. The HSAP assesses selected South Carolina academic standards in English language arts and mathematics that students have had opportunity to learn by the end of the tenth grade. Every student must pass the HSAP to graduate from high school unless they meet the qualifications for alternative assessment. The End-of-Course Examination Program (EOCEP) provides tests in high school core courses and for courses taken in middle school for high school credit. The EOCEP tests currently in the following subject areas: Algebra 1/Math for the Technologies 2; English 1; US History and the Constitution; and Biology 1/Applied Biology

166 In general, a graduation plan describing the courses and credits will be written for each entering 9 th grade students. Deviations from this plan may be made in consultation with the GREEN Charter School's guidance office. The details of the requirements for graduation are placed at 6) Explain how the school will comply with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act of 2004, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act. The GREEN Charter School will fully comply with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Students with disabilities who attend the GREEN Charter School will be served in the same manner as in other similar public schools in South Carolina. The GREEN Charter School is also responsible for the provision of a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) under the requirements of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and Section 504 in the same manner as it provides for students in other schools in the district. Students with disabilities who attend the charter school will receive the same level of high quality services and support similar to other district schools. The charter school shall abide by the provision of a Free and Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) under the requirements of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act and Section 504 in the same manner as it provides for students in other schools in the district. 165

167 - Procedure for identifying students with special needs, developing IEP s, and providing related and transition services. Students with special needs, including students eligible under Section 504, will be identified according to the South Carolina Department of Education, and South Carolina Public Charter School District s (SCPCSD) regulations and recommended procedures. Students will be provided with a full range of services and placements to fulfill the special education requirements identified for students with disabilities. An Individualized Education Program (IEP) will be developed in accordance with IDEA for each student who is found to be eligible for services under IDEA. The IEP team will be responsible for the development of Individualized Education Plans. Further, the IEP team will determine appropriate services to be provided for students to include transition services, assistive technology services, and related supports. - Implementation of special education requirements, including the full range of services and placement that will be made available to those students. The student s IEP will reflect all the elements required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, and by the SCPCSD. The GREEN Charter School will comply with all federal and state laws regarding accommodations for students with impairments and will not discriminate against individuals who are believed to be handicapped or who were handicapped at one time. The school will adhere to the criteria for eligibility, reporting, and official records for accommodations in Section 504. The GREEN Charter School staff will receive professional development on an on-going basis to 166

168 assure that students who may qualify are identified in a timely manner and instructional delivery as well as other interactions is conducted appropriately and effectively. - Implementation of transition services and assistive technology needs that will be addressed. The Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) will outline how the GREEN Charter School will provide Section 504 and Special Education Services and how those services will be provided. Transition services and assistive technology needs will be provided through contracted services with state and private contractors. The Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) is a legally binding document created to ensure that quality services for special needs students at the GREEN Charter School are provided. The South Carolina Public Charter School District, the sponsoring district, will ensure that a seamless provision for support and services exists. The MOA specifically details how the entities will work cooperatively to ensure that students with disabilities receive appropriate accommodations, modifications, and services. b. Student Assessment i. Student Achievement and Progress Evaluation Students will obtain, comprehend, analyze, communicate, apply, synthesize and evaluate the knowledge and skills in all core disciplines, particularly in science and mathematics, to achieve success in school. Research indicates that continuous progress monitoring significantly increases the performance of students. Progress monitoring is particularly beneficial if it is linked to instructional decisions. Thus, academic progress in the core disciplines will be monitored 167

169 throughout the year through various assessment tools. The data will be stored in an online progress monitoring system (PMS) and will be used to guide the instruction. Students performance levels will be targeted to meet or exceed the standards defined by South Carolina Standards. Overall, our goal is that at the end of academic year or a course, all students regardless of race, poverty, language or disability will be equipped with the knowledge and skills needed to be successful in school, college and life. The GREEN Charter School curriculum is designed to effectively align the South Carolina academic standards and our experiential learning philosophy. By committing to a small school with small class sizes, the GREEN Charter School will set the stage for student achievement. Students will actively engage in meaningful and innovative learning experiences in a setting that personalizes instruction and maximizes learning opportunities. Student progress and performance information will be systematically collected and analyzed to monitor all aspects of the organizational and instructional effectiveness at the student, classroom, and school levels. The GREEN Charter School will determine whether all students attain the academic standards through various assessment measures, including but not limited to: o Student Self-Assessment: Students set goals and track progress with teacher assistance. Students reflect on their learning experiences to become more meta-cognitively aware of their individual learning process. o Pre-testing: Pre-tests assist the teacher in identifying what students know and provide benchmark data. o Evidence Based Rubrics: A tool developed by instructors, often with the help of students, helps assess student performance. It lists the dimensions or tasks of the performance to be assessed, and the specific criteria used to evaluate each dimension. It is 168

170 different from a simple checklist because it also describes gradations of quality for each dimension of the performance to be evaluated. By describing what each criterion looks like at various degrees of qualities, the instructor not only creates a framework for fair, objective grading, but also conveys expectations to the students. o Measures of Academic Progress (MAP): As an adaptive test MAP assesses students in math, reading, and writing for grades 2-8. MAP can be used as a diagnostic, formative, and summative assessment measure. o Learning Profiles: A profile for each student will be created to determine what each child knows and how they learn best. It will be constructed based on a variety of research-based assessments such as learning style inventories, Measures of Academic Progress results, community and family reflections, student records, and teacher observations. It will allow teachers to assess and identify students readiness, interests, and preparation to meet challenges that may lie ahead. o Teacher Observations, Checklists, and Anecdotal Records: They will provide data and insight into student learning processes. o Curriculum Related Tests or Post Tests: Traditional classroom tests such as multiple choice, short written responses, and essays will be an integral part of this assessment tool. These tests will be tied to the academic standards where applicable. o Performance-Based Assessments: A measure based on authentic tasks where students demonstrate their use of knowledge and skills. o Multi-media Portfolios: This tool will highlight authentic learning experiences, demonstrate students growth and competencies, and involve the teacher, the student, and parents in the assessment process. Multi-media portfolios can include writing samples, 169

171 artwork, audio files, video clips, goal setting, self and teacher assessments, as well as many other processes and products. o Standardized Measures: The South Carolina State Tests such as PASS (Palmetto Assessment of State Standards), HSAP (High School Assessment Program), EOCEP (End-of-Course Examination Program) Other methods that the GREEN Charter School will use, such as semi-annual parent/teacher conferences, curriculum nights that showcase student learning, portfolio exhibitions, school and classroom newsletters, weekly folders for the younger grades, and teacher evaluations, will support families and teachers in identifying areas of student success and weakness in order to effectively modify classroom practice and improve the instructional program. The GREEN Charter School shall employ a data driven assessment and improvement plan as suggested by National Study of School Evaluation. A data driven improvement plan requires that accurate data regarding the student achievement be collected, analyzed, and appropriate intervention techniques be developed. Part of the data shall come from the state required testing programs. The GREEN Charter School shall participate in all applicable state assessment programs such as: Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) for grades 3-8, PSAT / NMSTQ for grades 9-10 ReadiStep for grades 7th and 8th (the first step on the College Board s College Readiness Pathway) End of Course Examination Program (EOCEP) for the courses identified by the South Carolina Department of Education, and 170

172 High School Assessment Program (HSAP) Exit Examinations for High School graduation. In addition to these mandated assessment programs the GREEN Charter School shall administer Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS) grades 6 through 8 for Reading, Math, Language, and Science. The table below outlines major assessments to be carried out during each grade: GRADE Kindergarten First Grade STAGE OF ASSESSMENT Diagnostic Formative Summative Diagnostic Formative CLASSROOM/STANDARDIZED ASSESSMENT Pre-testing/MAP/DAR/TEAM Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles Pre-testing/MAP/DAR/TEAM Student Self-Assessment Evidence-based rubrics Teacher observations, checklists, and anecdotal records Evidence-based assessments Student portfolio MAP/DAR/TEAM Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Pre-testing/MAP/ DAR/TEAM Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles Pre-testing/MAP/DAR/TEAM 171

173 Student Self-Assessment Evidence-based rubrics Evidence-based assessments Teacher observations, checklists, and anecdotal records Student portfolio MAP/DAR/TEAM Student Self-Assessment Summative Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Pre-testing/MAP/DAR/TEAM Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Second grade Formative Summative Learning Profiles Pre-testing/MAP/DAR/TEAM Student Self-Assessment Evidence-based rubrics Evidence-based assessments Teacher observations, checklists, and anecdotal records Student portfolio MAP/DAR/TEAM Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Third Grade Diagnostic Pre-testing/MAP 172

174 Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles Pre-testing/MAP Student Self-Assessment Formative Evidence-based rubrics Evidence-based assessments Teacher observations, checklists, and anecdotal records Student portfolio MAP Student Self-Assessment Summative Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Standardized Tests, including PASS Pre-testing/MAP Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Fourth Grade Formative Summative Learning Profiles MAP Student Self-Assessment Evidence-based rubrics Evidence-based assessments Teacher observations, checklists, and anecdotal records Student portfolio MAP Student Self-Assessment 173

175 Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Standardized tests, including PASS Pre-Testing/MAP Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles Pre-testing/MAP Student Self-Assessment Formative Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics Fifth Grade Student Portfolio Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Summative Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Standardized Tests, including PASS Pre-Testing/MAP Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles Sixth Grade MAP Formative Student Self-Assessment Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics 174

176 Student Portfolio Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Summative Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Standardized Tests, including PASS Pre-Testing/MAP Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Seventh Grade Eight Grade Formative Summative Diagnostic Learning Profiles Pre-testing/MAP Student Self-Assessment Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics Student Portfolio Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Standardized Tests, including PASS Pre-Testing/MAP Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles 175

177 MAP Student Self-Assessment Formative Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics Student Portfolio Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Summative Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Standardized Tests, including PASS End of Course (for High School Courses, i.e. Algebra I) Pre-Testing/MAP Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Ninth Grade Formative Summative Learning Profiles MAP Student Self-Assessment Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics Student Portfolio Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Curriculum related tests 176

178 Evidence-based assessments PSAT/NMSTQ Standardized Tests, including HSAP End of Course exams (EOCEP) Pre-Testing/MAP Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles MAP Student Self-Assessment Formative Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics Student Portfolio Tenth Grade Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Summative Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments Eleventh Grade Diagnostic Formative PSAT/NMSTQ Standardized Tests, including HSAP End of Course exams (EOCEP) Pre-Testing/MAP Student Self-Assessment Learning Profiles MAP Student Self-Assessment 177

179 Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics Student Portfolio Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Summative Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments SAT/ACT Standardized Tests, including HSAP End of Course exams (EOCEP) Pre-Testing/MAP Diagnostic Student Self-Assessment Twelfth Grade Formative Summative Learning Profiles MAP Student Self-Assessment Teacher observation, questioning, interviewing Evidence-based rubrics Student Portfolio Evidence-based assessments MAP Student Self-Assessment Student portfolio Curriculum related tests Evidence-based assessments 178

180 SAT/ACT Standardized Tests, including HSAP End of Course exams (EOCEP) Part of the assessment data shall come from student, parent and teacher surveys in regard to the school's performance of its mission. Yet, another part of the data shall be obtained by analyzing students past academic records and special characteristics of student demographics that may have an impact on the achievement of academic standards such as socio-economic status, disability and school attendance. The data thus gathered shall be analyzed by the GREEN Charter School academic improvement committee which shall have representations from general education teachers, special education teachers, parents and administration. Parents may be excluded from the committee if student privacy is a concern. The decision to exclude parents shall be made by the GREEN Charter School administration by considering the number of students in different subgroups, the type of data analyzed, and the educational and legal risks of infringement of privacy of the data. Based on the analysis of the data the school shall create an improvement plan that shall include specific performance goals of the GREEN Charter School for that year. In addition to performance goals stated in Goals and Objectives section, the following overarching performance goals shall guide the determination of the specific performance goals of any year: 1. The GREEN Charter School shall meet or exceed the expectation of adequate yearly progress as established in the No Child Left Behind law every year. 179

181 2. The GREEN Charter School's absolute rating shall be at least 10 percent higher than Greenville County schools' absolute ratings with similar populations. 3. The GREEN Charter School's improvement rating shall be at the top 25 percent of the schools' improvement ratings with similar populations. 4. The GREEN Charter School's High School graduation rate shall be statistically and significantly higher than that of a non-charter public high school in the School District with similar populations. 5. The GREEN Charter School's number of awards per student figured in local, statewide, national, and international contests related to science subjects of the GREEN Charter School shall be at the top 25 percent of the School District. 6. College admission rates for the schools' graduates shall be in the top 25 percent in the School District with similar populations. 7. The GREEN Charter School's middle school students in general education setting shall pass the science courses at every grade level at a percentage of 75% or higher at every year of the school's operation. The GREEN Charter School's internal goal shall be 100% passing rate. 8. The GREEN Charter School's students shall participate, %100, in the School Science Fair as part of their science study at every grade. 9. The GREEN Charter's School's high school students' participation rate in the Advanced Placement (AP) program in science subjects shall be higher than that of the School District. The GREEN Charter School's internal goal shall be 100% passing rate. 180

182 10. The GREEN Charter School's high school students who participate in the AP program in science subjects shall have higher scores in average than that of the School District. The GREEN Charter School's internal goal shall be 100% passing rate. 11. The GREEN Charter School's high school students shall score higher in average in the High School Assessment Program (HSAP) and End of Course Examination Program (EOCEP) in core subjects, specifically in science related, than that of the School District. 12. The GREEN Charter School's middle school students shall score higher in average in the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) in the content area of core subjects, specifically in science, than that of the School District. The federal No Child Left Behind Act calls for ALL students in the U.S. to be at the proficient level or above on state tests by In addition, Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) status for elementary and middle schools includes student attendance, and AYP status for high schools includes graduation rate. Test Requirements In South Carolina, ALL demographic student subgroups must continue to improve on the Palmetto Assessment of State Standards (PASS) and the High School Assessment Program (HSAP) Exit Exam each year until The student subgroups are as follows: All, White, African-American, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaskan, Limited English Proficiency, Disabled, and Free-Reduced Price Lunch Participants. Percentage of Students Required to Score at the Proficient Level: 181

183 Elementary and Middle Schools Met or Exemplary on PASS Grades Reading 79.4% 100% Mathematics 79.0% 100% High Schools Level 3 or 4 on HSAP (High School Exit Exam) 10th Grade & Other 2nd Year HS Students English/Language Arts 90.3% 100% Mathematics 90.0% 100% For AYP performance objectives to be measured, a school must have 40 or more students in each subgroup. For AYP percentage tested objectives to be calculated, each subgroup must have 40 or more students. If just one student subgroup fails to meet one of the performance or percentage tested objectives in a given year, that school fails to meet AYP for that year. AYP status will be noted on the School Report Card as MET or NOT MET. Attendance and Graduation Requirements Elementary and middle schools must achieve a 94.0% student attendance rate or have a higher attendance rate than previous year to meet AYP requirements. High schools must annually achieve an 88.3% student graduation rate, meet or exceed last year s graduation rate, or meet or exceed its three-year average graduation rate. 182

184 ii. Performance Goals Timeline The GREEN Charter School will have baseline data for all students no later than 30 school days after the first day of the school. The GREEN Charter School will gather students previous test scores in the core subject areas from previous schools. For students where these data are not available, the GREEN Charter School will administer a criterion-referenced valid and reliable pre-assessment that shall provide a baseline for that subject. There are different assessments available for different grade levels and subjects. The GREEN Charter School administration shall determine these assessment instruments based on scoring schedule, appropriateness for the purpose of establishing a baseline, and the cost. The GREEN Charter School shall publish the improvement plan for public access and submit a copy to the South Carolina Public Charter School District. The plan shall include the baseline data in every grade level in every core subject and the performance goals to be achieved at the end of the year. The improvement plan shall be published on the 45 th day of the school year at the latest. In order to meet or exceed the South Carolina Public Charter School District's achievement goals, the overarching goals described in the preceding section, the adequate yearly progress as established by the NCLB law, and the specific performance goals of the improvement plan for the year shall be determined based on: The scale of the difference between the baseline and the basic achievement level that must be attained, and The type of intervention needed and length of time necessary to complete the intervention. 183

185 At the end of the school year or when the state testing program results are received, whichever is earlier, the GREEN Charter School shall publish the results and inform the parents, the School District, and the South Carolina Department of Education. The following timeline projects the progress that the GREEN Charter School shall demonstrate in order to meet the overarching goals i.e., long-term goals. A Yes means that the goal is applicable at that year and shall be used to evaluate the GREEN Charter School's performance. Status 1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year 4th Year 5th Year 1st Goal n/a Yes Yes Yes Yes 2nd Goal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 3rd Goal n/a Yes Yes Yes Yes 4th Goal n/a n/a Yes Yes Yes 5th Goal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 6th Goal n/a n/a Yes Yes Yes 7th Goal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 8th Goal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 9th Goal n/a Yes Yes Yes Yes 10th Goal n/a Yes Yes Yes Yes 11th Goal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes 12th Goal Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes In case the GREEN Charter School does not meet one or more of these goals, the GREEN Charter School will take necessary steps as described in the following section to improve and meet the expectations as early as two years after the diagnosis of the need for improvement. In the first year after the diagnosis the GREEN Charter School shall meet at least 50% of the addressed goals; in the second year after the diagnosis the GREEN Charter School shall meet all of those goals. iii. Academic Assistance 184

186 At any year of the school's operation, the GREEN Charter School administration shall create an assistance plan for those students who did not meet the expectations that are described in the previous section, including but not limited to the following: Meeting with parents and discussing the results, and informing the parents how they can help to achieve the standards. Providing extra instruction time to those students during or outside the regular school day or calendar, such as in the summer or weekends. Providing extra learning resources to take home with the students for self-study. Offering intensive math and reading classes for those who do not perform at acceptable levels of proficiency in the statewide assessment program in addition to the core classes. Monitoring progress more frequently in order to ensure closing of the achievement gap. With these and other appropriate intervention techniques any deficiency that may have been reported in the school's report regarding the overarching goals shall be rectified the next year at least with a percentage of 50%. After two years of intervention the initial deficiency shall be totally removed from the GREEN Charter School's report. These goals shall be applied only for those students who were enrolled at the GREEN Charter School at least 75% of the school calendar in order to gain an impact by the GREEN Charter School's intervention and assistance programs. In all public reports privacy concerns shall be addressed appropriately. Specifically, any subgroup data with 10 or fewer students shall not be publicized, but this section shall still apply for the purposes of accountability and the subgroup data regarding achievement of performance goals shall be provided to the School District and the South Carolina Department of Education. 185

187 iv. Evidence of increased student academic achievement for all groups of students described in Section 1111(b)(2)(C)(v) of the ESEA. The GREEN Charter School is aware that increases in student academic achievement for all students described in ESEA is the most important factor when determining to renew or revoke a school s charter. The GREEN Charter School s major goal is to increase academic achievement for all students. 3. OPERATIONAL PLAN a. Budget and Accounting System The crucial point in achieving a sound budget for the GREEN Charter School relies on a sound estimate of the enrolled student population since this is the major revenue source for the operations of the GREEN Charter School. There are two main reasons that we believe we can achieve the projected enrollment figures. The first reason is that we shall accept students from K thru 12 grades, initially K-6 grades. This helps distribute the risks across grades in a reasonable way in the first year. The second reason is that Greenville County is an ever growing area with increasing number of student population. Greenville County official documents indicate this growth as part of their Facts Page. 5 As a choice school the GREEN Charter School shall most likely be attractive to some of this population as a small sized, focused, and self-governed public 186

188 school as indicated by the received strong public support for the GREEN Charter School in response to a limited budget advertisement program. The GREEN Charter School is anticipated to serve 260 students in the first year. At every year the GREEN Charter School expects to have 10% of its students eligible for funding from the Learning Disabilities (LD) category of Education Finance Act. Also 2% of the population is expected to be eligible for Speech Handicapped (SP) funding. It is anticipated that these funds shall be divided into 12 monthly payments for the year. Various proportionate, equitable shares of federal funds such as Title I, Title II, IDEA, Drug Free Schools shall be accessed by the GREEN Charter School in addition to special state funds from Education Improvement Act (EIA) and the Education Accountability Act (EAA) lottery funds. Since there is no one consistent formula for the allocation of these funds for charter schools, this allocation method varies based on the source of funds. The processes, requirements, and criteria for involvement in these projects and special revenue funds shall be discussed by the district and GREEN Charter School representatives at suitable times in the school year. The GREEN Charter School shall complete all requirements and participate in these funding projects. Although all possible funding sources shall be utilized to the maximum possible extend, the developed budget does not rely initially on these possible funds. Based on a forecasted student to teacher ratio, first year it is planned to employ 14 teachers in our school. The number of teachers shall be 16, 18, 20, and 22 in the consecutive years. In the first three years, a principal and an assistant principal will serve at the GREEN Charter School. Beginning in the fourth year a second assistant principal will be hired. The expenses related to the occupancy of the facilities are tabulated in gross lease terms, where the figure includes rent, insurance, utilities, maintenance, and property tax. It is expected that with a 187

189 five-year or longer lease terms the GREEN Charter School shall have the leverage to sign a contract that includes renovation costs disbursed into the term of the lease that takes into account the first year's low number of students. The budget indicates high numbers of capital outlay, staff development, and supplies and materials. These figures are much higher than necessary standard per-pupil allocations. In a contingency scenario where the projected enrollment numbers are not met, the budget easily lends itself to be tailored accordingly. Therefore, we believe that our budget is flexible enough to meet the financial risks involved with starting the GREEN Charter School even in the worst case scenario. i. Annual Budget The budget for each year of the term of this charter can be found in the Appendix item 7. 1) Revenues Revenue account codes are in accordance with the South Carolina Department of Education Financial Accounting Handbook for South Carolina School Districts. State Department of Education has provided us with the estimated Charter School revenues in accordance with the allocations in S.C. Code Ann (A)-(C). A copy of this letter is provided in Appendix item 7. The budget does not include any Charter School Planning and Implementation Grant (CSP). However, the GREEN Charter School will apply for the CSP grant and most likely will receive if this charter is approved because the grant application states that the second phase of the application is contingent upon the approval of the charter and non-profit status (Appendix 188

190 item 9). The additional parts of the grant that are contingent upon the availability of funds are not used in the budget calculations. These grant monies shall be disbursed in accordance with the regulations, i.e., mainly for the acquisition of equipment, educational materials, supplies and acquisition or development of curriculum materials. 2) Expenditures Expenditure account codes are in accordance with the South Carolina Department of Education Financial Accounting Handbook for South Carolina School Districts. Expected expenditures for implementation and continued operations are provided in the budget spreadsheet in Appendix item 7 using the same budget codes that are required of School Districts. 3) Budget and Account Management A professional accountant firm or person who is qualified for managing the initial and operating budget shall be hired for budget and accounting management. The GREEN Charter School shall adhere to the accounting procedures and requirements that are applied to public schools operating in South Carolina. ii. Annual Audit An independent audit of the GREEN Charter School's finances shall be conducted annually by an independent auditor retained by the GREEN Charter School Committee. The audit shall meet requirements set forth in statute and agreed to with the South Carolina Public Charter School District. The GREEN Charter School shall adhere to the auditing and reporting procedures and requirements that are applied to public schools operating in South Carolina. Auditing and 189

191 reporting requirements shall be in compliance with the principles set forth in the following publications, published annually by the Office of District Auditing and Field Services: Single Audit Guide, Financial Accounting Handbook, and Funding Manual. iii. Pupil Accounting System The GREEN Charter School shall adhere to the same procedures and regulations that are applied to public schools operating in South Carolina and the school district. The pupil accounting system shall comply with the principles included in the South Carolina Pupil Accounting Manual and the South Carolina Student Accountability Manual, published by the South Carolina Department of Education. This shall be achieved by using state supplied/district supported PowerSchool software, whichever recommended by the State or District, that shall be installed by the School District as they set for the School District Charter School Handbook. As described in the handbook a technical representative shall attend the PowerSchool trainings and whose responsibility shall be to achieve an error-free extract that shall be sent to the South Carolina Department of Educational the scheduled report times. This position is not an independent position and shall be a shared responsibility of a qualified employee of GCSA. iv. Negotiated Services Documentation There is no negotiated service agreement between the GREEN Charter School and the School District or other vendor or agencies at this time except the initial SASI installation and bi-annual special education audits. The School District Charter School Handbook indicates that these two 190

192 services shall be free of charge. The State and district will be informed of any negotiated services if any. b. Governance and Operation i. NonProfit Corporation Status The GREEN Charter School will be a public charter school founded and operated by Governing Board of Greenville Renewable Energy Education Charter School, a non-profit corporation pursuant to applicable South Carolina laws on non-profit organizations and in accordance with the by-laws duly adopted by the incorporators. The non-profit corporation will preserve its nonprofit status regardless of the status of the charter school. Copies of the required documents of non-profit corporation status, Articles of Incorporation, and bylaws are presented in Appendix item 9, respectively. ii. Governing Board The Governing Board shall be elected every three years by full time employees of the GREEN Charter School and all parents/guardians of enrolled students. The parents/guardians shall have one vote for each student enrolled in the school at the time of elections. The first election shall be held in December 2013 allowing enough time for a new school to settle down and work out the initial kinks in the operations of the school. Until that time the school shall be governed by the Charter School Committee. Thereafter an annual election shall be held in the first 60 days of the school opening. 191

193 The Governing Board shall consist of 5 members and its main function shall be policy making, adopting, amending or rejecting the recommended administrative decisions, and acting as a hearing body for the school's employees, students, and parents in matters that are not resolved satisfactorily by the administrative team. The governing board's decisions are binding for each party involved in a hearing unless otherwise provided in this application. The Governing Board will be the sole policy making body for the GREEN Charter school. Each board member will take on proactive roles in specific areas that reflect his/her areas of expertise. Officers of the Board shall include a President, Vice President, and Secretary. The Board will have a minimum of three members at all times and any one officer may fulfill the duties of a second office, such as Vice President will act as treasurer with the exception of the President. The President may only serve as the Chair and may not simultaneously hold another office on the Board. The Governing Board shall be responsible for hiring, evaluating and terminating the Director. The Board shall be responsible for final approval of employment of persons recommended by the Director. The Board shall establish salaries and benefits to facilitate the Mission and Vision of the School and the Board shall annually adopt a budget that provides sufficient resources and control of costs to foster the mission and objectives of the school. The Board shall also be responsible for naming an auditor selection committee and procuring an auditor via the guidelines set forth by the State of South Carolina. The Governing Board assumes the following responsibilities through delegation to the Director where allowed by law: Employing and contracting with teachers and nonteaching employees; Ensuring that teachers, whether certified or noncertified, undergo the background checks and other investigations required for certified teachers, as provided by law, before they may teach in the GREEN Charter School; 192

194 Contracting for other services; Developing pay scales, performance criteria, and discharging policies for its employees; Deciding all other matters related to the operation of the GREEN Charter School, including budgeting, curriculum, and operating procedures; and Ensuring that the GREEN Charter School shall adhere to the same health, safety, civil rights, and disability rights requirements as are applied to all public schools operating in the same School District. Key Responsibilities of the Board: Governing board will ensure that the school s operations continue to focus on serving its students and achieving the academic performance goals of its charter. While many decisions can be delegated to the school s management, the board has final say in all policy, financial and operational decisions and for setting the overall direction of the school. Therefore, the charter school board is one of the most critical elements in the school s success. The primary responsibilities of the board include: Provide oversight functions. The board s ability to remain objective, and not be directly involved in the school s operational activities, is critical to its effectiveness in guiding the charter school. Promote the charter school's mission. The board should be comprised of individuals who support and promote the charter school's mission and educational philosophy. Lead planning and policymaking. The board must initiate the strategic planning process and develop policies and procedures consistent with the education laws of State of South Carolina. 193

195 Raise funds. Board members should be proactive in building a group of private and business financial supporters who regularly donate money to the school and provide other resources to help implement the school s educational program. Achieve charter requirements. The board is responsible for ensuring that school s programs and operation comply with the terms of its charter, and whether the GREEN Charter School: a) is financially solvent, b) complies with statutory and regulatory requirements, c) has competent professional staff, and d) has a successful academic program, as measured by internal and external assessments. Additionally, the Board s specific policy and goals are: To interpret the education needs and aspirations of the community through the formulation of policies which stimulate the learner and the learning process; To manage the school in accordance with federal and state laws; To provide leadership in school in order that the goals and objectives of the school can be effectively carried out; To maintain two-way communication with the various persons served by the school in order to understand public attitudes and encourage community involvement with an understanding of the school; To develop and provide the data appropriate for the management functions of planning, evaluating, organizing, controlling and executing. The Board is responsible to the people and therefore should attempt to reflect the opinion of the community. However, Board members must look to the future more clearly than is required of 194

196 the average citizen. The results of many of the decisions and actions of the Board will not be realized at once, but will set the course of education for future. The Board should fearlessly support those educational philosophies and procedures to promote proper education for this community based upon the needs of the students. The chair of the Board shall preside at Board meetings and shall perform all duties as may be prescribed by law or by action of the Board. The duties of the chair include ensuring that the board fulfills its governance responsibilities and works with the school leader(s) to achieve the mission of the charter school. It is a challenging role that requires collaboration, people skills and a lot of patience. The following steps will help the board chair prevent the board from micromanaging the school s leader and staff, and minimize conflicts within the board itself: Have clearly written and approved procedures for evaluating the school leader. Have regular board training sessions that include an overview of the roles of the school leader and the board. Meet with the school leader to discuss how to work together as a team. Have the school board and leader mutually develop agendas for board meetings. Consult with the school leader for appointments or recommendations for various board committee chairs. Have clear written guidelines about the roles of staff as it relates to board support. Develop the frequency and nature of meetings to be held between the school leader and the board chair, and share the highlights of these meetings with the entire board. Ensure all board members understand the roles of the board, the chair and committees. 195

197 Maintain an open communication policy to ensure that important information is never concealed by and from the board chair, the school s leader or the entire board. Celebrate accomplishments and acknowledge the key people involved The Vice President shall have the powers and duties of the President when the President is absent or disabled, and shall have such other powers and duties as the Board may determine from time to time. In the absence of both the President and Vice President, the attending members shall elect one of their members to preside. The Secretary shall be responsible for preparing the minutes of each Board meeting. The minutes shall, at a minimum, include the names of the Board members present at the meeting, a description of each motion or other proposal made, and a record of all votes. For roll-call votes or votes to close a meeting to the public, the name of each person voting for or against the proposal shall be recorded. For all other votes, it shall be presumed that the action taken was approved by each member in attendance unless the minutes reflect the names of any members voting against the proposal or abstaining. The meeting minutes shall be submitted to the Board for approval at its next regular meeting. Once approved and signed by the Director and Board President, Board minutes shall be available for public inspection upon request. The duties and obligations of an individual Board member maybe enumerated as follows: Becoming familiar with the state school laws, regulations of the Department of Education, School policies, rules and regulations; Having a general knowledge of educational aims and objectives of the school; Working harmoniously with other Board members without trying either to dominate the 196

198 Board or neglect a share of the work; Voting and acting in the Board meetings impartially for the good of the school; Accepting the will of the majority vote in all cases and give wholehearted support to the resulting policy; Representing the Board and the school in the public in such a way as to promote both interest and support; and Referring complaints to the proper school authorities and to abstain from individual counsel and action. The GREEN Charter School Board Member shall: Attend regular meetings of the charter school board that are approximately two hours in duration. Be accessible for personal contact in between board meetings; Provide leadership to board committees and serve actively as an ongoing member or leader of at least one of the committees, including but not limited to, committees on educational policy, resource development, strategic planning, board development, human resources, finance, and advisory board; Commit time to developing financial resources for the charter school and support fund development activities of the charter school in a manner appropriate for board members; Review and act upon committee recommendations brought to the board for action responsibly; Prepare in advance for decision-making and policy formation at board meetings and take responsibility for self-education on the major issues before the Governing Board; Participate in the annual board member self-review process; 197

199 Participate in the annual board training each year; Utilize personal and professional skills, relationships and knowledge for the advancement of the charter school. The Founding Charter School Committee believes that the legislation of policies is the most important function of a school board and that the execution of the policies should be the function of the Director. Delegation by the Governing Board responsibilities and its executive powers to the Director provides freedom for the School Leaders to manage the school within the Board s policies, and frees the Board to devote its time to policy making and appraisal functions. The Governing Board shall hold the Director responsible for carrying out its policies within established guidelines and for keeping the Board informed about school operations. In the budget development process, the Board shall conducts pre-budgeting discussions with the Director to establish informal understandings about perceived budget opportunities, challenges and/or restrictions, and provides guidance for budget development. The Director shall prepare a draft budget for review by the Board. The Board shall give careful consideration to the budget and hold public hearings to allow for public review and reaction prior to formal approval of the budget. In an effort to keep the Governing Board informed, the Director shall notify Members of the Governing Board members as promptly as possible of any happenings of an emergency circumstance that is directly and indirectly related to the Charter School. Any Board vote on the employment or promotion of a Board member s immediate family member will be conducted in public and separate from any other personnel matter. The vote on such action will be recorded, and the Board member whose family member is the subject of the vote will not participate in the vote. As used in this policy, immediate family means a Board 198

200 member s spouse, child, stepchild, sibling, parent, grandparent, grandchild, aunt, uncle, niece, nephew or first cousin, or the spouse of the Board member s parent, child, or sibling, or any relative living in the household of a Board member. In addition; Board president should not make the decisions without consulting others; Board members should not conduct illegal board meetings without posting, in secret, or on the telephone; School funds should not be mismanaged; The Board should not hold meetings that are too long and not focused on overall policies; The Board should not fail to keep minutes that are open to the public; The Board should not micromanage the school s operations; The Board should not agree to financial obligations without studying the overall cost picture (enrollment predictions, facility insurance costs, class size reduction, reserves) The Board should not carry out the school mission and vision and terms of the bylaws The Board should not allow the Director to continue in his/her position without a formal evaluation by a committee of board members including the chairperson The Board should not allow the director and/or principal to be a voting member The Charter School Governing Board shall implement and promote the following best practices: The board has clearly defined bylaws that it reviews on a regular basis Yearly board training is provided to all members Board meetings and a standard calendar of meeting dates are posted well in advance No or telephone discussions on board agenda items are conducted among board members prior to the next open meeting 199

201 Board minutes, financial updates and agenda are received by members at least a week in advance of the upcoming meeting The board evaluates itself yearly Financial checks and balances are in place and followed The Director reports at each meeting to give updates and asks for policymaking when necessary The Board conducts an annual evaluation of the Director The Board follows a clearly written conflict of interest policy The Governing Board shall comply with the Freedom of Information Act as described in the bylaws of the nonprofit corporation in Appendix item 9. The Director as an ex-officio member of the governing board shall be responsible to announce the venue of the meeting to public according to the law, collecting the agenda items, and other secretarial duties as assigned by the Governing Board. In accordance with the Law, employees of the charter school shall not serve in the governing board. iii. Administrative Structure The Director shall be the core of the administrative team and shall be responsible for all of the day to day operations of the school, whereas the Governing Board will ensure that the school is governed in accordance with applicable federal, state, and county laws and regulations relating to public agencies and charter schools. The school will be run according to the following organizational chart showing the relationships of the Governing Board to parents and staff of the proposed charter school: 200

202 GREEN Charter School Governing Board Director Teachers and Staff Students and Parents Volunteers, Voluntary Organizations, Other Resources, etc. The following chart compares the roles of the Governing board and the School Leader for developing and sustaining academic excellence in the charter school: The Charter School Governing Board The Charter School Director or School Leaders Establishes the mission and program direction for the charter school Approves goals and objectives designed to achieve those ends. Reviews and approves Accountability and Implementation Plans. Reviews performance data and identifies academic areas that need corrective action. Assess compliance/progress in achieving educational and other outcomes agreed to in the charter. Evaluates the performance of the School Leader. Participates in establishing mission and program direction for the charter school. Contributes to the charter school s vision and assists the board in maintaining focus and momentum for the school. Implements program goals and objectives based on the board s specific targets. Provides board performance data on specific targets. Develops and implements corrective action plan. Develops reports to demonstrate program progress. Evaluates the performance of the instructional staff. 201

203 The Director will coordinate the GREEN Charter School s daily operation among faculty, staff, students, parents, volunteers, and volunteer organizations, internal and external resources. Starting in the second year an assistant Director shall be hired to assist the Director to lead the school in an efficient and accountable manner. This position may be created earlier if additional funds become available that are not anticipated in this charter application budget at the time of proposal submission. The responsibilities of the administrative team, directly of the Assistant Director and through delegation of the Director, shall include but not limited to planning and supervising instructional programs, conducting an effective advertisement, recruitment, and enrollment program to ensure continuous operation of the GREEN Charter School, supporting teaching by enforcing Student Code of Conduct in a consistent manner, helping classroom teachers about classroom management issues, managing student services operations such as transportation and food program, and communication with parents and community. In addition to serving as the educational leader of the school, the Director is responsible for planning, budgeting, facilities management, scheduling staff development, and supervision and evaluation of the entire staff. The Director shall be evaluated once yearly by the Governing Board based on a set of clearly defined performance criteria that are related to the success of educational program and fiscal management of the GREEN Charter School. iv. Parental, Community, and Educator Involvement Parents, community, and professional educators shall be involved with the governance and operations of the school directly through the Governing Board elections, and indirectly through the committees that may be appointed by the Director, his/her designee or the Governing Board 202

204 with representation from parents, community, and educators. To ensure that a professional educator's views are heard before making any decision the Director of the GREEN Charter School shall be a permanent nonvoting member of the Board, and participate in all the Governing Board meetings unless the meeting is about the compensation or evaluation of the Director. This structure mirrors the Superintendent-Board of Trustees' relationship of the School District. From time to time educators with special expertise areas may be called for by the Governing Board meetings to inform the governing board of their respective educational knowledge at the request of the Governing Board or the Director. Parents shall be encouraged to share their educational resources with the school instructional staff and a section where parents directly address the Governing Board shall be incorporated to each regular Governing Board meeting for parents, community, and educators to bring up their concerns or praises in the governance and operations of the school. c. Administrative and Teaching Staff The GREEN Charter School shall employ administrators and teachers in a manner consistent with the South Carolina Charter Schools Act and the No Child Left Behind Act of The GREEN Charter School shall implement a non-discriminatory Human Resources (HR) procedure, which will be fully compliant with the South Carolina State laws and No Child Left Behind. Some of the highlights of the HR procedures can be outlined as follows: 203

205 The School will not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, creed, sex, ethnicity, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability, age, religion, ancestry, or athletic performance in the provision of employment and services. The School will practice non-sectarian employment practices. The Governing Board will create and/or approve all position descriptions, qualifications, and responsibilities. The Governing Board or the Director will recruit and disseminate job announcements through public announcements. The School shall require fingerprints, and background checks of its employees as required by the applicable laws to ensure the safety of school and all students. The Governing Board will perform the annual formative and summative evaluation of the Director and/or key administrators through a personnel evaluation procedure. All administrators and the teachers of the school will possess the necessary knowledge, skills, and personal characteristics required by and consistent with the vision and philosophies of the school. The school will promote and look for opportunities, including the commitment and willingness from all employees to work as a team to implement the school s goals. The school shall disclose the qualifications of its teachers by providing parents with short biographies of its full time teachers, including degrees attained, colleges/programs they attended, certifications or special competencies earned, and years of educational experience documented. An informational pamphlet with this information will be published or posted online to parents and the public. 204

206 i. Administrative Staff Although there are qualified persons under review by the charter committee, there is no currently selected member of the administrative team. Nonetheless, at least one member of the administrative staff shall hold current South Carolina certification in administration or have at least one year of experience in the field of school-based administration when the school opens in the fall of Job Qualifications of School Administrators or school leaders will be the following: School Director: The Director is an integral member of the learning community. He or she shall support shared decision-making, promote collaborative leadership, and require accountability from all stake-holders in the school. In addition to serving as the educational leader of the school, the Director will be responsible for planning, budgeting, facilities management, staff development, and supervision and evaluation of the staff. The Director is also responsible for overall operation and running the school efficiently to accomplish the Charter School s mission and vision. The Director serves as a primary member of the Administrative Team. The Director will establish and maintain communication with SC Department of Education, District Board of Trustees and Chairman, and county school administrators. The Director reports to the Charter School Governing Board. Assistant Director/Principal: The Assistant Director will assist the Director and act as a Principal in planning and assessing the educational program. He or she will promote fairness for students and staff from all cultural backgrounds, and communicates with students and staff in an effective manner. He or she assists in organization of the school improvement plan with staff, parents, and community members and, helps the Director to design, manage, and implement information systems to manage and track progress on school goals and academic excellence 205

207 indicators. The Assistant Director conducts employee evaluation conferences based on records of performance evaluation, assists the Director in interviewing, selecting and orienting new employees, and assists in scheduling student activities by participating in the development of class schedules, teacher assignments, and extracurricular activity schedules. The Assistant Director ensures that the school complies with all applicable federal and state laws. ii. Teachers The GREEN Charter School shall hire at least 75% certified or licensed teachers. Hired noncertified teachers shall not exceed 25% of the entire instructional staff including the part time teachers' pro rata share based on their teaching time. For the purposes of this calculation teaching is defined as being in contact with students to provide instruction and lunch duty, study hall, or other functions of an employee shall not be considered as teaching when calculating this share. The GREEN Charter School shall hire teachers to teach core academic areas of English/language arts, mathematics, science, or social studies grades K through 12 who are certified in those areas or possess a baccalaureate or graduate degree in the subject he or she is hired to teach. The GREEN Charter School is aware of the fact that some of the categorical funding for the programs such as ESOL/ELL, Gifted, Talented, and Advanced Placement may require additional endorsements or qualifications for the teachers. In such cases the GREEN Charter School shall meet the requirements of the teachers to access the funds in order to continue to implement the respective programs. For the purposes of this section Certified teacher means a person currently certified by the State of South Carolina to teach in a public elementary or secondary school or who currently meets the qualification outlined in Sections and Noncertified teacher 206

208 means an individual considered appropriately qualified for the subject matter taught and who has completed at least one year of study at an accredited college or university and meets the qualifications outlined in Section Special education students shall be served by hired or contracted special education teachers who are certified according to the respective disability areas as described in the students' IEP or special education file of the student. The GREEN Charter School shall comply with all of the state and federal law and regulations with respect to special education teacher certification. The GREEN Charter School will contract out some of the educational services, such as speech, occupational therapy, etc. All core subject teachers will be highly qualified as outlined by Federal No Child Left Behind requirements. Teachers who are not licensed will hold a minimum of Baccalaureate degree in a related field. The school will strongly encourage its non-licensed teachers to become South Carolina licensed by going through the licensure procedures. The school believes that the quality of the professional staff is an important factor in determining the quality of education offered. It is the responsibility of the director and assistant director to locate and recruit the best-qualified candidates to meet the school's educational needs. The school will prefer qualified certified personnel in the first place. However, in case of shortage of certified candidates and/or for any other reason deemed appropriate by the Director, candidates from traditional secondary environments, from postsecondary environments, from international teacher recruitment organizations, and from business, industry and the military will also be considered. Staff selection will be based on strong academic preparation, professional competence, intellectual rigor, emotional maturity, enthusiastic professional attitude, knowledge of 207

209 instructional practices, and ability to contribute to the advancement of the school mission. Emphasis will be placed on the candidate's academic records and his/her previous relevant experience. d. Racial Composition i. Racial Composition of South Carolina The racial composition of the School District, i.e., South Carolina, is as the following: Approximately 54 percent of the students enrolled are Caucasian, 38 percent of the students enrolled are African American, and 8 percent are Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaskan or other. The table below shows the racial composition of the State of South Carolina. SC Average (2008) White 53.90% African American 38.50% OTHER 7.60% Total Enrollment (#) 690,434 Total Enrollment (%) 100% Due to the diverse racial and demographic representations of the state, the GREEN Charter School is expected to represent demographic diversity of the community it serves. The school will be promoted and publicized in order to reach the entire community and all of its racial/ethnic Analysis/old/research/documents/QuickFactsRevisedMarch2011.pdf 208

210 groups. By publicizing the school throughout the Greenville County, the racial/ethnic diversity of the school is expected to be similar to that of other area public schools. The best way to reach a similar composition is to contact all of the potential students of the School District students and to inform them of this opportunity. To this end, the school shall request the public directory information of the candidate students from the School District. If access request granted per applicable policies, the school shall mail information about the school at the beginning of the recruitment activities. For example, for the first year students who are at Kindergarten through 6 th grades shall be informed of the school's opening. Alternatively the GREEN Charter School may be required to pay the associated costs and ask the School District send the mailer per policy reasons. Nevertheless, direct mailing will not be the sole recruitment activity. The recruitment process shall also include public notice through newspaper advertisements, community information sessions, and announcements in the School District school newsletters as well as notices on the school's website. The following publicity procedures will be used for recruitment of students by the GREEN Charter School: The school shall have an admission process with pre-announced enrollment period and deadlines. All student enrollment process and details, including deadlines for applications, lottery date, registration requirements and necessary documents, and waiting-list enrollment information, shall be publicly available and announced at the school website and office. The school shall publicize all enrollment information throughout the District via flyers, bulletins, newspaper ads, websites, mailings, town meetings, informational open house sessions, and presentations at other local schools and public institutions. 209

211 The school will hold open houses and arrange presentations and publicity events at community centers, churches, public libraries, local schools, and alternate locations, where possible. In addition, the school will distribute the application forms during outreach programs. The applicants can also fill out the application on the school website. School tours and presentations are also part of the recruitment activities. During the recruitment process, the GREEN Charter School shall provide parents of potential students with accurate information about the programs, services and amenities available at the school, and shall highlight the unique characteristics. Similar recruitment techniques shall be utilized every school year during the recruitment season. The following timetable shall be followed, as amended by the GREEN Charter School administration, for student recruitment and admission process. Sep-Feb Jan-Feb Early March Late March April-July Recruitment activities Applications from prospective students Lottery and Winner's registration Wait List Registration Wait List Registration continues until the capacity is filled. ii. Policies and Procedures The GREEN Charter School shall be open to all students entitled to attend school in the Greenville County Schools who submit a timely and complete application. The school admission process will be consistent with the federal NCLB Title V, part B Charter Schools Program Non- 210

212 Regulatory Guidance (USDOE 2004) provided by the US Department of Education. The school shall comply fully with the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) and NCLB Acts. The school shall not discriminate on the basis of race, color, gender, national origin, creed, sex, ethnicity, sexual orientation, mental or physical disability (as well as actual or perceived disability), age, religion, ancestry, athletic performance, and association with an individual who has any of the aforementioned characteristics. All applications will be considered for admission without regard to achievement level. The school will not enroll students over 19 years of age unless they have been continuously enrolled in public school upon turning age 19 and making satisfactory progress toward high school diploma requirements and are not more than 22 years of age. iii. Desegregation Plan or Order The South Carolina Public Charter School District is not subject to a desegregation plan or order. A recent letter from the School District is provided in Appendix item 11. e. Transportation i. Transportation Needs The school shall be mainly dependent on parents' or students' own transportation and carpooling. However a fraction of the first year's budget is also reserved as a contingency fund to facilitate a transportation service as shown in Appendix item 7. Therefore the school shall not deny admission for any eligible student because of lack of transportation by planning the transportation needs of those students. The plan may include paying for use of the public 211

213 transportation, if the trip is outside the free-ride periods of the Greenville Transit Authority bus system, coordinating a dependable carpooling, or other reasonable accommodations to meet the needs of the student's transportation. Consistent with the school's efforts to find a solution for the students who lack transportation, the students may be asked to walk an age appropriate reasonable distance in a safe pathway to and from bus stops at times between the earliest pick up time and the latest drop off time of the School District's regular school buses on scheduled school days. Starting the second year of the GREEN Charter School shall have enough financial resources to maintain at least one bus, as Student Transportation line item in the budget (assuming contracted), to serve the students who reside in most distant locations from the GREEN Charter School site. However these students may be picked up or dropped off early or late than the regular School District's pick up and drop off times at the same location. ii. School Bus The school shall develop a plan that complies with the state requirements for drivers and training and the state safety requirements for school buses on the second year of the Charter before starting its own bus services. iii. Contracted Services There is no contracted service at this time. If the school finds it feasible to contract a transportation service to meet the needs of its students the requested information shall be provided at that time. 212

214 iv. Special Needs Students According to both federal and state law students with special needs must be provided bus transportation as necessary. The student's Individualized Education Plan shall identify the conditions for the transportation and the GREEN Charter School shall be responsible to the arrangement of bus transportation of special needs students enrolled at the school. f. Facilities and Equipment i. Identified Facility A potential school facility for the GREEN Charter School is currently being searched, but no facility has been identified yet. ii. Facility Not Identified (a) The charter committee estimates need for twenty-six classrooms to accommodate the student population once it reaches to its full capacity. In addition, the facility should have spaces for administrative offices, cafeteria, media center, staff lounge, gym, and other spaces. (b) The charter committee plans to lease an existing facility for the GREEN Charter School. There shall be most likely a need to modify the facility in order to obtain a Certificate of Occupancy with educational occupancy classification. The costs associated with the renovation and modification shall be asked as a tenant improvement from the landlord. The Charter Committee expects that a five years or longer term of the lease shall enable the GREEN Charter School to reasonably secure a facility with these assumptions. 213

215 (c) As soon as the charter is granted, the Charter School Committee shall perform a rigorous facility search with leading real estate agencies in the Greenville County. Once the facility is found, a long-term lease contract shall be signed. The GREEN Charter School elects not to comply with the South Carolina School Facilities Planning and Construction Guide. However, the GREEN Charter School shall still be bound by the health, safety, and disability codes, regulations, and rules as directed by the South Carolina Department of Education in the South Carolina Charter School Facilities Approval Process. A facility shall be identified by October 2012, the renovations and remodeling shall begin as soon as the contract is signed for the facility. The anticipated time of completion of all renovations shall be mid-june May Oct 2012 Oct Nov 2012 Nov 2012 Nov Dec 2012 Dec May 2013 June/July 2013 Locating alternative facilities. Architect's contract; Review of the necessary renovations, modifications, and estimate of the costs; Leasing completed. Notification to the SDE's Office of School Facilities Local Building Permits; Submission of the permit to the OSF Construction; Certificate of Occupancy obtained Receipt of the CO letter from the OSF; Occupancy starts. Renovations and/or modifications shall be supervised by a licensed architect to ensure the applicable Code compliance. All of these dates are tentative and are subject to change. iii. Equipment Computers, science lab kits, NEED curriculum materials, and other instructional equipment such as projectors are budgeted in Year 1 budget. Thereafter each year additions and replacements shall be made through the schools general funds as indicated in the schools' five-year budget. 214

216 The School District is currently in a process of building new schools and this process makes ample used equipment available at a low cost. Student desks, chairs, tables, shelves, and other school furniture shall either be secured through the School District's surplus warehouse or from private vendors who carry similar used items. g. Employee Relations i. Employment Process The GREEN Charter School believes that the quality of the professional staff determines the quality of education offered in the school. It is therefore utmost important to locate and recruit the best-qualified candidates to meet the school's educational needs. To this end the GREEN Charter School shall consider placing advertisements in local, state, and regional media as well as online sources such as teachers-teachers.com, and, welcome referrals, inquiries. The GREEN Charter School also may plan or participate in special human resources events, such as teacher job fairs. An announcement of a position may include such information as job title, major job responsibilities, minimum qualifications, and deadline for receiving applications. The recruitment process shall start when candidates submit an application in a timely manner to the Director. The Director shall select from this pool of applicants a list of candidates who meet the minimum requirements. The Director shall contact these candidates and arrange an interview. The first interview shall consist of conversation on the candidate s provided resume and a question and answer exchange. General provisions of the contract and benefits shall be provided to the candidates. Director shall use an interview score sheet for each candidate and follow a preset question format 215

217 to ensure a standardized and fair process. Based on the areas the interviews may also include a teaching performance, demonstration of lesson planning ability for specific deficiencies, and responding to classroom management issues as in a case study format. The Director shall present the short list to the Governing Board for approval in a closed session meeting. After Governing Board's selection and approval, the Director shall offer an employment contract to the selected candidates. The school shall not discriminate because of race, religion, color, disability unrelated to job functions, gender, age or national origin in accordance with applicable state and federal laws. ii. Teacher Evaluations The GREEN Charter School shall employ ADEPT (Assisting, Developing, and Evaluating Professional Teaching) model for evaluation of staff. School teachers who have less than one (1) year of public school teaching experience will participate in an Induction Program created by the school s Director and teaching staff and approved by The Governing Board. Teachers who possess a valid South Carolina teaching certificate and have less than one year of public school teaching experience may be employed under a one-year nonrenewable induction contract and shall participate in the Induction Program. The program will be designed to provide novice teachers with comprehensive guidance and assistance throughout their initial year of teaching. In addition, teachers will use informal peer evaluations through cross-classroom observations and team meetings to discuss ongoing challenges as well as specific successes. Additionally, the GREEN Charter School shall support and encourage administrators, teachers and other instructional support staff to pursue their professional development endeavors and programs. The school aims to recruit experienced staff and teachers from diverse 216

218 backgrounds by using local, national and international educational resources as well as provide a strong professional development program for both enthusiastic new and the seasoned teachers. Peer evaluation is another principle that the GREEN Charter School will be taking into consideration in its professional development program. School administration will be asking every teacher voluntarily to announce at least one period of his or her teaching at least one during a school year as open class for other administrators or teachers to come and observe. This will give an opportunity to gain an appreciation for other teachers within the school, ask questions, share ideas through observing others teaching techniques, and give both positive and negative feedback so that the teacher being observed can grow. A variety of incentives will be considered to increase the open class participation. Mentorship and Peer coaching are the last components of professional development, which yield an incredible outcome in school improvement by making use of the available resources and staff. For a new-to-profession teacher, sharing expertise about curriculum, pedagogy, and child development with an experienced colleague is an incredible opportunity to grow very fast in a very small amount of time. Mentor teachers also share knowledge about curriculum, awareness and knowledge from readings, insights about families, and what was learned from attending presentations and conferences. The GREEN Charter School will set up a mentorship program to accelerate the experience transfer from one teacher to another one. iii. Terms and Conditions of Employment An employee manual that includes all policies and procedures shall be distributed during orientation session at the beginning of the year. Provisions shall be in place to indicate possible amendments to the handbook by the governing board throughout the year as needs arise. 217

219 Employees shall sign and date the Terms and Conditions of Employment forms before employment at the school. The crucial element of collegiality is one of the main characteristics of effective and functioning professional learning communities. Teachers at the GREEN Charter School, who teach the same grade levels or subjects as a team, shall meet at least once a month, preferably biweekly, to discuss the student issues one by one. Teachers will be able create academic improvement plans as well as behavioral plans for the students who are struggling in their classroom. This goes beyond the collaboration, as they will be learning from each other as well as researching to find solutions to the problems they are facing with and improving their classroom management skills. Developing and enhancing the GREEN Charter School s innovative curriculum is another crucial part of professional development of the teachers. In order to fulfill this portion of collegiality, all the School s subject teachers will collaborate in their monthly departmental meetings. Teachers will be organized into three departments: English/Social Studies, Mathematics and Science. In these meetings, they will be developing, reviewing, revising, and aligning curriculum with SOL. They will also apply multiple intelligences theory to the curriculum, integrating curriculum through thematic instruction, designing assessment tools that teach and evaluate. Last, but not least, they will be talking about pedagogy. New teachers shall have one extra orientation before other teachers check in for the school year. As a whole team, there will be three professional development days before the school starts and two days of year-end evaluation meetings after the student dismissal day. The other five days will be spread out during the school year. Those days will be mandatory for all GREEN Charter School teachers. Charter School Conferences, workshops, exchange teaching, as 218

220 well as other teacher related conference and professional opportunities are planned to be available to teachers and academic staff throughout the school year contingent upon the teacher/school needs and available resources. Additionally, the GREEN Charter School will explore opportunities to provide funds and resources for our faculty members to develop collaborative partnerships and mentoring programs with other schools, communities, businesses and industries, and each faculty member will have an active membership in the relevant organization for their field of expertise. To sum up, the school will consider the above outlined professional development activities as well as explore alternate ways in which teacher and academic staff can improve their professional expertise depending on the school s needs and resources. Faculty and Staff Development Days will be planned based on the outcomes of these meetings. Before the start of the school year, the individual professional development program will provide teachers with an opportunity to design their goals, objectives, and curricula using the assessment data collected from the previous year. A projected timeline for the GREEN Charter School s Professional Development activities during a typical school year is outlined below: ACTIVITY Staff Orientation Departmental Meetings Grade Level Meetings Professional Development Days Year End Meetings Conferences/workshops TIMELINE 3 days before school starts First Wednesday of each Month (after classes) Biweekly (after classes) One day every other month 2 days after student dismissal Every mid-quarter and as needed 219

221 h. Grievance and Termination Procedures i. Teacher Employment and Dismissal Procedures The GREEN Charter School shall adopt the procedures for the employment and dismissal of teachers outlined in S. C. Code Ann et seq. with the following modification: The expression "the local district" shall be replaced with the expression "the Charter School"; the expression "the Board of Trustees" shall be replaced with the expression " or "the Charter School Governing Board"; and the word "Superintendent" shall be replaced with the word "Director". With this modification the Charter School employment and dismissal procedures for teachers provide for notice and a right to a hearing before the Charter School Governing Board. The Charter School shall have reasonable policies and a formidable code of ethics to ensure the safety and well-being of the students. ii. Employment and Dismissal Procedures for Administrative, Paraprofessional, and Nonteaching Staff Employment contracts for non-teaching staff shall be business type contracts that indicate that the contract may be terminated with or without cause by the Director. The employee may file a grievance against the termination to the Charter School Governing Board in five (5) calendar days after being terminated. In the grievance letter the employee must include the summary of the facts and the recommended remedy for the situation. The Charter School Governing Board shall decide by majority vote whether to consider the grievance and conduct a hearing. The Charter School Governing Board may elect to address a grievance without conducting a hearing. If elected, at the hearing the Charter School Governing Board shall hear both parties: the 220

222 employee and the Director; and then shall make the final decision regarding the matter. There is no appeal for the decision. This policy is not intended to create a property right in employment beyond what is established in an employment contract. Its sole purpose is to establish an effective and fair administrative operation. i. Student Conduct, Rights, and Responsibilities, and Discipline Procedures i. Student Conduct The GREEN Charter School shall follow the procedures and policies governing student conduct in the School District with the following modifications. The expression "the Board of Trustees" shall be replaced with the expression "the Charter School Governing Board"; the word "Superintendent" shall be replaced with the word "Director"; the expression "school principal" shall be replaced with the word "Director"; and the expression "hearing officer" shall be replaced with the expression "Charter School counselor" or "the designated staff". The GREEN Charter School shall comply with S.C. Code Ann (Supp. 2001), which provides for the expulsion of any student who brings a firearm to school. The school shall also comply with the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. 1232). ii. Students with Disabilities The following guidelines shall be followed for disciplinary actions that involve students with disabilities as outlined in the IDEA 1997 Amendments. School personnel can remove a student with a disability for three consecutive days and max 10 days in a year or less at a time for a violation of the school code of conduct (to 221

223 the same extent applied to children without disabilities). School personnel can immediately remove up to ten consecutive days or less, the same child for separate incidences of misconduct. School personnel can also order a change of placement of a child with a disability to an appropriate interim alternative educational setting for up to forty-five days for possession of weapons or drugs or the solicitation or sale of controlled substances while at school and school functions. If school personnel believe that a child is dangerous to himself or others, they can ask a hearing officer in an expedited due process hearing to remove a student to an interim alternative educational setting for up to forty-five days. Forty-five day interim alternative educational placements can be extended in additional forty-five increments if the hearing officer agrees that the child continues to be substantially likely to injure himself or herself or others if returned to his or her prior placement. School personnel can remove a child with a disability, including suspending or expelling for behavior that is not a manifestation of the child's disability, to the same extent as is done for children without disabilities, for the same behavior. School personnel can report crimes to appropriate law enforcement and judicial authorities. iii. Student Rights The GREEN Charter School shall follow the procedures and policies governing student rights in the School District with the following modifications. The expression "the Board of Trustees" 222

224 shall be replaced with the expression "the Charter School Governing Board"; the word "Superintendent" shall be replaced with the word "Director"; the expression "school principal" shall be replaced with the word "Director"; and the expression "hearing officer" shall be replaced with the expression "Charter School counselor" or "the designated staff". The School District policy provides a right to appeal a decision to the board of trustees for students recommended for expulsion, which shall be understood as the students shall have a right to appeal before the Charter School's Governing Board. iv. Parental Notification A parent-student handbook that describes the student conduct, rights, responsibilities, policies, and procedures shall be provided to parents and students at the beginning of the school year. A family contract indicating that the handbook is read, understood, and that the parent and the student shall abide by the rules of the school shall be signed by the parent/guardian and the student. j. Indemnification The GREEN Charter School assumes the liability for the activities of the GREEN Charter School and agrees to hold harmless the School District, its servants, agents, and employees from any and all liability, damage, expense, causes of actions, suits, claims, or judgments arising from injury to persons or property or otherwise that arises out of the fact, failure to act, or negligence of the GREEN Charter School, its agents and employees, in connection with or arising out of the activity of the GREEN Charter School. 223

225 k. Insurance The GREEN Charter School shall obtain various types and amounts of insurance coverage during its operation. Types and amounts of minimum insurance limits to be carried by the GREEN Charter School will be the following: Type of Coverage Minimum Limit Workers' Compensation Statutory * General Liability $1,000,000 per occurrence * Umbrella Excess Liability $1,000,000 - $3,000,000 per occurrence depending on size of school * Property Replacement cost for buildings and contents Flood should be obtained as necessary; determined by property location District should be named as loss payee if district owns the building * Educators Professional $1,000,000 each loss Liability * Medical Professional $1,000,000 or equal to SC torts cap (could vary depending Liability on school exposure) Crime/Theft/Employee $100,000 each loss Dishonesty Automobile (if own or operate $1,000,000 per accident vehicles) The quote is provided by a South Carolina licensed insurance company. The costs are appropriately included in the school's budget. A copy of the insurance quote in Appendix item 16. In addition to the above insurances the employees of the GREEN Charter School shall have the same health, safety, civil rights, and disability rights requirements as are applied to public schools operating in the School District. Eligible employees shall participate in the South 224

226 Carolina Retirement System such as teachers and administrators. Other employees shall contribute to their Social Security Plan. 225

227 South Carolina Public Charter School Application For schools planning to open fall 2013 Appendix Cover FOR SCDE USE ONLY Date Received: Received By: APPENDIX Cover Page Name of Proposed School Mailing Address (if known) Name of Applicant Group : GREENVILLE RENEWABLE ENERGY EDUCATION (GREEN) CHARTER SCHOOL : N/A : GREENVILLE RENEWABLE ENERGY EDUCATION (GREEN) CHARTER SCHOOL Contact Information Contact Person : A.Kadir Yildirim Title/Position : The GREEN Charter School Planning Committee Chair Daytime Telephone : Other Phone (cellular) : Mailing Address : 508 Millervale Road City, State, Zip Code : Greer, SC Additional Information about Proposed Charter School Grade Levels during Opening Year: K-6 Grade Levels at Full Student Matriculation: K-12 Sponsor (local school district board or SCPCSD) Name: South Carolina Public Charter School District Certification: I hereby certify that, to the best of my knowledge, the information and data contained in this application are true and correct. The applicant s governing body has approved this document and pledges to comply with the attached assurances. Signature of Charter School Planning Committee Chair 04/30/2012 Date FOR SCDE OFFICE USE ONLY Authorization: We hereby certify that this charter application has been duly authorized by the sponsor listed above. This authorization indicates that the terms of the application constitute a contractual agreement between the two organizations represented below. Charter School Planning Committee Chair Name: Signature Date Sponsor Representative name: Signature: Date

228 GREEN Charter School TABLE OF CONTENTS APPENDIX COVER PAGE... 1 TABLE OF CONTENTS... 2 PLANNING AND SUPPORT... 3 APPENDIX ITEM 1 - CHARTER PLANNING COMMITTEE... 4 APPENDIX ITEM 2 - SUPPORTING EVIDENCE... 7 ACADEMIC PLAN APPENDIX ITEM 3 - STUDENT ENROLLMENT APPENDIX ITEM 4 - ACADEMIC STANDARDS APPENDIX ITEM 5 - SAMPLE CALENDAR AND DAILY SCHEDULE OPERATIONAL PLAN APPENDIX ITEM 7 - ANNUAL BUDGET APPENDIX ITEM 9 - ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION, NON-PROFIT STATUS, AND BYLAWS APPENDIX ITEM 11 - DOCUMENT OF DESEGREGATION ORDER APPENDIX ITEM 16 - INSURANCE DOCUMENTS APPENDIX ITEM 18 - INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS STATEMENT OF ASSURANCES Page 2 of 132

229 GREEN Charter School PLANNING & SUPPORT Page 3 of 132

230 GREEN Charter School APPENDIX ITEM 1: CHARTER PLANNING COMMITTEE The Charter Committee consists of five members, one of whom is a South Carolina certified teacher and all members are Greenville County taxpayers and residents. The Charter Committee members are the following: Dr. Imtiaz Haque (Community Member, Parent, Professor, and Resident in Greenville County) Dr. Haque is Professor and past chair of Mechanical Engineering at Clemson University. He is currently serving as Executive Director of the Carroll A. Campbell Graduate Engineering Center on the CU-ICAR Campus in Greenville SC. His teaching and research interests lie in the general areas of dynamics, vibrations, mechanisms and machines, and manufacturing process simulation. He has been involved with the modeling and simulation of vehicular systems since Professor Haque is a Fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and a member of the Society of Automotive Engineers. He has been a member of the ASME Applied Mechanics Transportation Committee, and was a founding member of the ASME Material Division Committee on Metal Forming. He has served as Guest Editor for the International Journal of Vehicle Design and is a member of the Editorial Board for the International Journal of Heavy Vehicle Systems. He was Vice Chairman of the ASME Design Division Committee on Vehicle Design from Dr. Haque has conducted research for and served as consultant to private industry and federal agencies. In he spent his sabbatical year at the BMW Research and Engineering Center in Munich, Germany. Dr. Haque has published over 100 refereed journal and conference papers. He serves as reviewer for numerous journals, Page 4 of 132

231 GREEN Charter School conferences, and funding agencies. Dr. Haque resides in Greenville County and his address is 4 Research Drive Greenville, SC Amanda Yilmaz (Teacher, Community Member, Parent, and Resident in Greenville County) Mrs. Yilmaz is a certified French teacher at Mauldin Middle School. Mrs. Yilmaz received her M.A degree in French at University of South Carolina Upstate in 2004 and received M.A.T. in Secondary English at Converse College in She is certified in South Carolina to teach Secondary English, French (K-12) and ESOL (K-12). She has worked and studied abroad as well. She taught ESOL classes for the Greenville Literacy Association for several years and tutored students throughout various programs including private lessons and university programs. Mrs. Yilmaz is a resident of Greenville County and her address is 217 Kelsey Glen Ln., Simpsonville, SC Dr. A.Kadir Yildirim (Community Member, Parent, Professor, and Resident in Greenville County) Dr. Yildirim is a faculty member in the Department of Political Science at Furman University. Prior to joining Furman University, he was a postdoctoral fellow in Niehaus Center for Globalization and Governance at Princeton University. Dr. Yildirim holds a Ph.D. in political science from the Ohio State University. Dr. Yildirim's research interests center on economic liberalization and democratization. His articles on contemporary political issues have appeared in scholarly journals as well as daily newspapers. As an educator, Dr. Yildirim taught at various levels including high school and college. As part of his research, Dr. Yildirim traveled extensively abroad. He is married and father of three children, an eight year old daughter, and two year old twin sons. Dr. Yildirim is a resident of Greenville County, and his address is 508 Page 5 of 132

232 GREEN Charter School Millervale Rd., Greer, SC Baran Menguloglu (Community Member and Resident in Greenville County) Mr. Menguloglu is a goal-driven, quality/ industrial engineer. He is an expert in utilizing resources, improving processes, increasing quality and reducing costs. Baran Menguloglu has been working at Magna/ Drive Automotive since Baran Menguloglu is responsible for BMW X5 vehicle s body-in-white parts quality assurance. Baran also worked for an aluminum machining/bending company (Pwg-Aluminum) as a quality engineer and quality manager. Mr. Menguloglu is a resident of Greenville County, and his address is 620 Halton Rd., Apt , Greenville, SC Abdulbasit Aydin (Community Member, Parent, and Resident in Greenville County) Abdulbasit Akif Aydin received his M.S. degree in Educational Leadership and Policy Analysis at Florida State University in Mr. Aydin is currently a Ph.D. candidate in John E. Walker Department of Economics at Clemson University. He has served as a board member of River City Science Academy Charter School between 2007 and He has been an educational director for the Atlantic Foundation of North Florida from 2006 until He is married with two children. Mr. Aydin is a resident in Greenville County and his address is 230 Roper Mountain Road # 713-G Greenville, SC Page 6 of 132

233 GREEN Charter School APPENDIX ITEM 2: SUPPORTING EVIDENCE Page 7 of 132

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235 David E. Shi Center for Sustainability April 20, 2012 To whom it may concern: The David E. Shi Center for Sustainability at Furman University is in support of the proposal to create a Greenville Renewable Energy EducatioN (GREEN) Charter School in Greenville County. The Shi Center s mission is to promote the study and practice of sustainability on campus and in the greater community. At Furman, the Shi Center has been integral in sustainability education for our students, as well as in projects such as the Cliffs Cottage Sustainable Showcase home, the LEED certification/registration of eight campus buildings and all new construction, the Furman Farm, and the Townes Science Center, which includes a solar aquatic wastewater treatment facility. The Shi Center is also involved in studying the effects of Furman s 138 kw of solar photovoltaic energy production on campus and the geothermal ground-source heat pump systems that provide heating and air conditioning to our campus apartment buildings. We look forward to interacting with the GREEN Charter School students as they further explore environmental issues, as we have acted in this way for elementary, middle school, high school, as well as college students and community members, in the past. Additionally, the Shi Center has many connections with community partner organizations around Greenville, the Upstate, and South Carolina. In order to encourage place-based education, these connections may be utilized to enhance the renewable energy study for the GREEN Charter School. It is the Shi Center s hope to facilitate connections that will provide real-world applications to the classroom knowledge that the students learn. We look forward to facilitating an understanding of the sciences through environmental education and sustainability. Sincerely, Angela C. Halfacre Director, David E. Shi Center for Sustainability Associate Professor, Political Science and Earth and Environmental Sciences Furman University Furman University 3300 Poinsett Hwy Greenville, SC

236 GREEN Charter School May 1, 2011 To Whom It May Concern: After learning of the Greenville Renewable Energy EducatioN (GREEN) Charter School proposal, I wanted to write and express my support for this opportunity for our community. As an Associate Professor of Biology at Furman University, I am well aware of the current and future crises we face if we cannot devise better methods for energy generation and delivery. Equally importantly, as a parent of a young child about to enter the school system, I am excited about the opportunities GREEN Charter School would provide to our young people. Sincerely, Eli V. Hestermann, Ph.D. Associate Professor Department of Biology Furman University Page 10 of 132

237 GREEN Charter School To Whom It May Concern: I am thrilled to lend my support to the creation of the Greenville Renewable Energy Education Charter School proposal. Given our city s leadership in sustainability efforts, such a school seems like a logical extension of our efforts to keep the green in Greenville by providing the opportunity for young people to learn about and critically assess issues of sustainability and renewable energy. I am particularly impressed by the proposal to make this an open, public school, available to children from all communities. Sincerely, M. Carmela Epright Associate Professor Department of Philosophy Furman University 3300 Poinsett Hwy Greenville, SC Page 11 of 132

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239 GREEN Charter School Table 1 - Grade Distribution of Parent's Children in the Public Support Survey for the GREEN Charter School K Total Page 13 of 132

240 GREEN Charter School Sample Public Support Survey (Hard Copies of Parent Support Surveys will be presented to the Charter School Advisory Committee and the Sponsoring District (SCPCSD)) Page 14 of 132

241 GREEN Charter School ACADEMIC PLAN Page 15 of 132

242 GREEN Charter School APPENDIX ITEM 3: STUDENT ENROLLMENT YEAR SCHOOL GRADE LEVEL K Kindergarten P P P EL EL EL EL EL HS HS HS 11 HS 12 ADM Page 16 of 132

243 GREEN Charter School APPENDIX ITEM 4: SC STANDARDS SAMPLES & CORRELATIONS WITH OTHER CURRICULA Samples from SC Academic Standards and other curricula that the GREEN Charter School will use are provided below. For the complete description and listings of standards and correlation matrices, follow the hyperlinks provided below. Page 17 of 132

244 GREEN Charter School SC ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS STANDARDS SAMPLE ( KINDERGARTEN READING Understanding and Using Literary Texts Standard K-1 The student will begin to read and comprehend a variety of literary texts in print and nonprint formats. Students in kindergarten will begin to read four major types of literary texts: fiction, literary nonfiction, poetry, and drama. In the category of fiction, they read the following specific types of texts: picture books and fantasy. In the category of literary nonfiction, autobiographical and biographical sketches are read aloud to students. In the category of poetry, they read nursery and counting rhymes, songs, narrative poems, lyrical poems, humorous poems, and free verse. Indicators K-1.1 K-1.2 K-1.3 K-1.4 K-1.5 K-1.6 K-1.7 K-1.8 K-1.9 K-1.10 K-1.11 Summarize the main idea and details from literary texts read aloud. Use pictures and words to make predictions regarding a story read aloud. Understand that a narrator tells the story. Find examples of sound devices (including onomatopoeia and alliteration) in texts read aloud. Generate a retelling that identifies the characters and the setting in a story and relates the important events in sequential order. Discuss how the author s choice of words affects the meaning of the text (for example, yell rather than said). Use relevant details in summarizing stories read aloud. Create responses to literary texts through a variety of methods (for example, writing, creative dramatics, and the visual and performing arts). Recall the characteristics of fantasy. Explain the cause of an event described in stories read aloud. Read independently for pleasure. Page 18 of 132

245 GREEN Charter School KINDERGARTEN READING Understanding and Using Informational Texts Standard K-2 The student will begin to read and comprehend a variety of informational texts in print and nonprint formats. Kindergarten students read informational (expository/persuasive/argumentative) texts of the following types: informational trade books and magazine articles. They also read directions, graphs, and recipes embedded in informational texts. Indicators K-2.1 K-2.2 K-2.3 K-2.4 K-2.5 K-2.6 K-2.7 K-2.8 K-2.9 Summarize the central idea and details from informational texts read aloud. Analyze texts during classroom discussions to make inferences. Find facts in texts read aloud. Create responses to informational texts through a variety of methods (for example, drawings, written works, and oral presentations). Understand that headings and print styles (for example, italics, bold, larger type) provide information to the reader. Understand graphic features (for example, illustrations and graphs). Recognize tables of contents. Explain the cause of an event described in a text read aloud. Read independently to gain information. Page 19 of 132

246 GREEN Charter School SC MATHEMATICS STANDARDS SAMPLE ( GRADE 1 Mathematical Processes The mathematical processes provide the framework for teaching, learning, and assessing in mathematics at all grade levels. Instructional programs should be built around these processes. Standard 1-1: The student will understand and utilize the mathematical processes of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation. The indicators for this standard, which are appropriate for kindergarten through grade two, are adapted from Principles and Standards for School Mathematics (NCTM 2000). Classroom application should be based on the standard and its indicators; the mathematical goals for the class; and the skills, needs, and understandings of the particular students. Indicators Apply substantive mathematical problem-solving strategies Generate conjectures and exchange mathematical ideas Explain and justify answers to simple problems Analyze patterns by reasoning systematically Generalize mathematical concepts Use a variety of forms of mathematical communication Generalize connections among mathematics, the environment, and other subjects Use multiple informal representations to convey mathematical ideas. Page 20 of 132

247 GREEN Charter School GRADE 1 Number and Operations Standard 1-2: The student will demonstrate through the mathematical processes a sense of quantity and numeral relationships; the relationships among addition, subtraction, and related basic facts; and the connections among numeric, oral, and written-word forms of whole numbers. a) Indicators Translate between numeral and quantity through Use estimation to determine the approximate number of objects in a set of 20 to 100 objects Represent quantities in word form through ten Recognize whole-number words that correspond to numerals through twenty Compare whole-number quantities through 100 by using the terms is greater than, is less than, and is equal to Recall basic addition facts through and corresponding subtraction facts Summarize the inverse relationship between addition and subtraction Generate strategies to add and subtract without regrouping through two-digit numbers Analyze the magnitude of digits through 999 on the basis of their place values. Page 21 of 132

248 GREEN Charter School SC SCIENCE STANDARDS SAMPLE ( GRADE 5 Scientific Inquiry The skills of scientific inquiry, including a knowledge of the use of tools, will be assessed cumulatively on statewide tests. Students will therefore be responsible for the scientific inquiry indicators from all of their earlier grade levels. A table of the K 12 scientific inquiry standards and indicators is provided in appendix A. Standard 5-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific inquiry, including the foundations of technological design and the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a controlled scientific investigation. (i) Indicators Identify questions suitable for generating a hypothesis Identify independent (manipulated), dependent (responding), and controlled variables in an experiment Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations, manipulating one variable at a time Use appropriate tools and instruments (including a timing device and a 10x magnifier) safely and accurately when conducting a controlled scientific investigation Construct a line graph from recorded data with correct placement of independent (manipulated) and dependent (responding) variables Evaluate results of an investigation to formulate a valid conclusion based on evidence and communicate the findings of the evaluation in oral or written form Use a simple technological design process to develop a solution or a product, communicating the design by using descriptions, models, and drawings Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations. Page 22 of 132

249 GREEN Charter School GRADE 5 Ecosystems: Terrestrial and Aquatic Standard 5-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of relationships among biotic and abiotic factors within terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. (Life Science) Indicators Recall the cell as the smallest unit of life and identify its major structures (including cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus, and vacuole) Summarize the composition of an ecosystem, considering both biotic factors (including populations to the level of microorganisms and communities) and abiotic factors Compare the characteristics of different ecosystems (including estuaries/salt marshes, oceans, lakes and ponds, forests, and grasslands) Identify the roles of organisms as they interact and depend on one another through food chains and food webs in an ecosystem, considering producers and consumers (herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores), decomposers (microorganisms, termites, worms, and fungi), predators and prey, and parasites and hosts Explain how limiting factors (including food, water, space, and shelter) affect populations in ecosystems. Page 23 of 132

250 GREEN Charter School SC SOCIAL SCIENCE STANDARDS SAMPLE ( GRADE 8 South Carolina: One of the United States Standard 8-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the American Civil War its causes and effects and the major events that occurred during that time. Indicators Explain the importance of agriculture in antebellum South Carolina, including plantation life, slavery, and the impact of the cotton gin. (H, G, E) Explain the impact of key events leading to South Carolina s secession from the Union, including the nullification crisis and John C. Calhoun, the Missouri Compromise, the Tariff of 1832, the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraska Act and subsequent armed conflict, the Dred Scott decision, the growth of the abolitionist movement, and the election of (H, P, G) Draw conclusions about how sectionalism arose from events or circumstances of racial tension, internal population shifts, and political conflicts, including the Denmark Vesey plot, slave codes, and the African American population majority. (H, P, E) Compare the attitudes of the unionists, cooperationists, and secessionists in South Carolina and summarize the reasons that the members of the South Carolina secession convention in 1860 voted unanimously to secede from the Union, including concerns about states rights and fears about abolition. (H, P, G, E) Compare the military strategies of the North and South with regard to specific events and geographic locations in South Carolina, including the capture of Port Royal, the Union blockade of Charleston, and Sherman s march through the state. (H, P, G) Compare the effects of the Civil War on daily life in South Carolina, including the experiences of plantation owners, women, Confederate and Union soldiers, African Americans, and children. (H, E) Page 24 of 132

251 GREEN Charter School GRADE 8 South Carolina: One of the United States Standard 8-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the impact of Reconstruction on the people and government of South Carolina. Indicators Explain the purposes of Reconstruction with attention to the economic, social, political, and geographic problems facing the South, including reconstruction of towns, factories, farms, and transportation systems; the effects of emancipation; racial tension; tension between social classes; and disagreement over voting rights. (H, G, P, E) Summarize Reconstruction in South Carolina and its effects on daily life in South Carolina, including the experiences of plantation owners, small farmers, freedmen, women, and northern immigrants. (H, P, E) Summarize the events and the process that led to the ratification of South Carolina s constitution of 1868, including African American representation in the constitutional convention; the major provisions of the constitution; and the political and social changes that allowed African Americans, Northerners, carpetbaggers, and scalawags to play a part in South Carolina state government. (H, P) Explain how events during Reconstruction improved opportunities for African Americans but created a backlash that, by the end of Reconstruction, negated the gains African Americans had made, including the philanthropy of northern aid societies, the assistance provided by the federal government such as the Freedmen s Bureau, and their advancement in politics and education. (H, P, E) Summarize the successes and failures that occurred in South Carolina during Reconstruction, including the bribery of legislators, corruption in political parties, the development of public education, and violence during the election of (H, P) Page 25 of 132

252 GREEN Charter School CORRELATIONS OF CPM CORE CONNECTIONS TO COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS ( Page 26 of 132

253 CORRELATION OF CPM CORE CONNECTIONS TO COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS The following correlations align CPM Core Connections, Courses 1, 2, and 3 to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Grades 6 through 8. STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE The CPM Connections texts are fully aligned with the CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice. The CPM Connections curriculum since its inception (1989) has been based on principles of course design that are based solidly on the methodological research in teaching mathematics; on the NCTM process standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, representation, and connections; and more recently on the proficiencies of adaptive reasoning, strategic competence, conceptual understanding, procedural fluency, and productive disposition from the National Research Council s Adding It Up. the Standards are naturally integrated as a core foundation throughout the entire CPM curriculum. CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively. 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others. 4. Model with mathematics. 5. Use appropriate tools strategically. 6. Attend to precision. 7. Look for and make use of structure. 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning. For more information about how CPM courses are aligned with the CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice, go to CPM s course design is thus based on these three principles: students learn best when engaged in inquiry that leads to deep conceptual understanding of the underlying mathematics, exploiting each others insights, and using distributed learning to increases retention and transfer of knowledge. CPM Connections integrates basic skills and procedures with conceptual understanding, encouraging students to understand ideas, see relationships between them, and apply mathematical principles to complex problems. Students are held responsible for high academic rigor, analysis, and critical thinking, and communicate their mathematical findings in writing or in oral presentations in a clear and convincing manner. The CPM Connections series predates the CCSS Standards for Mathematical Practice by several years, yet the practices advocated by Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 1 Introduction

254 STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL CONTENT Section numbers listed are where the primary citation for each standard occurs. It is very important to note that most standards are developed over time in many lessons previous to the primary citation given. Furthermore, standards are regularly practiced throughout subsequent lessons and homework. Even more practice on the standards can be found in the Core Connections Extra Practice supplement provided for download at no charge. The teacher notes provided at the beginning of each lesson in the CPM Teacher Edition provide clarity to educators on the purpose of some problems and how the mathematics in the standards are developed over time students apply y=mx+b to a special case, and they practice multiple representations throughout the homework. Additional practice for this standard can also be found in Core Connections Extra Practice topic #45. Other standards are developed similarly over time, before and after the citation given below. A major tenet of the CPM curriculum is mastery over time. For example, while the citation for standard 8.EE.6 (derive y=mx+b) is given as Course 8 Section 7.2.4, the development of conceptual understanding of that standard is not limited to one lesson, or even one chapter. Indeed, students have been developing understanding of the slope as similar triangles indicating the growth rate and the y-intercept as the starting point since the first chapter. The human graph in Course 8 Lesson already informally makes the connection between the components of y=mx+b and position on a graph. Then in Section 3.1 (tile patterns, John s Giant Redwood, and the Big C, among others) start becoming fluent with using multiple representations to represent growth ( m ) and starting point ( b ), including with equations in the form y=mx+b. The formal terminology of y=mx+b is introduced in Chapter 4 where students are continuing to build multiple representations of linear functions. The practice with growth and starting point of a linear function continues until slope is formally developed with similar triangles in Section 7.2. The citation for the correlation of standards 8.EE.6 is finally made in Lesson where students pull together all their previous understanding and reinforce their understanding of the components of y=mx+b in the Line Factory investigation. But deep conceptual understanding of, modeling with, and practical application of the standard was actually developed over the course of seven chapters. Application of the y=mx+b even continues after the citation: in Lesson Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 2 Introduction

255 Mathematics Content Standards for Grade 6 In Grade 6, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) connecting ratio and rate to whole number multiplication and division and using concepts of ratio and rate to solve problems; (2) completing understanding of division of fractions and extending the notion of number to the system of rational numbers, which includes negative numbers; (3) writing, interpreting, and using expressions and equations; and (4) developing understanding of statistical thinking. (1) Students use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems about quantities. By viewing equivalent ratios and rates as deriving from, and extending, pairs of rows (or columns) in the multiplication table, and by analyzing simple drawings that indicate the relative size of quantities, students connect their understanding of multiplication and division with ratios and rates. Thus students expand the scope of problems for which they can use multiplication and division to solve problems, and they connect ratios and fractions. Students solve a wide variety of problems involving ratios and rates. (2) Students use the meaning of fractions, the meanings of multiplication and division, and the relationship between multiplication and division to understand and explain why the procedures for dividing fractions make sense. Students use these operations to solve problems. Students extend their previous understandings of number and the ordering of numbers to the full system of rational numbers, which includes negative rational numbers, and in particular negative integers. They reason about the order and absolute value of rational numbers and about the location of points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. (3) Students understand the use of variables in mathematical expressions. They write expressions and equations that correspond to given situations, evaluate expressions, and use expressions and formulas to solve problems. Students understand that expressions in different forms can be equivalent, and they use the properties of operations to rewrite expressions in equivalent forms. Students know that the solutions of an equation are the values of the variables that make the equation true. Students use properties of operations and the idea of maintaining the equality of both sides of an equation to solve simple one-step equations. Students construct andchangeto MA analyze tables, such as tables of quantities that are in equivalent ratios, and they use equations (such as 3x = y) to describe relationships between quantities. (4) Building on and reinforcing their understanding of number, students begin to develop their ability to think statistically. Students recognize that a data distribution may not have a definite center and that different ways to measure center yield different values. The median measures center in the sense that it is roughly the middle value. The mean measures center in the sense that it is the value that each data point would take on if the total of the data values were redistributed equally, and also in the sense that it is a balance point. Students recognize that a measure of variability (interquartile range or mean absolute deviation) can also be useful for summarizing data because two very different sets of data can have the same mean and median yet be distinguished by their variability. Students learn to describe and summarize numerical data sets, identifying clusters, peaks, gaps, and symmetry, considering the context in which the data were collected. Students in Grade 6 also build on their work with area in elementary school by reasoning about relationships among shapes to determine area, surface area, and volume. They find areas of right triangles, other triangles, and special quadrilaterals by decomposing these shapes, rearranging or removing pieces, and relating the shapes to rectangles. Using these methods, students discuss, develop, and justify formulas for areas of triangles and parallelograms. Students find areas of polygons and surface areas of prisms and pyramids by decomposing them into pieces whose area they can determine. They reason about right rectangular prisms with fractional side lengths to extend formulas for the volume of a right rectangular prism to fractional side lengths. They prepare for work on scale drawings and constructions in Grade 7 by drawing polygons in the coordinate plane. Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 3 Core Connections 1 (CCSS Grade 6)

256 Ratios and Proportional Relationships 6.RP Understand ratio concepts and use ratio reasoning to solve problems. 6.RP1. Understand the concept of a ratio and use ratio language to describe a ratio relationship between two quantities. For example, The ratio of wings to beaks in the bird house at the zoo was 2:1, because fo revery 2 wings there was 1 beak. For every vote candidate A received, candidate C received nearly three votes. 6.RP2. Understand the concept of a unit rate a/b associated with a ratio a:b with b 0, and use rate language in the context of a ratio relationship. For example, This recipe has a ratio of 3 cups of flour to 4 cups of sugar, so there is 3/4 cup of flour for each cup of sugar. We paid $75 for 15 hamburgers, which is a rate of $5 per hamburger. (Expectations for unit rates in this grade are limited to non-complex fractions.) 6.RP3. Use ratio and rate reasoning to solve real-world and mathematical problems, e.g., by reasoning about tables of equivalent ratios, tape diagrams, double number line diagrams, or equations. 6.RP3a. Make tables of equivalent ratios relating quantities with whole number measurements, find missing values in the tables, and plot the pairs of values on the coordinate plane. Use tables to compare ratios. 6.RP3b. Solve unit rate problems including those involving unit pricing and constant speed. For example, if it took 7 hours to mow 4 lawns, then at that rate, how many lawns could be mowed in 35 hours? At what rate were lawns being mowed? 6.RP3c. Find a percent of a quantity as a rate per 100 (e.g., 30% of a quantity means 30/100 times the quantity); solve problems involving finding the whole, given a part and the percent. 6.RP3d. Use ratio reasoning to convert measurement units; manipulate and transform units appropriately when multiplying or dividing quantities. Final Development in Core Connections 1 Classwork 3.1.6, 4.2.3, , The Number System 6.NS Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions by fractions. Final Development in Core Connections 1 Classwork 6.NS1. Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) (3/4) and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (2/3) (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (a/b) (c/d) = ad/bc.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a 6.1.2, 6.1.3, rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi? Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples. 6.NS2. Fluently divide multi-digit numbers using the standard algorithm NS3. Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm for each operation , 5.2.1, NS4. Find the greatest common factor of two whole numbers less than or equal to 100 and the least common multiple of two whole numbers less than or equal to 12. Use the distributive property to express a sum of two whole numbers with a common factor as a multiple of a sum of two whole numbers with no common factor. For example, express as 4 (9 + 2) , Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 4 Core Connections 1 (CCSS Grade 6)

257 Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers. 6.NS5. Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0 in each situation. 6.NS6. Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the plane with negative number coordinates. 6.NS6ai. Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself, e.g., ( 3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite. 6.NS6b. Understand signs of numbers in ordered pairs as indicating locations in quadrants of the coordinate plane; recognize that when two ordered pairs differ only by signs, the locations of the points are related by reflections across one or both axes. 6.NS6c. Find and position integers and other rational numbers on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram; find and position pairs of integers and other rational numbers on a coordinate plane. 6.NS7. Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers. 6.NS7a. Interpret statements of inequality as statements about the relative position of two numbers on a number line diagram. For example, interpret 3 > 7 as a statement that 3 is located to the right of 7 on a number line oriented from left to right. 6.NS7b. Write, interpret, and explain statements of order for rational numbers in real-world contexts. For example, write 3! C > 7! C to express the fact that 3! C is warmer than 7! C. 6.NS7c. Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real-world situation. For example, for an account balance of 30 dollars, write 30 = 30 to describe the size of the debt in dollars. 6.NS7d. Distinguish comparisons of absolute value from statements about order. For example, recognize that an account balance less than 30 dollars represents a debt greater than 30 dollars. 6.NS8. Solve real-world and mathematical problems by graphing points in all four quadrants of the coordinate plane. Include use of coordinates and absolute value to find distances between points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Final Development in Core Connections 1 Classwork , Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 5 Core Connections 1 (CCSS Grade 6)

258 Final Development in Core Connections 1 Classwork Expressions and Equations 6.EE Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions. 6.EE1. Write and evaluate numerical expressions involving whole-number exponents , EE2. Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers. 6.EE2a. Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for numbers. For example, express the calculation Subtract y from 5 as 5 y. 6.EE2b. Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor, quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as both a single entity and a sum of two terms. 6.EE2c. Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise from formulas used in real-world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including those involving whole number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the formulas V = s 3 and A = 6 s 2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of length s = 1/2. 6.EE3. Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply the distributive property to the expression 3 (2 + x) to produce the equivalent expression 6 + 3x; apply the distributive property to the expression 24x + 18y to produce the equivalent expression 6 (4x + 3y); apply properties of operations to y + y + y to produce the equivalent expression 3y. 6.EE4. Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions y + y + y and 3y are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which number y stands for. Reason about and solve one-variable equations and inequalities. 6.EE5. Understand solving an equation or inequality as a process of answering a question: which values from a specified set, if any, make the equation or inequality true? Use substitution to determine whether a given number in a specified set makes an equation or inequality true. 6.EE6. Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real-world or mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or, depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. 6.EE7. Solve real-world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form x + p = q and px = q for cases in which p, q and x are all nonnegative rational numbers. 6.EE8. Write an inequality of the form x > c or x < c to represent a constraint or condition in a real-world or mathematical problem. Recognize that inequalities of the form x > c or x < c have infinitely many solutions; represent solutions of such inequalities on number line diagrams. Represent and analyze quantitative relationships between dependent and independent variables. 6.EE9. Use variables to represent two quantities in a real-world problem that change in relationship to one another; write an equation to express one quantity, thought of as the dependent variable, in terms of the other quantity, thought of as the independent variable. Analyze the relationship between the dependent and independent variables using graphs and tables, and relate these to the equation. For example, in a problem involving motion at constant speed, list and graph ordered pairs of distances and times, and write the equation d = 65t to represent the relationship between distance and time , , 6.2.1, , 6.2.3, , , 4.1.3, , Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 6 Core Connections 1 (CCSS Grade 6)

259 Geometry 6.G Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume. 6.G1. Find the area of right triangles, other triangles, special quadrilaterals, and polygons by composing into rectangles or decomposing into triangles and other shapes; apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. 6.G2. Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with fractional edge lengths by packing it with unit cubes of the appropriate unit fraction edge lengths, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths of the prism. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with fractional edge lengths in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. 6.G3. Draw polygons in the coordinate plane given coordinates for the vertices; use coordinates to find the length of a side joining points with the same first coordinate or the same second coordinate. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. 6.G4. Represent three-dimensional figures using nets made up of rectangles and triangles, and use the nets to find the surface area of these figures. Apply these techniques in the context of solving real-world and mathematical problems. Final Development in Core Connections 1 Classwork 1.1.2, , 5.1.4, 5.1.5, Statistics and Probability 6.SP Develop understanding of statistical variability. 6.SP1. Recognize a statistical question as one that anticipates variability in the data related to the question and accounts for it in the answers. For example, How old am I? is not a statistical question, but How old are the students in my school? is a statistical question because one anticipates variability in students ages. 6.SP2. Understand that a set of data collected to answer a statistical question has a distribution which can be described by its center, spread, and overall shape. 6.SP3. Recognize that a measure of center for a numerical data set summarizes all of its values with a single number, while a Final Development in Core Connections 1 Classwork , measure of variation describes how its values vary with a single number. Summarize and describe distributions. 6.SP4. Display numerical data in plots on a number line, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots , 2.1.1, 2.1.2, SP5. Summarize numerical data sets in relation to their context, such as by: 6.SP5a. Reporting the number of observations SP5b. Describing the nature of the attribute under investigation, including how it was measured and its units of measurement. 6.SP5c. Giving quantitative measures of center (median and/or mean) and variability (interquartile range and/or mean absolute deviation), as well as describing any overall pattern and any striking deviations from the overall pattern with reference to the context in which the data were gathered. 6.SP5d. Relating the choice of measures of center and variability to the shape of the data distribution and the context in which the data were gathered , , 8.1.3, Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 7 Core Connections 1 (CCSS Grade 6)

260 Mathematics Content Standards for Grade 7 In Grade 7, instructional time should focus on four critical areas: (1) developing understanding of and applying proportional relationships; (2) developing understanding of operations with rational numbers and working with expressions and linear equations; (3) solving problems involving scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and working with two- and three-dimensional shapes to solve problems involving area, surface area, and volume; and (4) drawing inferences about populations based on samples. (1) Students extend their understanding of ratios and develop understanding of proportionality to solve single- and multi-step problems. Students use their understanding of ratios and proportionality to solve a wide variety of percent problems, including those involving discounts, interest, taxes, tips, and percent increase or decrease. Students solve problems about scale drawings by relating corresponding lengths between the objects or by using the fact that relationships of lengths within an object are preserved in similar objects. Students graph proportional relationships and understand the unit rate informally as a measure of the steepness of the related line, called the slope. They distinguish proportional relationships from other relationships. (3) Students continue their work with area from Grade 6, solving problems involving the area and circumference of a circle and surface area of threedimensional objects. In preparation for work on congruence and similarity in Grade 8 they reason about relationships among two-dimensional figures using scale drawings and informal geometric constructions, and they gain familiarity with the relationships between angles formed by intersecting lines. Students work with three-dimensional figures, relating them to twodimensional figures by examining cross-sections. They solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes and right prisms. (4) Students build on their previous work with single data distributions to compare two data distributions and address questions about differences between populations. They begin informal work with random sampling to generate data sets and learn about the importance of representative samples for drawing inferences. (2) Students develop a unified understanding of number, recognizing fractions, decimals (that have a finite or a repeating decimal representation), and percents as different representations of rational numbers. Students extend addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to all rational numbers, maintaining the properties of operations and the relationships between addition and subtraction, and multiplication and division. By applying these properties, and by viewing negative numbers in terms of everyday contexts (e.g., amounts owed or temperatures below zero), students explain and interpret the rules for adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing with negative numbers. They use the arithmetic of rational numbers as they formulate expressions and equations in one variable and use these equations to solve problems. Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 8 Core Connections 2 (CCSS Grade 7)

261 Ratios and Proportional Relationships 7.RP Analyze proportional relationships and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. 7.RP1. Compute unit rates associated with ratios of fractions, including ratios of lengths, areas and other quantities measured in like or different units. For example, if a person walks 1/2 mile in each 1/4 hour, compute the unit rate as the complex fraction 1/2/1/4 miles per hour, equivalently 2 miles per hour. 7.RP2. Recognize and represent proportional relationships between quantities. 7.RP2a. Decide whether two quantities are in a proportional relationship, e.g., by testing for equivalent ratios in a table or graphing on a coordinate plane and observing whether the graph is a straight line through the origin. 7.RP2b. Identify the constant of proportionality (unit rate) in tables, graphs, equations, diagrams, and verbal descriptions of proportional relationships. 7.RP2c. Represent proportional relationships by equations. For example, if total cost t is proportional to the number n of items purchased at a constant price p, the relationship between the total cost and the number of items can be expressed as t = pn. 7.RP2d. Explain what a point (x, y) on the graph of a proportional relationship means in terms of the situation, with special attention to the points (0, 0) and (1, r) where r is the unit rate. 7.RP3. Use proportional relationships to solve multi-step ratio and percent problems. Examples: simple interest, tax, markups and markdowns, gratuities and commissions, fees, percent increase and decrease, percent error. Final Development in Core Connections 2 Classwork , , , 5.1.2, Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 9 Core Connections 2 (CCSS Grade 7)

262 The Number System 7.NS Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers. 7.NS1. Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line diagram. 7.NS1a. Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged. 7.NS1b. Understand p + q as the number located a distance q from p, in the positive or negative direction depending on whether q is positive or negative. Show that a number and its opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts. 7.NS1c. Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, p q = p + ( q). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in realworld contexts. Final Development in Core Connections 2 Classwork NS1d. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers , 3.2.4, NS2. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to multiply and divide rational numbers. 7.NS2a. Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the distributive property, leading to products such as ( 1)( 1) = 1 and the rules for multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real-world contexts. 7.NS2b. Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every quotient of integers (with non-zero divisor) is a rational number. If p and q are integers, then (p/q) = ( p)/q = p/( q). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing real world contexts , 3.1.2, 3.2.1, , NS2c. Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers NS2d. Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know 1.1.5, that the decimal form of a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats. 7.NS3. Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational numbers. (Computations with 3.2.2, 3.2.4, 7.1.2, rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions.) Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 10 Core Connections 2 (CCSS Grade 7)

263 Expressions and Equations 7.EE Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. 7.EE1. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add, subtract, factor, and expand linear expressions with rational coefficients. 7.EE2. Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, a a = 1.05a means that increase by 5% is the same as multiply by Solve real-life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and equations. 7.EE3. Solve multi-step real-life and mathematical problems posed with positive and negative rational numbers in any form (whole numbers, fractions, and decimals), using tools strategically. Apply properties of operations to calculate with numbers in any form; convert between forms as appropriate; and assess the reasonableness of answers using mental computation and estimation strategies. For example: If a woman making $25 an hour gets a 10% raise, she will make an additional 1/10 of her salary an hour, or $2.50, for a new salary of $ If you want to place a towel bar 9 3/4 inches long in the center of a door that is 27 1/2 inches wide, you will need to place the bar about 9 inches from each edge; this estimate can be used as a check on the exact computation. 7.EE4. Use variables to represent quantities in a real-world or mathematical problem, and construct simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities. 7.EE4a. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form px + q = r and p(x + q) = r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently. Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its length is 6 cm. What is its width? 7.EE4b. Solve word problems leading to inequalities of the form px + q > r or px + q < r, where p, q, and r are specific rational numbers. Graph the solution set of the inequality and interpret it in the context of the problem. For example: As a salesperson, you are paid $50 per week plus $3 per sale. This week you want your pay to be at least $100. Write an inequality for the number of sales you need to make, and describe the solutions. Final Development in Core Connections 2 Classwork 6.2.3, , , 6.2.5, , Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 11 Core Connections 2 (CCSS Grade 7)

264 Geometry 7.G Draw, construct, and describe geometrical figures and describe the relationships between them. 7.G1. Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different scale. 7.G2. Draw (freehand, with ruler and protractor, and with technology) geometric shapes with given conditions. Focus on constructing triangles from three measures of angles or sides, noticing when the conditions determine a unique triangle, more than one triangle, or no triangle. 7.G3. Describe the two-dimensional figures that result from slicing three dimensional figures, as in plane sections of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids. Solve real-life and mathematical problems involving angle measure, area, surface area, and volume. 7.G4. Know the formulas for the area and circumference of a circle and use them to solve problems; give an informal derivation of the relationship between the circumference and area of a circle. 7.G5. Use facts about supplementary, complementary, vertical, and adjacent angles in a multi-step problem to write and solve simple equations for an unknown angle in a figure. 7.G6. Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, volume and surface area of two- and three-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. Final Development in Core Connections 2 Classwork 3.3.1, , , , Statistics and Probability 7.SP Use random sampling to draw inferences about a population. 7.SP1. Understand that statistics can be used to gain information about a population by examining a sample of the population; generalizations about a population from a sample are valid only if the sample is representative of that population. Understand that random sampling tends to produce representative samples and support valid inferences. 7.SP2. Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a population with an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (or simulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be. Final Development in Core Connections 2 Classwork 8.2.1, Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 12 Core Connections 2 (CCSS Grade 7)

265 Draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. 7.SP3. Informally assess the degree of visual overlap of two numerical data distributions with similar variabilities, measuring the difference between the centers by expressing it as a multiple of a measure of variability. For example, the mean height of players on the basketball team is 10 cm greater than the mean height of players on the soccer team, about twice the variability (mean absolute deviation) on either team; on a dot plot, the separation between the two distributions of heights is noticeable. 7.SP4. Use measures of center and measures of variability for numerical data from random samples to draw informal comparative inferences about two populations. For example, decide whether the words in a chapter of a seventh-grade science book are generally longer than the words in a chapter of a fourth-grade science book. Investigate chance processes and develop, use, and evaluate probability models. 7.SP5. Understand that the probability of a chance event is a number between 0 and 1 that expresses the likelihood of the event occurring. Larger numbers indicate greater likelihood. A probability near 0 indicates an unlikely event, a probability around 1/2 indicates an event that is neither unlikely nor likely, and a probability near 1 indicates a likely event. 7.SP6. Approximate the probability of a chance event by collecting data on the chance process that produces it and observing its long-run relative frequency, and predict the approximate relative frequency given the probability. For example, when rolling a number cube 600 times, predict that a 3 or 6 would be rolled roughly 200 times, but probably not exactly 200 times. 7.SP7. Develop a probability model and use it to find probabilities of events. Compare probabilities from a model to observed frequencies; if the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancy. 7.SP7a. Develop a uniform probability model by assigning equal probability to all outcomes, and use the model to determine probabilities of events. For example, if a student is selected at random from a class, find the probability that Jane will be selected and the probability that a girl will be selected. 7.SP7b. Develop a probability model (which may not be uniform) by observing frequencies in data generated from a chance process. For example, find the approximate probability that a spinning penny will land heads up or that a tossed paper cup will land open-end down. Do the outcomes for the spinning penny appear to be equally likely based on the observed frequencies? 7.SP8. Find probabilities of compound events using organized lists, tables, tree diagrams, and simulation. 7.SP8a. Understand that, just as with simple events, the probability of a compound event is the fraction of outcomes in the sample spacefor which the compound event occurs. 7.SP8b. Represent sample spaces for compound events using methods such as organized lists, tables and tree diagrams. For an event described in everyday language (e.g., rolling double sixes ), identify the outcomes in the sample space which compose the event. 7.SP8c. Design and use a simulation to generate frequencies for compound events. For example, use random digits as a simulation tool to approximate the answer to the question: If 40% of donors have type A blood, what is the probability that it will take at least 4 donors to find one with type A blood? Final Development in Core Connections 2 Classwork 8.1.1, , , , 1.2.8, , Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 13 Core Connections 2 (CCSS Grade 7)

266 Mathematics Content Standards for Grade 8 In Grade 8, instructional time should focus on three critical areas: (1) formulating and reasoning about expressions and equations, including modeling an association in bivariate data with a linear equation, and solving linear equations and systems of linear equations; (2) grasping the concept of a function and using functions to describe quantitative relationships; (3) analyzing two- and three-dimensional space and figures using distance, angle, similarity, and congruence, and understanding and applying the Pythagorean Theorem. (1) Students use linear equations and systems of linear equations to represent, analyze, and solve a variety of problems. Students recognize equations for proportions (y/x = m or y = mx) as special linear equations (y = mx + b), understanding that the constant of proportionality (m) is the slope, and the graphs are lines through the origin. They understand that the slope (m) of a line is a constant rate of change, so that if the input or x-coordinate changes by an amount A, the output or y-coordinate changes by the amount m*a. Students also use a linear equation to describe the association between two quantities in bivariate data (such as arm span vs. height for students in a classroom). At this grade, fitting the model, and assessing its fit to the data are done informally. Interpreting the model in the context of the data requires students to express a relationship between the two quantities in question and to interpret components of the relationship (such as slope and y-intercept) in terms of the situation. Students strategically choose and efficiently implement procedures to solve linear equations in one variable, understanding that when they use the properties of equality and the concept of logical equivalence, they maintain the solutions of the original equation. Students solve systems of two linear equations in two variables and relate the systems to pairs of lines in the plane; these intersect, are parallel, or are the same line. Students use linear equations, systems of linear equations, linear functions, and their understanding of slope of a line to analyze situations and solve problems. (2) Students grasp the concept of a function as a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. They understand that functions describe situations where one quantity determines another. They can translate among representations and partial representations of functions (noting that tabular and graphical representations may be partial representations), and they describe how aspects of the function are reflected in the different representations. (3) Students use ideas about distance and angles, how they behave under translations, rotations, reflections, and dilations, and ideas about congruence and similarity to describe and analyze two-dimensional figures and to solve problems. Students show that the sum of the angles in a triangle is the angle formed by a straight line, and that various configurations of lines give rise to similar triangles because of the angles created when a transversal cuts parallel lines. Students understand the statement of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse, and can explain why the Pythagorean Theorem holds, for example, by decomposing a square in two different ways. They apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find distances between points on the coordinate plane, to find lengths, and to analyze polygons. Students complete their work on volume by solving problems involving cones, cylinders, and spheres. Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 14 Core Connections 3 (CCSS Grade 8)

267 The Number System 8.NS Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 8.NS1. Understand informally that every number has a decimal expansion; the rational numbers are those with decimal expansions that terminate in 0s or eventually repeat. Know that other numbers are called irrational. 8.NS2. Use rational approximations of irrational numbers to compare the size of irrational numbers, locate them approximately on a number line diagram, and estimate the value of expressions (e.g., π2). For example, by truncating the decimal expansion of 2, show that 2 is between 1 and 2, then between 1.4 and 1.5, and explain how to continue on to get better approximations. Expressions and Equations 8.EE Work with radicals and integer exponents. 8.EE1. Know and apply the properties of integer exponents to generate equivalent numerical expressions. For example, 3 2 x3!5 = 3!3 = 1 / 3 3 = 1/27 8.EE2. Use square root and cube root symbols to represent solutions to equations of the form x 2 = p and x 3 = p, where p is a positive rational number. Evaluate square roots of small perfect squares and cube roots of small perfect cubes. Know that 2 is irrational. 8.EE3. Use numbers expressed in the form of a single digit times an integer power of 10 to estimate very large or very small quantities, and to express how many times as much one is than the other. For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 x 10 8 and the population of the world as 7 x 10 9, and determine that the world population is more than 20 times larger. 8.EE4. Perform operations with numbers expressed in scientific notation, including problems where both decimal and scientific notation are used. Use scientific notation and choose units of appropriate size for measurements of very large or very small quantities (e.g., use millimeters per year for seafloor spreading). Interpret scientific notation that has been generated by technology. Understand the connections between proportional relationships, lines, and linear equations. 8.EE5. Graph proportional relationships, interpreting the unit rate as the slope of the graph. Compare two different proportional relationships represented in different ways. For example, compare a distance-time graph to a distance-time equation to determine which of two moving objects has greater speed. 8.EE6. Use similar triangles to explain why the slope m is the same between any two distinct points on a non-vertical line in the coordinate plane; derive the equation y = mx for a line through the origin and the equation y = mx + b for a line intercepting the vertical axis at b. Final Development in Core Connections 3 Classwork Final Development in Core Connections 3 Classwork , , Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 15 Core Connections 3 (CCSS Grade 8)

268 Analyze and solve linear equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations. 8.EE7. Solve linear equations in one variable. 8.EE7a. Give examples of linear equations in one variable with one solution, infinitely many solutions, or no solutions. Show which of these possibilities is the case by successively transforming the given equation into simpler forms, until an equivalent equation of the form x = a, a = a, or a = b results (where a and b are different numbers). 8.EE7b. Solve linear equations with rational number coefficients, including equations whose solutions require expanding expressions using the distributive property and collecting like terms. 8.EE8. Analyze and solve pairs of simultaneous linear equations. 8.EE8a. Understand that solutions to a system of two linear equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. 8.EE8b. Solve systems of two linear equations in two variables algebraically, and estimate solutions by graphing the equations. Solve simple cases by inspection. For example, 3x + 2y = 5 and 3x + 2y = 6 have no solution because 3x + 2y cannot simultaneously be 5 and 6. 8.EE8c. Solve real-world and mathematical problems leading to two linear equations in two variables. For example, given coordinates for two pairs of points, determine whether the line through the first pair of points intersects the line through the second pair. Final Development in Core Connections 3 Classwork , , , Functions 8.F Define, evaluate, and compare functions. 8.F1. Understand that a function is a rule that assigns to each input exactly one output. The graph of a function is the set of ordered pairs consisting of an input and the corresponding output. (Function notation is not required in Grade 8.) 8.F2. Compare properties of two functions each represented in a different way (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, given a linear function represented by a table of values and a linear function represented by an algebraic expression, determine which function has the greater rate of change. 8.F3. Interpret the equation y = mx + b as defining a linear function, whose graph is a straight line; give examples of functions that are not linear. For example, the function A = s 2 giving the area of a square as a function of its side length is not linear because its graph contains the points (1,1), (2,4) and (3,9), which are not on a straight line. Use functions to model relationships between quantities. 8.F4. Construct a function to model a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and initial value of the function from a description of a relationship or from two (x, y) values, including reading these from a table or from a graph. Interpret the rate of change and initial value of a linear function in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. 8.F5. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by analyzing a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, linear or nonlinear). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that has been described verbally. Final Development in Core Connections 3 Classwork , 8.3.1, , , 7.3.2, Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 16 Core Connections 3 (CCSS Grade 8)

269 Geometry 8.G Understand congruence and similarity using physical models, transparencies, or geometry software. 8.G1. Verify experimentally the properties of rotations, reflections, and translations: Final Development in Core Connections 3 Classwork 8.G1a. Lines are taken to lines, and line segments to line segments of the same length , G1b. Angles are taken to angles of the same measure , G1c. Parallel lines are taken to parallel lines , G2. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is congruent to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a , sequence of rotations, reflections, and translations; given two congruent figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the congruence between them. 8.G3. Describe the effect of dilations, translations, rotations, and reflections on two-dimensional figures using coordinates , G4. Understand that a two-dimensional figure is similar to another if the second can be obtained from the first by a sequence , of rotations, reflections, translations, and dilations; given two similar two-dimensional figures, describe a sequence that exhibits the similarity between them. 8.G5. Use informal arguments to establish facts about the angle sum and exterior angle of triangles, about the angles created when parallel lines are cut by a transversal, and the angle-angle criterion for similarity of triangles. For example, arrange three copies of the same triangle so that the sum of the three angles appears to form a line, and give an argument in terms of transversals why this is so. Understand and apply the Pythagorean Theorem. 8.G6. Explain a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem and its converse G7. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to determine unknown side lengths in right triangles in real-world and mathematical 9.2.4, problems in two and three dimensions. 8.G8. Apply the Pythagorean Theorem to find the distance between two points in a coordinate system Solve real-world and mathematical problems involving volume of cylinders, cones, and spheres. 8.G9. Know the formulas for the volumes of cones, cylinders, and spheres and use them to solve real-world and mathematical problems. Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 17 Core Connections 3 (CCSS Grade 8)

270 Statistics and Probability 8.SP Investigate patterns of association in bivariate data. 8.SP1. Construct and interpret scatter plots for bivariate measurement data to investigate patterns of association between two quantities. Describe patterns such as clustering, outliers, positive or negative association, linear association, and nonlinear association. 8.SP2. Know that straight lines are widely used to model relationships between two quantitative variables. For scatter plots that suggest a linear association, informally fit a straight line, and informally assess the model fit by judging the closeness of the data points to the line. 8.SP3. Use the equation of a linear model to solve problems in the context of bivariate measurement data, interpreting the slope and intercept. For example, in a linear model for a biology experiment, interpret a slope of 1.5 cm/hr as meaning that an additional hour of sunlight each day is associated with an additional 1.5 cm in mature plant height. 8.SP4. Understand that patterns of association can also be seen in bivariate categorical data by displaying frequencies and relative frequencies in a two-way table. Construct and interpret a two-way table summarizing data on two categorical variables collected from the same subjects. Use relative frequencies calculated for rows or columns to describe possible association between the two variables. For example, collect data from students in your class on whether or not they have a curfew on school nights and whether or not they have assigned chores at home. Is there evidence that those who have a curfew also tend to have chores? Final Development in Core Connections 3 Classwork 7.1.2, , , Correlation of CPM Core Connections to CCSS Standards Page 18 Core Connections 3 (CCSS Grade 8)

271 GREEN Charter School SAMPLES OF COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS ( Page 27 of 132

272 Common Core State Standards for ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Reading Standards for Literature K 5 RL RL The following standards offer a focus for instruction each year and help ensure that students gain adequate exposure to a range of texts and tasks. Rigor is also infused through the requirement that students read increasingly complex texts through the grades. Students advancing through the grades are expected to meet each year s grade-specific standards and retain or further develop skills and understandings mastered in preceding grades. Kindergartners: Grade 1 students: Grade 2 students: Key Ideas and Details 1. With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1. Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1. Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. 2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. 3. With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story. Craft and Structure 4. Ask and answer questions about unknown words in a text. 5. Recognize common types of texts (e.g., storybooks, poems). 6. With prompting and support, name the author and illustrator of a story and define the role of each in telling the story. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. With prompting and support, describe the relationship between illustrations and the story in which they appear (e.g., what moment in a story an illustration depicts). 2. Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson. 3. Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details. 4. Identify words and phrases in stories or poems that suggest feelings or appeal to the senses. 5. Explain major differences between books that tell stories and books that give information, drawing on a wide reading of a range of text types. 6. Identify who is telling the story at various points in a text. 7. Use illustrations and details in a story to describe its characters, setting, or events. 2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral. 3. Describe how characters in a story respond to major events and challenges. 4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. 5. Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action. 6. Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud. 7. Use information gained from the illustrations and words in a print or digital text to demonstrate understanding of its characters, setting, or plot. 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 11 K-5 Reading: Literature 9. With prompting and support, compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in familiar stories. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. Actively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. 9. Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters in stories. 10. With prompting and support, read prose and poetry of appropriate complexity for grade Compare and contrast two or more versions of the same story (e.g., Cinderella stories) by different authors or from different cultures. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories and poetry, in the grades 2 3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.

273 Common Core State Standards for ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Reading Standards for Literature K 5 RL Key Ideas and Details Grade 3 students: Grade 4 students: Grade 5 students: 1. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. 1. Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 1. Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. 3. Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. Craft and Structure 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, distinguishing literal from nonliteral language. 5. Refer to parts of stories, dramas, and poems when writing or speaking about a text, using terms such as chapter, scene, and stanza; describe how each successive part builds on earlier sections. 2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. 3. Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character s thoughts, words, or actions). 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including those that allude to significant characters found in mythology (e.g., Herculean). 5. Explain major differences between poems, drama, and prose, and refer to the structural elements of poems (e.g., verse, rhythm, meter) and drama (e.g., casts of characters, settings, descriptions, dialogue, stage directions) when writing or speaking about a text. 2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. 3. Compare and contrast two or more characters, settings, or events in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., how characters interact). 4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative language such as metaphors and similes. 5. Explain how a series of chapters, scenes, or stanzas fits together to provide the overall structure of a particular story, drama, or poem. 12 K-5 Reading: Literature 6. Distinguish their own point of view from that of the narrator or those of the characters. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 7. Explain how specific aspects of a text s illustrations contribute to what is conveyed by the words in a story (e.g., create mood, emphasize aspects of a character or setting). 6. Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. 7. Make connections between the text of a story or drama and a visual or oral presentation of the text, identifying where each version reflects specific descriptions and directions in the text. 6. Describe how a narrator s or speaker s point of view influences how events are described. 7. Analyze how visual and multimedia elements contribute to the meaning, tone, or beauty of a text (e.g., graphic novel, multimedia presentation of fiction, folktale, myth, poem). 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 8. (Not applicable to literature) 9. Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series). Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 2 3 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 9. Compare and contrast the treatment of similar themes and topics (e.g., opposition of good and evil) and patterns of events (e.g., the quest) in stories, myths, and traditional literature from different cultures. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, in the grades 4 5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 9. Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics. 10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poetry, at the high end of the grades 4 5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

274 GREEN Charter School SAMPLES OF COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICS ( Page 28 of 132

275 Common Core State Standards for MATHEMATICS Number and Operations Fractions 5.NF Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions. 1. Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/ /12 = 23/12. (In general, a/b + c/d = (ad + bc)/bd.) 2. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole, including cases of unlike denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. Use benchmark fractions and number sense of fractions to estimate mentally and assess the reasonableness of answers. For example, recognize an incorrect result 2/5 + 1/2 = 3/7, by observing that 3/7 < 1/2. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and divide fractions. 3. Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (a/b = a b). Solve word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4 multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50-pound sack of rice equally by weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers does your answer lie? 4. Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole number by a fraction. a. Interpret the product (a/b) q as a parts of a partition of q into b equal parts; equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations a q b. For example, use a visual fraction model to show (2/3) 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this equation. Do the same with (2/3) (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (a/b) (c/d) = ac/bd.) b. Find the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with unit squares of the appropriate unit fraction side lengths, and show that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths. Multiply fractional side lengths to find areas of rectangles, and represent fraction products as rectangular areas. 5. Interpret multiplication as scaling (resizing), by: a. Comparing the size of a product to the size of one factor on the basis of the size of the other factor, without performing the indicated multiplication. b. Explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction greater than 1 results in a product greater than the given number (recognizing multiplication by whole numbers greater than 1 as a familiar case); explaining why multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 results in a product smaller than the given number; and relating the principle of fraction equivalence a/b = (n a)/(n b) to the effect of multiplying a/b by Solve real world problems involving multiplication of fractions and mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the problem. 7. Apply and extend previous understandings of division to divide unit fractions by whole numbers and whole numbers by unit fractions. 1 a. Interpret division of a unit fraction by a non-zero whole number, 1 Students able to multiply fractions in general can develop strategies to divide fractions in general, by reasoning about the relationship between multiplication and division. But division of a fraction by a fraction is not a requirement at this grade. grade 5 36

276 Common Core State Standards for MATHEMATICS and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for (1/3) 4, and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that (1/3) 4 = 1/12 because (1/12) 4 = 1/3. b. Interpret division of a whole number by a unit fraction, and compute such quotients. For example, create a story context for 4 (1/5), and use a visual fraction model to show the quotient. Use the relationship between multiplication and division to explain that 4 (1/5) = 20 because 20 (1/5) = 4. c. Solve real world problems involving division of unit fractions by non-zero whole numbers and division of whole numbers by unit fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem. For example, how much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate equally? How many 1/3-cup servings are in 2 cups of raisins? Measurement and Data 5.MD Convert like measurement units within a given measurement system. 1. Convert among different-sized standard measurement units within a given measurement system (e.g., convert 5 cm to 0.05 m), and use these conversions in solving multi-step, real world problems. Represent and interpret data. 2. Make a line plot to display a data set of measurements in fractions of a unit (1/2, 1/4, 1/8). Use operations on fractions for this grade to solve problems involving information presented in line plots. For example, given different measurements of liquid in identical beakers, find the amount of liquid each beaker would contain if the total amount in all the beakers were redistributed equally. Geometric measurement: understand concepts of volume and relate volume to multiplication and to addition. 3. Recognize volume as an attribute of solid figures and understand concepts of volume measurement. a. A cube with side length 1 unit, called a unit cube, is said to have one cubic unit of volume, and can be used to measure volume. b. A solid figure which can be packed without gaps or overlaps using n unit cubes is said to have a volume of n cubic units. 4. Measure volumes by counting unit cubes, using cubic cm, cubic in, cubic ft, and improvised units. 5. Relate volume to the operations of multiplication and addition and solve real world and mathematical problems involving volume. a. Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with whole-number side lengths by packing it with unit cubes, and show that the volume is the same as would be found by multiplying the edge lengths, equivalently by multiplying the height by the area of the base. Represent threefold whole-number products as volumes, e.g., to represent the associative property of multiplication. b. Apply the formulas V = l w h and V = b h for rectangular prisms to find volumes of right rectangular prisms with wholenumber edge lengths in the context of solving real world and mathematical problems. c. Recognize volume as additive. Find volumes of solid figures composed of two non-overlapping right rectangular prisms by adding the volumes of the non-overlapping parts, applying this technique to solve real world problems. grade 5 37

277 GREEN Charter School SAMPLES OF STC PROGRAM S CORRELATION WITH SC SCIENCE STANDARDS ( STC_K-5.pdf) Page 29 of 132

278 Standards and Indicators A Correlation of the STC PROGRAM (grades K 5) with the South Carolina Science Academic Standards Scientific Inquiry Standard K-1: The student will demonstrate an understanding of scientific inquiry, including the processes, skills, and mathematical thinking necessary to conduct a simple scientific investigation. K-1.1. Identify observed objects or events by using the senses. KINDERGARTEN Curriculum Location CM - TG: All lessons O - TG: All lessons SL - TG: All lessons W - TG: All lessons except L07 and L10 K-1.2 Use tools (including magnifiers and eyedroppers) safely, accurately, and appropriately when gathering specific data. K-1.3 Predict and explain information or events based on observation or previous experience. K-1.4 Compare objects by using nonstandard units of measurement. K-1.5 Use appropriate safety procedures when conducting investigations. Characteristics of Organisms Standard K-2: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the characteristics of organisms. (Life Science) CM - TG: All lessons O - TG: All lessons except L01 SL - TG: All lessons W - TG: L04-8 (pp33-82) W - TG: L10 (pp91-100) CM - TG: L04 (pp23-30) CM - TG: L05 (pp31-42) CM - TG: L08 (pp59-64) CM - TG: L11 (pp75-80) CM - TG: L12 (pp81-86) CM - TG: L14 (pp93-98) CM - TG: L16 (pp ) O - TG: L03 (pp21-36) SL - TG: L01-8 (pp3-68) SL - TG: L10 (pp81-86) SL - TG: L11.Exts (p92) SL - TG: L12.Exts (p98) SL - TG: L13 (pp ) SL - TG: L15 (pp ) SL - TG: L16 (pp ) CM - TG: All lessons CM - TG: S-Sec3 (pp8-11) O - TG: S-Sec3 (pp19-24) SL - TG: L10 (pp81-86) SL - TG: S-Sec3 (pp9-18) W - TG: L04-5 (pp33-54) W - TG: L07-9 (pp63-90) W - TG: L11 (pp ) W - TG: L13 (pp ) W - TG: S-Sec3 (pp9-12) Page 3 of 34

279 K-2.1 Recognize what organisms need to stay alive (including air, water, food, and shelter). K-2.2 Identify examples of organisms and nonliving things. K-2.3 Match parents with their offspring to show that plants and animals closely resemble their parents. O - TG: All lessons except L11 O - TG: L01 (pp3-10) O - TG: L15 (pp ) O - TG: L17 (pp ) O - TG: L07-10 (pp75-118) K-2.4 Compare individual examples of a particular type of plant or animal to determine that there are differences among individuals. K-2.5 Recognize that all organisms go through stages of growth and change called life cycles. My Body Standard K-3: The student will demonstrate an understanding of the distinct structures of human body and the different functions they serve. (Life Science) K-3.1 Identify the distinct structures in the human body that are for walking, holding, touching, seeing, smelling, hearing, talking, and tasting. K-3.2 Identify the functions of the sensory organs (including the eyes, nose, ears, tongue, and skin). Seasonal Changes Standard K-4: The student will demonstrate an understanding of seasonal weather changes. (Earth Science) K-4.1 Identify weather changes that occur from day to day. K-4.2 Compare the weather patterns that occur from season to season. K-4.3 Summarize ways that the seasons affect plants and animals. Exploring Matter Standard K-5: The student will demonstrate the understanding that objects can be described by their observable properties. (Physical Science) K-5.1 Classify objects by observable properties (including size, color, shape, magnetic attraction, heaviness, texture, and the ability to float in water). O - TG: All lessons except L13 O - TG: L16 (pp ) W - TG: All lessons except L03 O - TG: L04.Exts (pp43-45) O - TG: L04.Exts (pp43-45) CM - TG: L01-4 (pp3-30) CM - TG: L17 (pp ) SL - TG: L01.Exts (pp7-8) SL - TG: L02-8 (pp11-68) SL - TG: L14-15 (pp ) K-5.2 Compare the properties of different types of materials (including wood, plastic, metal, cloth, and paper) from which objects are made. Page 4 of 34

280 SAMPLES OF EVERYDAY MATHEMATICS AND THE STANDARDS FOR MATHEMATICAL PRACTICE ( Page 30 of 132

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283 SAMPLE FROM THE NEED CURRICULUM SC STATE STANDARDS CORRELATIONS ( Page 31 of 132

284 NATIONAL SCIENCE EDUCATION STANDARDS 1 Science teaching is a complex activity that lies at the heart of the vision of science education presented in the Standards. The teaching standards provide criteria for making judgments about progress toward the vision; they describe what teachers of science at all grade levels should understand and be able to do. To highlight the importance of teachers in science education, these standards are presented first. However, to attain the vision of science education described in the Standards, change is needed in the entire system. Teachers are central to education, but they must not be placed in the position of being solely responsible for reform. Teachers will need to work within a collegial, organizational, and policy context that is supportive of good science teaching. In addition, students must accept and share responsibility for their own learning. In the vision of science education portrayed by the Standards, effective teachers of science create an environment in which they work together as active learners. While students are engaged in learning about the natural world and the scientific principles needed to understand it, teachers are working with their colleagues to expand their knowledge about science teaching. To 1 National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. Page 32 of 132

285 teach science as portrayed by the Standards, teachers must have theoretical and practical knowledge and abilities about science, learning, and science teaching. The standards for science teaching are grounded in five assumptions. The vision of science education described by the Standards requires changes throughout the entire system. What students learn is greatly influenced by how they are taught. The actions of teachers are deeply influenced by their perceptions of science as an enterprise and as a subject to be taught and learned. Student understanding is actively constructed through individual and social processes. Actions of teachers are deeply influenced by their understanding of and relationships with students. The vision of science education described by the standards requires changes throughout the entire system. The educational system must act to sustain effective teaching. The routines, rewards, structures, and expectations of the system must endorse the vision of science teaching portrayed by the Standards. Teachers must be provided with resources, time, and opportunities to make change as described in the program and system standards. They must work within a framework that encourages their efforts. The changes required in the educational system to support quality science teaching are major ones. Each component of the system will change at a different pace, and most changes will be incremental. Nonetheless, changes in teaching must begin before all of the systemic problems are solved. Page 33 of 132

286 What students learn is greatly influenced by how they are taught. The decisions about content and activities that teachers make, their interactions with students, the selection of assessments, the habits of mind that teachers demonstrate and nurture among their students, and the attitudes conveyed wittingly and unwittingly all affect the knowledge, understanding, abilities, and attitudes that students develop. The actions of teachers are deeply influenced by their perceptions of science as an enterprise and as a subject to be taught and learned. All teachers of science have implicit and explicit beliefs about science, learning, and teaching. Teachers can be effective guides for students learning science only if they have the opportunity to examine their own beliefs, as well as to develop an understanding of the tenets on which the Standards are based Student understanding is actively constructed through individual and social processes. In the same way that scientists develop their knowledge and understanding as they seek answers to questions about the natural world, students develop an understanding of the natural world when they are actively engaged in scientific inquiry--alone and with others. Actions of teachers are deeply influenced by their understanding of and relationships with students. The standards for science teaching require building strong, sustained relationships with students. These relationships are grounded in knowledge and awareness of the similarities and differences in students' backgrounds, experiences, and current views of science. The diversity of Page 34 of 132

287 today's student population and the commitment to science education for all requires a firm belief that all students can learn science. The Standards Dividing science teaching into separate components oversimplifies a complex process; nevertheless, some division is required to manage the presentation of criteria for good science teaching, accepting that this leaves some overlap. In addition, the teaching standards cannot possibly address all the understanding and abilities that masterful teachers display. Therefore, the teaching standards focus on the qualities that are most closely associated with science teaching and with the vision of science education described in the Standards. The teaching standards begin with a focus on the long-term planning that teachers do. The discussion then moves to facilitating learning, assessment, and the classroom environment. Finally, the teaching standards address the teacher's role in the school community. The standards are applicable at all grade levels, but the teaching at different grade levels will be different to reflect the capabilities and interests of students at different ages. Teachers across the country will find some of their current practices reflected below. They also will find criteria that suggest new and different practices. Because change takes time and takes place at the local level, differences in individuals, schools, and communities will be reflected in different pathways to reform, different rates of progress, and different emphases. For example, a beginning teacher might focus on developing skills in managing the learning environment rather than on long-term planning, whereas a more experienced group of teachers might work together on new modes for assessing student achievement. Deliberate movement Page 35 of 132

288 over time toward the vision of science teaching described here is important if reform is to be pervasive and permanent. TEACHING STANDARD A: Teachers of science plan an inquiry-based science program for their students. In doing this, teachers Develop a framework of year-long and short-term goals for students. Select science content and adapt and design curricula to meet the interests, knowledge, understanding, abilities, and experiences of students. Select teaching and assessment strategies that support the development of student understanding and nurture a community of science learners. Work together as colleagues within and across disciplines and grade levels. Develop a framework of yearly and short-term goals for students. All teachers know that planning is a critical component of effective teaching. One important aspect of planning is setting goals. In the vision of science education described in the Standards, teachers of science take responsibility for setting yearlong and short-term goals; in doing so, they adapt school and district program goals, as well as state and national goals, to the experiences and interests of their students individually and as a group. Once teachers have devised a framework of goals, plans remain flexible. Decisions are visited and revisited in the light of experience. Teaching for understanding requires responsiveness to students, so activities and strategies are continuously adapted and refined to address topics arising from student inquiries and experiences, as well as school, community, and national events. Teachers also change their plans based on the assessment and analysis of student Page 36 of 132

289 achievement and the prior knowledge and beliefs students have demonstrated. Thus, an inquiry might be extended because it sparks the interest of students, an activity might be added because a particular concept has not been understood, or more group work might be incorporated into the plan to encourage communication. A challenge to teachers of science is to balance and integrate immediate needs with the intentions of the yearlong framework of goals. During planning, goals are translated into a curriculum of specific topics, units, and sequenced activities that help students make sense of their world and understand the fundamental ideas of science. The content standards, as well as state, district, and school frameworks, provide guides for teachers as they select specific science topics. Some frameworks allow teachers choices in determining topics, sequences, activities, and materials. Others mandate goals, objectives, content, and materials. In either case, teachers examine the extent to which a curriculum includes inquiry and direct experimentation as methods for developing understanding. In planning and choosing curricula, teachers strive to balance breadth of topics with depth of understanding. Select science content and adapt and design curricula to meet the interests, knowledge, understanding, abilities, and experiences of students. In determining the specific science content and activities that make up a curriculum, teachers consider the students who will be learning the science. Whether working with mandated content and activities, selecting from extant activities, or creating original activities, teachers plan to meet the particular interests, knowledge, and skills of their students and build on their questions and ideas. Such decisions rely heavily on a teacher's knowledge of students' cognitive potential, developmental level, physical attributes, affective development, and motivation--and how they learn. Teachers are aware of and understand common concepts in science for given Page 37 of 132

290 grade levels, as well as the cultural and experiential background of students and the effects these have on learning. Teachers also consider their own strengths and interests and take into account available resources in the local environment. For example, in Cleveland, the study of Lake Erie, its pollution, and clean-up is an important part of a science curriculum, as is the study of earthquakes in the Los Angeles area. Teachers can work with local personnel, such as those at science-rich centers (museums, industries, universities, etc.), to plan for the use of exhibits and educational programs that enhance the study of a particular topic. Select teaching and assessment strategies that support the development of student understanding and nurture a community of science learners. Over the years, educators have developed many teaching and learning models relevant to classroom science teaching. Knowing the strengths and weaknesses of these models, teachers examine the relationship between the science content and how that content is to be taught. Teachers of science integrate a sound model of teaching and learning, a practical structure for the sequence of activities, and the content to be learned. Inquiry into authentic questions generated from student experiences is the central strategy for teaching science. Teachers focus inquiry predominantly on real phenomena, in classrooms, outdoors, or in laboratory settings, where students are given investigations or guided toward fashioning investigations that are demanding but within their capabilities. As more complex topics are addressed, students cannot always return to basic phenomena for every conceptual understanding. Nevertheless, teachers can take an inquiry approach as they guide students in acquiring and interpreting information from sources such as libraries, government documents, and computer databases--or as they gather information from experts from industry, the community, and the government. Other teaching strategies rely on teachers, Page 38 of 132

291 texts, and secondary sources--such as video, film, and computer simulations. When secondary sources of scientific knowledge are used, students need to be made aware of the processes by which the knowledge presented in these sources was acquired and to understand that the sources are authoritative and accepted within the scientific community. Another dimension of planning relates to the organization of students. Science often is a collaborative endeavor, and all science depends on the ultimate sharing and debating of ideas. When carefully guided by teachers to ensure full participation by all, interactions among individuals and groups in the classroom can be vital in deepening the understanding of scientific concepts and the nature of scientific endeavors. The size of a group depends on age, resources, and the nature of the inquiry. Teachers of science must decide when and for what purposes to use class discussions, small-group collaboration, and individual work. For example, investigating simple electric circuits initially might best be explored individually. As students move toward building complex circuits, small group interactions might be more effective to share ideas and materials, and a fullclass discussion may later be used to verify experiences and draw conclusions. The plans of teachers provide opportunities for all students to learn science. Therefore, planning is heavily dependent on the teacher's awareness and understanding of the diverse abilities, interests, and cultural backgrounds of the students in the classroom. Planning also takes into account the social structure of the classroom and the challenges posed by diverse student groups. Effective planning includes sensitivity to student views that might conflict with current scientific knowledge and strategies that help to support alternative ways of understanding the world while exploring the scientific explanations. Page 39 of 132

292 Teachers plan activities that the students will use to assess the understanding and abilities that students hold when they begin a learning activity. In addition, appropriate ways are designed to monitor the development of knowledge, understanding, and abilities as students pursue their work throughout the academic year. Work together as colleagues within and across disciplines and grade levels. Individual and collective planning is a cornerstone of science teaching; it is a vehicle for professional support and growth. In the vision of science education described in the Standards, many planning decisions are made by groups of teachers at grade and building levels to construct coherent and articulated programs within and across grades. Schools must provide teachers with time and access to their colleagues and others who can serve as resources if collaborative planning is to occur. TEACHING STANDARD B: Teachers of science guide and facilitate learning. In doing this, teachers Focus and support inquiries while interacting with students. Orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas. Challenge students to accept and share responsibility for their own learning. Recognize and respond to student diversity and encourage all students to participate fully in science learning. Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas and data, and skepticism that characterize science. Page 40 of 132

293 Coordinating people, ideas, materials, and the science classroom environment are difficult, continual tasks. This standard focuses on the work that teachers do as they implement the plans of Standard A in the classroom. At all stages of inquiry, teachers guide, focus, challenge, and encourage student learning. Teachers of science constantly make decisions, such as when to change the direction of a discussion, how to engage a particular student, when to let a student pursue a particular interest, and how to use an opportunity to model scientific skills and attitudes. Teachers must struggle with the tension between guiding students toward a set of predetermined goals and allowing students to set and meet their own goals. Teachers face a similar tension between taking the time to allow students to pursue an interest in greater depth and the need to move on to new areas to be studied. Furthermore, teachers constantly strike a balance among the demands of the understanding and ability to be acquired and the demands of student-centered developmental learning. The result of making these decisions is the enacted curriculum--the planned curriculum as it is modified and shaped by the interactions of students, teachers, materials, and daily life in the classroom. Focus and support inquiries. Student inquiry in the science classroom encompasses a range of activities. Some activities provide a basis for observation, data collection, reflection, and analysis of firsthand events and phenomena. Other activities encourage the critical analysis of secondary sources-- including media, books, and journals in a library. [See Content Standard A (all grade levels) [K-4] f5-81 [9-12]] Page 41 of 132

294 In successful science classrooms, teachers and students collaborate in the pursuit of ideas, and students quite often initiate new activities related to an inquiry. Students formulate questions and devise ways to answer them, they collect data and decide how to represent it, they organize data to generate knowledge, and they test the reliability of the knowledge they have generated. As they proceed, students explain and justify their work to themselves and to one another, learn to cope with problems such as the limitations of equipment, and react to challenges posed by the teacher and by classmates. Students assess the efficacy of their efforts--they evaluate the data they have collected, re-examining or collecting more if necessary, and making statements about the generalizability of their findings. They plan and make presentations to the rest of the class about their work and accept and react to the constructive criticism of others. At all stages of inquiry, teachers guide, focus, challenge, and encourage student learning. Successful teachers are skilled observers of students, as well as knowledgeable about science and how it is learned. Teachers match their actions to the particular needs of the students, deciding when and how to guide--when to demand more rigorous grappling by the students, when to provide information, when to provide particular tools, and when to connect students with other sources. In the science classroom envisioned by the Standards, effective teachers continually create opportunities that challenge students and promote inquiry by asking questions. Although open exploration is useful for students when they encounter new materials and phenomena, teachers need to intervene to focus and challenge the students, or the exploration might not lead to understanding. Premature intervention deprives students of the opportunity to confront problems and find solutions, but intervention that occurs too late risks student frustration. Teachers also must decide when to challenge students to make sense of their experiences: At Page 42 of 132

295 these points, students should be asked to explain, clarify, and critically examine and assess their work. Orchestrate discourse among students about scientific ideas. An important stage of inquiry and of student science learning is the oral and written discourse that focuses the attention of students on how they know what they know and how their knowledge connects to larger ideas, other domains, and the world beyond the classroom. Teachers directly support and guide this discourse in two ways: They require students to record their work--teaching the necessary skills as appropriate--and they promote many different forms of communication (for example, spoken, written, pictorial, graphic, mathematical, and electronic). Using a collaborative group structure, teachers encourage interdependency among group members, assisting students to work together in small groups so that all participate in sharing data and in developing group reports. Teachers also give groups opportunities to make presentations of their work and to engage with their classmates in explaining, clarifying, and justifying what they have learned. The teacher's role in these small and larger group interactions is to listen, encourage broad participation, and judge how to guide discussion--determining ideas to follow, ideas to question, information to provide, and connections to make. In the hands of a skilled teacher, such group work leads students to recognize the expertise that different members of the group bring to each endeavor and the greater value of evidence and argument over personality and style. Challenge students to accept and share responsibility for their own learning. Page 43 of 132

296 Teachers make it clear that each student must take responsibility for his or her work. The teacher also creates opportunities for students to take responsibility for their own learning, individually and as members of groups. Teachers do so by supporting student ideas and questions and by encouraging students to pursue them. Teachers give individual students active roles in the design and implementation of investigations, in the preparation and presentation of student work to their peers, and in student assessment of their own work. Recognize and respond to student diversity and encourage all students to participate fully in science learning. In all aspects of science learning as envisioned by the Standards, skilled teachers recognize the diversity in their classes and organize the classroom so that all students have the opportunity to participate fully. Teachers monitor the participation of all students, carefully determining, for instance, if all members of a collaborative group are working with materials or if one student is making all the decisions. This monitoring can be particularly important in classes of diverse students, where social issues of status and authority can be a factor. Teachers who are enthusiastic, interested, and who speak of the power and beauty of scientific understanding instill in their students some of those same attitudes Teachers of science orchestrate their classes so that all students have equal opportunities to participate in learning activities. Students with physical disabilities might require modified equipment; students with limited English ability might be encouraged to use their own language as well as English and to use forms of presenting data such as pictures and graphs that require less language proficiency; students with learning disabilities might need more time to complete science activities. Page 44 of 132

297 Encourage and model the skills of scientific inquiry, as well as the curiosity, openness to new ideas, and skepticism that characterize science. Implementing the recommendations above requires a range of actions based on careful assessments of students, knowledge of science, and a repertoire of science-teaching strategies. One aspect of the teacher's role is less tangible: teachers are models for the students they teach. A teacher who engages in inquiry with students models the skills needed for inquiry. Teachers who exhibit enthusiasm and interest and who speak to the power and beauty of scientific understanding instill in their students some of those same attitudes toward science. Teachers whose actions demonstrate respect for differing ideas, attitudes, and values support a disposition fundamental to science and to science classrooms that also is important in many everyday situations. The ability of teachers to do all that is required by Standard B requires a sophisticated set of judgments about science, students, learning, and teaching. To develop these judgments, successful teachers must have the opportunity to work with colleagues to discuss, share, and increase their knowledge. They are also more likely to succeed if the fundamental beliefs about students and about learning are shared across their school community in all learning domains. Successful implementation of this vision of science teaching and learning also requires that the school and district provide the necessary resources, including time, science materials, professional development opportunities, appropriate numbers of students per teacher, and appropriate schedules. For example, class periods must be long enough to enable the type of inquiry teaching described here to be achieved. TEACHING STANDARD C: Page 45 of 132

298 Teachers of science engage in ongoing assessment of their teaching and of student learning. In doing this, teachers Use multiple methods and systematically gather data about student understanding and ability. Analyze assessment data to guide teaching. Guide students in self-assessment. Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to reflect on and improve teaching practice. Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to report student achievement and opportunities to learn to students, teachers, parents, policy makers, and the general public. The word "assessment" is commonly equated with testing, grading, and providing feedback to students and parents. However, these are only some of the uses of assessment data. Assessment of students and of teaching--formal and informal-provides teachers with the data they need to make the many decisions that are required to plan and conduct their teaching. Assessment data also provide information for communicating about student progress with individual students and with adults, including parents, other teachers, and administrators. Use multiple methods and systematically gather data on student understanding and ability. During the ordinary operation of a class, information about students' understanding of science is needed almost continuously. Assessment tasks are not afterthoughts to instructional planning but are built into the design of the teaching. Because assessment information is a powerful tool for monitoring the development of student understanding, modifying activities, Page 46 of 132

299 and promoting student self-reflection, the effective teacher of science carefully selects and uses assessment tasks that are also good learning experiences. These assessment tasks focus on important content and performance goals and provide students with an opportunity to demonstrate their understanding and ability to conduct science. Also, teachers use many strategies to gather and interpret the large amount of information about student understanding of science that is present in thoughtful instructional activities. Classroom assessments can take many forms. Teachers observe and listen to students as they work individually and in groups. They interview students and require formal performance tasks, investigative reports, written reports, pictorial work, models, inventions, and other creative expressions of understanding. They examine portfolios of student work, as well as more traditional paper-and-pencil tests. Each mode of assessment serves particular purposes and particular students. Each has particular strengths and weaknesses and is used to gather different kinds of information about student understanding and ability. The teacher of science chooses the form of the assessment in relationship to the particular learning goals of the class and the experiences of the students. Analyze assessment data to guide teaching. Analysis of student assessment data provides teachers with knowledge to meet the needs of each student. It gives them indicators of each student's current understanding, the nature of each student's thinking, and the origin of what each knows. This knowledge leads to decisions about individual teacher-student interactions, to modifications of learning activities to meet diverse student needs and learning approaches, and to the design of learning activities that build from student experience, culture, and prior understanding. Guide students in self-assessment. Page 47 of 132

300 Skilled teachers guide students to understand the purposes for their own learning and to formulate self-assessment strategies. Teachers provide students with opportunities to develop their abilities to assess and reflect on their own scientific accomplishments. This process provides teachers with additional perspectives on student learning, and it deepens each student's understanding of the content and its applications. The interactions of teachers and students concerning evaluation criteria helps students understand the expectations for their work, as well as giving them experience in applying standards of scientific practice to their own and others' scientific efforts. The internalization of such standards is critical to student achievement in science. [See Improving the Classroom Practice in Chapter 51 Skilled teachers guide students to understand the purposes for their own learning and to formulate self-assessment strategies. Involving students in the assessment process does not diminish the responsibilities of the teacher--it increases them. It requires teachers to help students develop skills in self-reflection by building a learning environment where students review each other's work, offer suggestions, and challenge mistakes in investigative processes, faulty reasoning, or poorly supported conclusions. Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to reflect on and improve teaching practice. In the science education envisioned by the Standards, teachers of science approach their teaching in a spirit of inquiry--assessing, reflecting on, and learning from their own practice. They seek to understand which plans, decisions, and actions are effective in helping students and which are not. They ask and answer such questions as: "Why is this content important for this group of students at this stage of their development? Why did I select these particular learning activities? Did I choose good examples? How do the activities tie in with student needs and Page 48 of 132

301 interests? How do they build on what students already know? Do they evoke the level of reasoning that I wanted? What evidence of effect on students do I expect?" As teachers engage in study and research about their teaching, they gather data from classroom and external assessments of student achievement, from peer observations and supervisory evaluations, and from self-questioning. They use self-reflection and discussion with peers to understand more fully what is happening in the classroom and to explore strategies for improvement. To engage in reflection on teaching, teachers must have a structure that guides and encourages it-- a structure that provides opportunities to have formal and informal dialogues about student learning and their science teaching practices in forums with peers and others; opportunities to read and discuss the research literature about science content and pedagogy with other education professionals; opportunities to design and revise learning experiences that will help students to attain the desired learning; opportunities to practice, observe, critique, and analyze effective teaching models and the challenges of implementing exemplary strategies; and opportunities to build the skills of self-reflection as an ongoing process throughout each teacher's professional life. [See Program Standard F] Use student data, observations of teaching, and interactions with colleagues to report student achievement and opportunities to learn to students, teachers, parents, policy makers, and the general public. Teachers have the obligation to report student achievement data to many individuals and agencies, including the students and their parents, certification agencies, employers, policy makers, and taxpayers. Although reports might include grades, teachers might also prepare profiles of student achievement. The opportunity that students have had to learn science is also an essential component of reports on student achievement in science understanding and ability. Page 49 of 132

302 TEACHING STANDARD D: Teachers of science design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, and resources needed for learning science. In doing this, teachers Structure the time available so that students are able to engage in extended investigations. Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry. Ensure a safe working environment. Make the available science tools, materials, media, and technological resources accessible to students. Identify and use resources outside the school. Engage students in designing the learning environment. [See Program Standard D and System Standard D] Time, space, and materials are critical components of an effective science learning environment that promotes sustained inquiry and understanding. Creating an adequate environment for science teaching is a shared responsibility. Teachers lead the way in the design and use of resources, but school administrators, students, parents, and community members must meet their responsibility to ensure that the resources are available to be used. Developing a schedule that allows time for science investigations needs the cooperation of all in the school; acquiring materials requires the appropriation of funds; maintaining scientific equipment is the shared responsibility of students and adults alike; and designing appropriate use of the scientific institutions and resources in the local community requires the participation of the school and those institutions and individuals. Page 50 of 132

303 Teachers of science need regular, adequate space for science This standard addresses the classroom use of time, space, and resources--the ways in which teachers make decisions about how to design and manage them to create the best possible opportunities for students to learn science. Structure the time available so that students are able to engage in extended investigations. Building scientific understanding takes time on a daily basis and over the long term. Schools must restructure schedules so that teachers can use blocks of time, interdisciplinary strategies, and field experiences to give students many opportunities to engage in serious scientific investigation as an integral part of their science learning. When considering how to structure available time, skilled teachers realize that students need time to try out ideas, to make mistakes, to ponder, and to discuss with one another. Given a voice in scheduling, teachers plan for adequate blocks of time for students to set up scientific equipment and carry out experiments, to go on field trips, or to reflect and share with each other. Teachers make time for students to work in varied groupings--alone, in pairs, in small groups, as a whole class--and on varied tasks, such as reading, conducting experiments, reflecting, writing, and discussing. [See Program Standard F] Create a setting for student work that is flexible and supportive of science inquiry. The arrangement of available space and furnishings in the classroom or laboratory influences the nature of the learning that takes place. Teachers of science need regular, adequate space for science. They plan the use of this space to allow students to work safely in groups of various sizes at various tasks, to maintain their work in progress, and to display their results. Page 51 of 132

304 Teachers also provide students with the opportunity to contribute their ideas about use of space and furnishings. Ensure a safe working environment. Safety is a fundamental concern in all experimental science. Teachers of science must know and apply the necessary safety regulations in the storage, use, and care of the materials used by students. They adhere to safety rules and guidelines that are established by national organizations such as the American Chemical Society and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, as well as by local and state regulatory agencies. They work with the school and district to ensure implementation and use of safety guidelines for which they are responsible, such as the presence of safety equipment and an appropriate class size. Teachers also teach students how to engage safely in investigations inside and outside the classroom. [See Program Standard D] Effective science teaching depends on the availability and organization of materials, equipment, media, and technology. Make The Available Science Tools, Materials, Media, And Technological Resources Accessible To Students. Effective science teaching depends on the availability and organization of materials, equipment, media, and technology. An effective science learning environment requires a broad range of basic scientific materials, as well as specific tools for particular topics and learning experiences. Teachers must be given the resources and authority to select the most appropriate materials and to make decisions about when, where, and how to make them accessible. Such decisions balance safety, proper use, and availability with the need for students to participate actively in designing experiments, selecting tools, and constructing apparatus, all of which are Page 52 of 132

305 critical to the development of an understanding of inquiry. [See Program Standard D and System Standard D] It is also important for students to learn how to access scientific information from books, periodicals, videos, databases, electronic communication, and people with expert knowledge. Students are also taught to evaluate and interpret the information they have acquired through those resources. Teachers provide the opportunity for students to use contemporary technology as they develop their scientific understanding. IDENTIFY AND USE RESOURCES OUTSIDE THE SCHOOL. The classroom is a limited environment. The school science program must extend beyond the walls of the school to the resources of the community. Our nation's communities have many specialists, including those in transportation, health-care delivery, communications, computer technologies, music, art, cooking, mechanics, and many other fields that have scientific aspects. Specialists often are available as resources for classes and for individual students. Many communities have access to science centers and museums, as well as to the science communities in higher education, national laboratories, and industry; these can contribute greatly to the understanding of science and encourage students to further their interests outside of school. In addition, the physical environment in and around the school can be used as a living laboratory for the study of natural phenomena. Whether the school is located in a densely populated urban area, a sprawling suburb, a small town, or a rural area, the environment can and should be used as a resource for science study. Working with others in their school and with the community, teachers build these resources into their work with students. The school science program must extend beyond the walls of the school to the resources of the community. Page 53 of 132

306 Engage students in designing the learning environment. As part of challenging students to take responsibility for their learning, teachers involve them in the design and management of the learning environment. Even the youngest students can and should participate in discussions and decisions about using time and space for work. With this sharing comes responsibility for care of space and resources. As students pursue their inquiries, they need access to resources and a voice in determining what is needed. The more independently students can access what they need, the more they can take responsibility for their own work. Students are also invaluable in identifying resources beyond the school. TEACHING STANDARD E: Teachers of science develop communities of science learners that reflect the intellectual rigor of scientific inquiry and the attitudes and social values conducive to science learning. In doing this, teachers Display and demand respect for the diverse ideas, skills, and experiences of all students. Enable students to have a significant voice in decisions about the content and context of their work and require students to take responsibility for the learning of all members of the community. Nurture collaboration among students. Structure and facilitate ongoing formal and informal discussion based on a shared understanding of rules of scientific discourse. Model and emphasize the skills, attitudes, and values of scientific inquiry. The focus of this standard is the social and intellectual environment that must be in place in the classroom if all students are to succeed in learning science and have the opportunity to Page 54 of 132

307 develop the skills and dispositions for life-long learning. Elements of other standards are brought together by this standard to highlight the importance of the community of learners and what effective teachers do to foster its development. A community approach enhances learning: It helps to advance understanding, expand students' capabilities for investigation, enrich the questions that guide inquiry, and aid students in giving meaning to experiences. [See Teaching Standard B and System Standard R An assumption of the Standards is that all students should learn science through full participation and that all are capable of making meaningful contributions in science classes. The nature of the community in which students learn science is critical to making this assumption a reality. Display and demand respect for the diverse ideas, skills, and experiences of all students. Respect for the ideas, activities, and thinking of all students is demonstrated by what teachers say and do, as well as by the flexibility with which they respond to student interests, ideas, strengths, and needs. Whether adjusting an activity to reflect the cultural background of particular students, providing resources for a small group to pursue an interest, or suggesting that an idea is valuable but cannot be pursued at the moment, teachers model what it means to respect and value the views of others. Teachers teach respect explicitly by focusing on their own and students' positive interactions, as well as confronting disrespect, stereotyping, and prejudice whenever it occurs in the school environment. Science is a discipline in which creative and sometimes risky thought is important. New ideas and theories often are the result of creative leaps. For students to understand this aspect of Page 55 of 132

308 science and be willing to express creative ideas, all of the members of the learning community must support and respect a diversity of experience, ideas, thought, and expression. Teachers work with students to develop an environment in which students feel safe in expressing ideas. [See Context Standards AIK-4] r5-8] r9-12] &G [K-4] [5-8] [9-12] (all grade levels)] See the example entitled "Musical Instruments" Enable students to have a significant voice in decisions about the content and context of their work and give students significant responsibility for the learning of all members of the community. A community of science learners is one in which students develop a sense of purpose and the ability to assume responsibility for their learning. Teachers give students the opportunity to participate in setting goals, planning activities, assessing work, and designing the environment. In so doing, they give students responsibility for a significant part of their own learning, the learning of the group, and the functioning of the community. [See Improving Classroom Practice in the Assessment Standards] Nurture collaboration among students. Working collaboratively with others not only enhances the understanding of science, it also fosters the practice of many of the skills, attitudes, and values that characterize science. Effective teachers design many of the activities for learning science to require group work, not simply as an exercise, but as essential to the inquiry. The teacher's role is to structure the groups and to teach students the skills that are needed to work together. [See Content Standard A [K- 4] [5-8] [9-12] &G [K-4] [5-8] [9-12] (all grade levels)] Page 56 of 132

309 Structure and facilitate ongoing formal and informal discussion based on a shared understanding of rules of scientific discourse. A fundamental aspect of a community of learners is communication. Effective communication requires a foundation of respect and trust among individuals. The ability to engage in the presentation of evidence, reasoned argument, and explanation comes from practice. Teachers encourage informal discussion and structure science activities so that students are required to explain and justify their understanding, argue from data and defend their conclusions, and critically assess and challenge the scientific explanations of one another. Model and emphasize the skills, attitudes, and values of scientific inquiry. Certain attitudes, such as wonder, curiosity, and respect toward nature are vital parts of the science learning community. Those attitudes are reinforced when the adults in the community engage in their own learning and when they share positive attitudes toward science. Environments that promote the development of appropriate attitudes are supported by the school administration and a local community that has taken responsibility for understanding the science program and supports students and teachers in its implementation. [See Content Standard A (all grade levels) [K-4] [5-81 [9-121] Effective teachers design many of the activities for learning science to require group work, not simply as an exercise, but as essential to the inquiry. Communities of learners do not emerge spontaneously; they require careful support from skillful teachers. The development of a community of learners is initiated on the first day that a new group comes together, when the teacher begins to develop with students a vision of the class environment they wish to form. This vision is communicated, discussed, and adapted so that all Page 57 of 132

310 students come to share it and realize its value. Rules of conduct and expectations evolve as the community functions and takes shape over the weeks and months of the school year. Some students will accommodate quickly; others will be more resistant because of the responsibilities required or because of discrepancies between their perceptions of what they should be doing in school and what is actually happening. The optimal environment for learning science is constructed by students and teachers together. Doing so requires time, persistence, and skill on everyone's part. TEACHING STANDARD F: Teachers of science actively participate in the ongoing planning and development of the school science program. In doing this, teachers Plan and develop the school science program. Participate in decisions concerning the allocation of time and other resources to the science program. Participate fully in planning and implementing professional growth and development strategies for themselves and their colleagues. PLAN AND DEVELOP THE SCHOOL SCIENCE PROGRAM. The teaching in individual science classrooms is part of a larger system that includes the school, district, state, and nation. Although some teachers might choose involvement at the district, state, and national levels, all teachers have a professional responsibility to be active in some way as members of a science learning community at the school level, working with colleagues and others to improve and maintain a quality science program for all students. Many teachers already assume these responsibilities within their schools. However, they usually do so Page 58 of 132

311 under difficult circumstances. Time for such activities is minimal, and involvement often requires work after hours. Resources are likely to be scarce as well. Furthermore, the authority to plan and carry out necessary activities is not typically in the hands of teachers. Any improvement of science education will require that the structure and culture of schools change to support the collaboration of the entire school staff with resources in the community in planning, designing, and carrying out new practices for teaching and learning science. [See Teaching Standard E] Although individual teachers continually make adaptations in their classrooms, the school itself must have a coherent program of science study for students. In the vision described by the National Science Education Standards, the teachers in the school and school district have a major role in designing that program, working together across science disciplines and grade levels, as well as within levels. Teachers of science must also work with their colleagues to coordinate and integrate the learning of science understanding and abilities with learning in other disciplines. Although individual teachers continually make adaptations in their classrooms, the school itself must have a coherent program of science study for students. Teachers working together determine expectations for student learning, as well as strategies for assessing, recording, and reporting student progress. They also work together to create a learning community within the school. Participate in decisions concerning the allocation of time and other resources to the science program. Time and other resources are critical elements for effective science teaching. Teachers of science need to have a significant role in the process by which decisions are made concerning the allocation of time and resources to various subject areas. However, to assume this responsibility, Page 59 of 132

312 schools and districts must provide teachers with the opportunity to be leaders. [See Program Standard D] Participate fully in planning and implementing professional growth and development strategies for themselves and their colleagues. Working as colleagues, teachers are responsible for designing and implementing the ongoing professional development opportunities they need to enhance their skills in teaching science, as well as their abilities to improve the science programs in their schools. Often they employ the services of specialists in science, children, learning, curriculum, assessment, or other areas of interest. In doing so, they must have the support of their school districts Page 60 of 132

313 APPENDIX ITEM 5: SAMPLE SCHOOL CALENDAR AND DAILY SCHEDULE Page 61 of 132

314 Student Calendar (January 24, 2012) Important Dates 4K-12 School Start/End Dates First Day... Aug.22 *Half Days...June 4-6 Last Day... June 6 (*Half days are last 3 days of school.) H Student Holidays Labor Day... Sept. 3 Teacher Prof. Dev./Workdays... Oct Election Day...Nov. 6 Thanksgiving Break...Nov Winter Break... Dec. 20-Jan. 1 Teacher Prof. Dev./Workday... Jan. 18 MLK Day... Jan. 21 Presidents Day...Feb. 18 Spring Break... April 1-5 Teacher Prof. Dev./Workday... May 27 Makeup Days (In Order of Use) *Makeup Day 1...April 29 *Makeup Day 2...March 29 *Makeup Day 3... June 7 (*If day not needed, it becomes a student holiday) Interim Progress Reports 1st Quarter Report... Sept. 24 2nd Quarter Report... Dec. 3 3rd Quarter Report...Feb. 21 4th Quarter Report... May 6 Grading Periods End 1st Quarter... Oct. 26 End 2nd Quarter... Jan. 17 End 3rd Quarter...March 25 End 4th Quarter... June 6 Report Cards 1st Report Card...Nov. 5 2nd Report Card... Jan. 24 3rd Report Card...April 9 4th Report Card... June 11 Student Testing (Tentative) MAP Testing Window (Gr. 2-8, ID 1,9-12)... Sept High School Exit Exam (ID 9-12)... Oct CogAT Testing (Gr. 2)...Nov. 7-9 ITBS Testing (Gr. 2)...Nov MAP Testing Window (Optional) (Gr. 2-8, ID 1, 9-12)... Dec EOCEP Tests (Block HS Only)... Jan. 8-11, Exams-Full Day (MS & HS)... Jan ELDA Testing (ID Students)... Feb. 19-April 12 MAP Testing Window (Gr. 2-8, ID K, 1, 9-12)...Mar SC ALT Testing (ID Students)...March 4-April 26 PASS Writing Test (Gr. 3-8)...March High School Exit Exam (Gr. 10, ID 9, 11, 12)...April AP Testing (HS)... May 6-17 PASS - ELA, Math, Science,and Social Studies (Gr. 3-8)... May 7-10 EOCEP Tests (Middle & High) (HS Courses)...May 20-24, Exams-(MS & HS)... June 3-6 Other Important Dates 5K and First Grade Registration for Jan High School Graduations... June 5-6 4K Important Dates Half Days... Aug ,... Sept. 28, Feb. 8, June 4-6 Pre-Registration for Jan. 30-Feb. 1 Screening (No Classes)...March P.O. Box 2848 Greenville, SC School Calendar Earliest Student Attendance Day: Monday, August 19, 2013 (Note: Start date can be no earlier than 3rd Monday in August per State Law.) Calendar Development The calendar is approved each year by the superintendent after considering recommendations from a committee of PTA representatives, other parents, teachers, principals, and central office staff. The calendar committee develops its recommendations after receiving input from parent groups and school faculties. Religious Observances School officials cooperate with students and employees when they need to be absent to participate in religious observances. Students missing school are given an opportunity to make up work without penalty. Employees may use personal days (or vacation if applicable) to observe religious holidays.

315 SAMPLE MIDDLE SCHOOL SCHEDULE 8:15-8:30 Homeroom 8:35-9:30 First Period (SCIENCE) 9:34-10:30 Second Period (MATH) 10:34-11: 30 Third Period AND First Lunch (LUNCH) 11:34-12:30 Fourth Period AND Second Lunch (ELA) 12:34-1: 30 Fifth Period AND Third Lunch (SOC. ST.) 1:34-2:30 Sixth Period (ART / COMPUTER, etc.) A SAMPLE 4 YEAR COURSE PLAN 9 th 10th 11th 12th Grade Grade Grade Grade Language Arts (4 units) English I X English II x English III x English IV x Mathematics (4 units) Algebra I X Geometry x Algebra II x Advanced Algebra / Trigonometry x Science (3 units) Biology X Chemistry x Page 63 of 132

316 Physics AP Physics x x Social Studies (3 units) World History US History US Government / Economy x x xx Physical Education (1 unit) General Health / Personal Fitness xx Foreign Language (2 units +2 for Distinction) Spanish 1 Spanish 2 X x Electives Introduction to Art / Design Fundamentals Environmental Science Xx x Computer Sciences / Information Technology (4 units) Computer Applications Information Technology Foundations Web Page Design AP Computer Science Legend X x x x X: Yearlong class, Xx: Semester courses that are taken in two semesters to make one unit. Page 64 of 132

317 OPERATIONAL PLAN Page 65 of 132

318 APPENDIX 7: ANNUAL BUDGET Page 66 of 132

319 BUDGET DOCUMENTATION FROM SCDE OFFICE OF FINANCE Page 67 of 132

320 4/19/12 Per pupil Funding - State Charter School District - Brick and Mortar School Note: This is an estimated per pupil figure to be used in charter applications for schools applying to the State Charter School District Stated Per Pupil - Charter Law $2,012 Additional per pupil funding Proviso (Brick and Mortar school) $3,250 Per pupil base funding (unweighted) $5,262 * Calculation estimate if budget passes in current format (04/19/12) Charter schools may be eligible for other categorical funds based on programs offered and the student population served.

321 FIVE-YEAR BUDGET Academic School Year Number of Students FND REVENUE Revenues Contributions & Donations $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $ Education Finance Act (Kindergarten) $213, $213, $213, $213, $213, Education Finance Act (Primary) $686, $686, $686, $686, $686, Education Finance Act (Elementary) $615, $820, $1,025, $1,025, $1,025, Education Finance Act (High School) $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $256, $512, Education Finance Act (SP) $50, $58, $66, $74, $81, Education Finance Act (LD) $231, $267, $303, $338, $374, Planning & Implementation Grant $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $ Education Improvement Act (EIA) $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $ Lunch Sales to Pupils $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $ USDA Reimbursement - School Lunch $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $ State Restricted Funding $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $ Education Lottery Act (ELA) $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 $0.00 Total Revenue $1,797, $2,045, $2,293, $2,593, $2,893, FND FCT OBJ Instruction Expenditures Teacher Salaries $532, $608, $684, $760, $836, Teacher Assistant Salaries $18, $18, $18, $18, $18, Substitute Pay $3, $3, $3, $3, $3, Group Health & Life Insurance $38, $43, $49, $54, $60, Employee Retirement $68, $78, $88, $97, $107, Social Security $42, $46, $52, $58, $64, Unemployment Compensation Tax $7, $4, $5, $6, $6, Worker's Compensation Tax $3, $4, $4, $5, $5, Instructional Services $5, $7, $10, $15, $15, Instructional Supplies $25, $25, $25, $25, $25, Instructional Textbooks $65, $15, $15, $15, $15, Instructional Software & Supplies $5, $7, $8, $8, $8, Instructional Equipment $50, $50, $50, $50, $50, Instructional Cap Computers $30, $30, $30, $30, $30, Instructional Cap Software $10, $12, $14, $16, $18, Exceptional Teacher Salaries $40, $40, $40, $40, $40, Group Health & Life Insurance $4, $4, $4, $4, $4, Employee Retirement $4, $5, $5, $5, $5, Social Security $3, $3, $3, $3, $3, Page 68 of 132

322 Unemployment Compensation Tax $ $ $ $ $ Worker's Compensation Tax $ $ $ $ $ Exceptional Instructional Services $20, $25, $30, $35, $40, Exceptional Supplies $10, $15, $20, $25, $30, Exceptional Software & Supplies $ $ $ $ $ Exceptional Equipment $4, $5, $5, $5, $5, Exceptional Cap Computers $2, $2, $2, $2, $2, Exceptional Cap Software $1, $1, $1, $1, $1, Total Instruction Expense $993, $1,055, $1,170, $1,286, $1,396, FND FCT OBJ Support Services Expenditures Guidance Services $15, $20, $25, $30, $35, Nurse Services $3, $3, $4, $4, $5, Psychological Services $5, $6, $7, $8, $9, Exceptional Program Services $30, $35, $40, $40, $40, Library Supplies $5, $6, $7, $10, $10, Library Books $20, $5, $5, $5, $5, Instructional Staff Development $30, $30, $30, $30, $30, Audit Services $0.00 $5, $5, $5, $5, Legal Services $5, $5, $5, $5, $5, Membership Dues & Fees $2, $2, $2, $2, $2, Liability Insurance $18, $18, $19, $19, $20, Principal Salaries $60, $60, $60, $60, $60, Assistant Principal Salaries $45, $45, $45, $90, $90, Administrative Assistant Salaries $30, $30, $30, $30, $30, Group Health & Life Insurance $12, $12, $16, $17, $18, Employee Retirement $17, $17, $17, $23, $23, Social Security $10, $10, $10, $13, $13, Unemployment Compensation Tax $ $ $ $1, $1, Worker's Compensation Tax $ $ $ $1, $1, Administrative Staff Training $2, $2, $3, $3, $3, Travel $1, $3, $6, $6, $6, Office Supplies $1, $3, $10, $12, $14, Office Software & Supplies $1, $2, $1, $1, $1, Office Equipment $2, $2, $8, $8, $8, Office Cap Computers $1, $1, $1, $1, $1, FND FCT OBJ Support Services Expenditures (cont'd) Fiscal Services $15, $15, $15, $15, $15, Bank Fees $ $ $ $ $ Public Utility Services (Water & Sewer) $5, $6, $7, $8, $9, Cleaning Services $12, $15, $18, $21, $24, Page 69 of 132

323 Repairs & Maintenance Services $5, $5, $5, $5, $5, Property Insurance $3, $3, $3, $3, $4, Facility Rentals $179, $204, $229, $259, $289, Trash Service $1, $1, $1, $1, $1, Telephone $3, $3, $4, $4, $5, Energy (Electric, Gas, Oil) $20, $30, $40, $45, $50, Student Transportation $15, $17, $19, $20, $20, Food Services $20, $25, $30, $35, $40, Marketing & Advertising $15, $15, $15, $15, $15, Technology Services $10, $10, $10, $10, $10, Total Support Services Expense $622, $678, $757, $870, $925, Total Expenditures $1,616, $1,733, $1,928, $2,157, $2,321, Balance $180, $311, $365, $436, $571, Assumptions Number of Teachers Teacher Salary $38, $38, $38, $38, $38, Med. Insurance Monthly Pre. per Employee $ $ $ $ $ Med. Insurance Participation Percentage 65% 65% 65% 65% 65% Textbook Cost Per Student $ $ $ $ $ Page 70 of 132

324 GREEN Charter School APPENDIX ITEM 9: NON-PROFIT STATUS, ARTICLES OF INCORPORATION AND BY-LAWS Page 71 of 132

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329 GREEN Charter School BYLAWS OF THE GOVERNING BOARD OF GREENVILLE RENEWABLE ENERGY EDUCATION (GREEN) CHARTER SCHOOL The Governing Board of the Greenville Renewable Energy Education (GREEN) Charter School (hereinafter referred to as the "Board" and the "School" respectively) is committed to the education of all students appropriate to the best of their individual abilities; to a constant awareness of the concerns and desires of the community regarding the quality and performance of the School, with the Board assuming an educational leadership role; and to the employment of school personnel who, under the direction of the Director, will see that the school maintains an outstanding position and will carry out the policies of the Board with dedication. Additionally, the Board's specific goals are: To interpret the education needs and aspirations of the community through the formulation of policies which stimulate the learner and the learning process; To manage the school in accordance with federal and state laws; To provide leadership in school in order that the goals and objectives of the school can be effectively carried out; To maintain two-way communication with the various persons served by the school in order to understand public attitudes and encourage community involvement with an understanding of the schools; and To develop and provide the data appropriate for the management functions of planning, evaluating, organizing, controlling and executing. The Board is responsible to the people and therefore should attempt to reflect the opinion of the community. However, the Board members must look to the future more clearly than is required Page 76 of 132

330 GREEN Charter School of the average citizen. The results of many of the decisions and actions of the Board will not be realized at once, but will set the course of education for future years. The Board should fearlessly support those educational philosophies and procedures needed to promote proper education for this community based upon the needs of the pupil population. Elections The first year of the School, the Governing Board shall be elected by the full time employees of the School and parents of enrolled students in December Thereafter the elections will be held in the first 45 days of the school academic calendar. Parents shall have a ballot for each of their enrolled children at the School. Nominations must be made in writing addressed to the Board in the time period announced by the Board. Nominations of others may be made by the Director, staff, and parents provided that the nominee accepts the nomination in writing. Self-nominations are accepted from parents of enrolled students, the Charter Committee members, and any other Greenville County resident. Vacancies occurring during the year may be filled by the Board at its discretion. Offices The Board shall elect President, Vice President, and Treasurer among its members immediately after they are elected. Election procedures for the offices are as follows: Nominations may be made by any Board member; Vote to be taken publicly by show of hands. Vote to be taken publicly by show of hands. The President of the Board shall preside at Board meetings and shall perform all duties as may be prescribed by law or by action of the Board. The duties of the President include the following: Page 77 of 132

331 GREEN Charter School To decide questions of order at Board meetings; To offer resolutions, make or second motions, discuss questions, and vote thereon to the same extent as other members; To appoint or provide for the election of all committees of the Board unless otherwise directed by the Board and to serve as an ex-officio member of all such committees; To call special meetings of the Board on the request of one or more Board members or the Director; To execute an affidavit in compliance with the Freedom of Information Act following any closed meeting of the Board; and To sign official documents that requires the signature of the president's office. The duties and obligations of an individual Board member may be enumerated as follows: To become familiar with the state school laws, regulations of the South Carolina Department of Education, school policies, rules and regulations; To have a general knowledge of educational aims and objectives of the school; To work harmoniously with other Board members without trying either to dominate the Board or neglect a share of the work; To vote and act in the Board meetings impartially for the good of the school; Page 78 of 132

332 To accept the will of the majority vote in all cases and give wholehearted support to the resulting policy; To represent the Board and the school in the public in such a way as to promote both interest and support; and To refer complaints to the proper school authorities and to abstain from individual counsel and action. Delegation of Powers The Board believes that the legislation of policies is the most important function of a school board and that the execution of the policies should be the function of the Director. Delegation by the Board of its executive powers to the Director provides freedom for the Director to manage the school within the Board's policies, and frees the Board to devote its time to policy making and appraisal functions. The Board holds the Director responsible for carrying out its policies within established guidelines and for keeping the Board informed about the School operations. In an effort to keep the Board informed, the Director will notify Board members as promptly as possible of any happenings of an emergency nature which occur in schools. Meeting Procedures All meetings of the Board shall be open to the public, including the news media, except when permitted or required by law to be closed in accordance with the Freedom of Information Act. Visual and sound recordings shall be permitted during open meetings. Four members of the Board shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business. The votes of a majority of the Page 79 of 132

333 members present shall be necessary for the transaction of any business or the discharge of any duties of the Board. Meetings of the Board shall be formal enough to allow for the orderly conduct of business but informal enough to encourage free discussion among Board members and to promote group thinking and action. Meetings The Board annually may adopt a schedule for the upcoming year stating the date, time and place of its regular meetings. The meeting schedule shall be posted in a prominent place at the School building and at any other locations where such scheduled meetings will be held. Electronic and other means of informing the public about the Board meetings shall be used where feasible. Any scheduled meeting may be canceled, postponed or adjourned. Regular Meetings: Unless otherwise specified in the schedule or changed by the Board, the Board's regular meetings shall be held at 9:00 a.m. on the third first of every other month except July. The schedule shall call for the meetings to be held at the School building. The board's regular meetings are legislative in nature. This is where most of the Board's formal actions are taken. Executive Sessions: The Board may meet in executive session to consider student discipline appeals, real estate acquisitions, individual personnel matters, pending or potential litigation or any other matters that are required or permitted by law to be addressed in closed meetings. A majority vote of a quorum present at an open meeting shall be required in order to close a meeting to the public. The specific reason for closure must be stated in the motion. Executive Page 80 of 132

334 sessions will generally be held before or after the Board work sessions or regular monthly meetings. The Board shall vote in public on any executive session item requiring official Board action. The minutes of the meeting shall reflect the names of the members present and the names of each Board member voting for closure. These portions of the minutes shall be made available to the public to the same extent as any other minutes. When a meeting has been closed to the public, the Board President shall execute a notarized affidavit stating under oath that the closed meeting was devoted to matters within the exceptions allowed by law and identifying the specific relevant exceptions. The affidavit shall be filed with the official minutes of the meeting. Board Workshops: The Board in consultation with the Director may schedule workshops to study topics of importance to the school and/or to plan for the future needs of the school. Workshops may be called by the President or by members of the Board. Board workshops shall be open to the public unless an exception to the Freedom of Information Act applies. Special or Called Meetings: Special meetings may be called by the Board President on the request of one Board member, or the Director. Due notice of such meetings shall be given to the public and shall include at a minimum the posting of a written notice for at least 24 hours at the place of regular meetings. Board members will be given at least 24 hours' notice of the meeting and the topics to be addressed. Notice to Board members may be made by telephone, , fax or some other means calculated to achieve notification. Emergency Meetings: When special circumstances occur and are so declared by the Board, the Board may meet on less than 24 hours of notice. Board members and the public shall be given as much notice of the meeting and subjects expected to be considered as is reasonable under the circumstances, including the posting of a written notice at the place of regular meetings. The Page 81 of 132

335 minutes of the meeting shall reflect the reason for holding the meeting on the less than 24 hours of notice and the nature of the notice given. Telephone Conference Meetings: Any special meeting or executive session of the Board may be conducted by speaker telephone conference, provided that all Board members participating in the meeting can hear and speak to each other simultaneously during the meeting. If the meeting is one that is required to be open to the public pursuant to the Freedom of Information Act, the public shall be provided access to a location at which they are able to hear the comments and votes of the Board members and, if appropriate, to speak during the meeting. A Board member participating in a meeting by this means is deemed to be present in person at the meeting. Prior to any meeting of the Board, the Director, in consultation with the Board President and shall review a proposed agenda of the matters expected to be addressed at the meeting. Any member of the Board may suggest agenda items for regular meetings by submitting them to the Director and/or Board President up to eight business days prior to the Board meeting. The agenda shall be posted at the meeting site and shall be made available to the public upon request. The agenda, together with the Director's comments, backup materials, and other relevant information, shall be sent to Board members prior to the Board work sessions or other meeting. The agenda shall be approved by the Board at the beginning of each meeting. Failure to include an item on the agenda shall not preclude the Board from considering and acting on such an item when it becomes necessary to do so during the course of a meeting. Items not included on the agenda may be brought up for discussion or action at the discretion of the President or the vote of a majority of the members present. Unless a Board member objects, the Board may take action in the form of a composite motion. Within two business days after the adjournment of a meeting, Page 82 of 132

336 the Director shall make available to the public a summary of the subjects acted upon at the meeting and the names of the Board members present at the meeting. The Director shall be responsible for preparing the minutes of each Board meeting. The minutes shall, at a minimum, include the names of the Board members present at the meeting, a description of each motion or other proposal made, and a record of all votes. For roll-call votes or votes to close a meeting to the public, the name of each person voting for or against the proposal shall be recorded. For all other votes, it shall be presumed that the action taken was approved by each member in attendance unless the minutes reflect the names of any members voting against the proposal or abstaining. The minutes shall be submitted to the Board for approval at its next regular meeting. Once approved and signed by the Board President, Board minutes shall be available for public inspection upon request. Board meetings are held to conduct the affairs and business of the Board in the presence of the public. The Board welcomes and encourages citizens to attend its meetings so that the public may become better acquainted with the operation and programs of the School and the Board. The Board allows up to 30 minutes (or more, at the Board's discretion, when pressing issues arise) at the beginning of its meetings to allow residents and employees of the school an opportunity to address the Board. The following guidelines will govern speakers who address the Board: Individuals may sign up by contacting the Director's office no more than two weeks in advance and no later than noon of the day of the meeting or by placing their name on the sign-up sheet before the start of the meeting. No more than five speakers will be allowed Page 83 of 132

337 to sign up in advance for any given meeting. The remaining slots will be reserved for speakers signing up at the meeting. Each speaker will have a maximum of four minutes to speak. When appearing before the Board, speakers must provide their names, home address, the group represented, if applicable, and whether they are an employee, a parent or have some other connection with the School. Before addressing the Board, individuals are urged to seek a solution to their concerns through the proper staff and administrative channels. Speakers may comment on issues scheduled for consideration at the Board meeting or other appropriate concerns pertinent to the operation of a school. Speakers may provide the Board with written comments or other documentation relating to their topic. Individuals and/or organizations who addressed the Board at the previous month may be denied the opportunity to address the Board on the same topic the following meeting. Speakers are expected to present their comments in a respectful and professional manner. Profane, vulgar or defamatory comments will not be permitted. Confidential student and personnel matters may not be discussed during audience to visitors, but may be submitted to the Board in writing. Speakers will be scheduled on a first come, first served basis. Individuals will not be denied the opportunity to address the Board on the basis of their viewpoint. The Board vests in its President Page 84 of 132

338 the authority to terminate the remarks or any speaker who does not adhere to the above guidelines. All official records of the Board shall be kept and safeguard by the Director as ex-officio Board Secretary. The Director shall also be responsible for the safekeeping of all official papers, including, the official minutes of the Board, its written policies, financial records, titles, contracts, obligations and other documents that belong to the Board or pertain to its business. Records deemed "public records" and made subject to public inspection by law shall be open for the inspection of any citizen desiring to examine them during the hours when the office of the Director is open. As a public official, a Board member must not only do what is required by law, but because of the special trust with which they are charged by the community, must observe the ethics of that public office. The Board desiring to operate in the most ethical and conscientious manner possible adopts the following code of ethics to be followed by each member. Each school Board member will: 1. Give his/her first and greatest concern to the students of the school, without any distinction as to who they are or what their background may be. 2. Recognize that authority rests with the Board as a whole and make no personal promises or take any private action that might compromise the Board. 3. Work with fellow Board members in a spirit of harmony and cooperation in spite of differences of opinion. 4. Base his/her decisions upon all available facts, voting his/her convictions in every case unswayed by bias of any kind and upholding the majority decision of the Board. Page 85 of 132

339 5. Maintain confidentiality of privileged information. 6. Avoid being placed in a position of conflict of interest and refrain from using the Board member position for personal or partisan gain. 7. Confine board actions to policy making and evaluation and recognize that the Director, not the Board, is responsible for the day-to-day administration of the schools. 8. Refer all complaints, comments and criticisms through the proper chain of command. 9. Support and protect school personnel in proper performance of their duties. 10. Vote on the interest of the system as a whole and not a particular segment thereof. 11. Communicate to other Board members and the Director expressions of public reaction to Board policies and school programs. In order to avoid conflict of interest, the Board and its members shall observe the following guidelines: 1. Members of the Board will not provide recommendations for employment of any individual who is candidate for employment in the School. 2. Any Board vote on the employment or promotion of a member of a Board member's immediate family shall be conducted in public and separate from any other personnel matter. The vote on such action shall be recorded, and the Board member whose family member is the subject of the vote shall not participate in the vote. As used in this policy, "immediate family" means a Board member's spouse, child, stepchild, sibling, parent, grandparent, grandchild, aunt, uncle, niece, nephew or first cousin, or the spouse of the Board member's parent, child, or sibling, or any relative living in the household of a Board member. Page 86 of 132

340 3. Board members will abstain from deliberating or voting on any student discipline matter involving his/her child. 4. The Board shall not transact business with any bank or financial institution in which a Board member owns 30 percent or more of the stock or other ownership interest. 5. The Board shall not do business with any business in which a Board member and/or a member of his/her immediate family holds an ownership interest. This shall not apply to publicly traded corporations unless the Board member and/or the members of the Board member's immediate family own ten percent or more of the stock of the corporation. 6. No Board member shall be employed in any position in the School. 7. No Board member shall accept a monetary fee or honorarium in excess of $101 for a speaking engagement, participation in a seminar, discussion panel or other activity that directly relates to the official duties of the Board member or the Board member's office. Budgeting Process In the budget development process, the Board conducts pre-budgeting discussions with the Director to establish informal understandings about perceived budget opportunities, challenges and/or restrictions, and provides guidance for budget development. The Director prepares a draft budget for review by the Board. The Board gives careful study to the budget and holds public hearings to allow for public review and reaction prior to formal approval of the budget. Parliamentary Procedures When taking action on items on the agenda, the school board should have agreed upon procedures for handling motions and taking votes. These procedures should conform to the requirements specified in law and should conform to standards that are incorporated into a Page 87 of 132

341 parliamentary guide such as Robert's Rules of Order, Newly Revised. This summary will focus on legal requirements mandated for school boards and suggested parliamentary procedure that school boards may follow in taking official action during meetings. Definitions 1. Quorum - two or more members of the Board. 2. Majority - More than half of the school board members present representing a quorum. Except as noted below, every motion is to be determined by a majority vote of members present, representing a quorum. For example, if two members are present, a quorum exists. If one members vote "yes" on a motion, one member vote "no," and one member abstain, the motion fails. The majority of members present (more than half) did not vote "yes" for the motion. Abstentions often can have the same effect as a vote against the motion. 3. Questions- By motion only. 4. Proxy - The authority to vote for another school board member. Proxy votes are not permitted. 5. Unanimous consent - Rather than voting on every issue, the chairperson can ask for "unanimous consent" on items that do not seem to be controversial. This can be done by saying, "Is there any objection to...?" If there is no objection, the action can be taken. The board should keep meetings as informal as possible; however, when considering official action, board members shall follow these procedures: 1. Making a motion A. any Board member may make a motion, including the president, B. a long motion should be written and given to the president, and Page 88 of 132

342 C. the Board member who makes a motion is not required to vote in favor of it. 2. Seconding a motion motion. A. Any Board member may second a motion, except the individual who made the B. A second merely implies that the motion should come before the Board for vote. and C. The school board member who seconded a motion is not required to vote in favor of it, D. If a motion does not receive a second, it fails. No vote is taken. E. A second is not required for the motion to adjourn. 3. Debating a motion A. The president states the motion to be debated. B. Customarily, the person who makes the motion speaks first, C. Board members should confine their remarks to pending question, D. The president may participate in the debate, and E. When the president determines that debate is ending he/she can ask, "Is there any objection to calling the question?" If there is no objection, proceed to a vote on the motion. If there is objection, the President should take a vote on whether or not to end debate. 4. Voting on the motion A. Before taking a vote, the president should repeat the motion, B. School board members should vote with either a "yes," or "no," or "abstain," Page 89 of 132

343 C. If a voice vote is inconclusive, the president should call for show of hands. D. The president shall participate in the vote, E. If the Board is voting to go into executive session, the secretary must record the names of those school board members voting to go into executive session and the motion stating the reason that the school board is going into executive session, F. Proxy voting may not be allowed, G. Secret ballots may not be allowed, and, H. The president states the results of the vote. The purpose of this Policy of Greenville Renewable Energy Education Charter School Amended Bylaws of Greenville Education Services to give the Governing Board of said school procedures by which to govern themselves which are known by all Board members for a harmonious existence. Page 90 of 132

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350 APPENDIX ITEM 18: INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS TO BE IMPLEMENTED Science Inquiry Model Our understanding of how people learn has changed dramatically in the past two decades. It was not a long ago, educators and psychologists believed that students' brains were like empty vessels waiting to be filled with knowledge imparted by an instructor. However, advances in cognitive research and developmental psychology, combined with today's urgency to educate all students in an increasingly diverse and technological society, have transformed the way we think about teaching science and mathematics. ABCDE Today, educators and researchers understand that most people learn best through personal experience and by connecting new information to what they already believe or know. Excellent teaching and high quality textbooks are just not enough. Students should personally construct their own knowledge by posing questions, planning investigations, conducting their own experiments, and analyzing and communicating their findings. In addition, students need to have opportunities to progress from concrete to abstract ideas, rethink their hypotheses, and retry experiments and problems. FAB A Brown, A., & Campione, J. (1994). Guided discovery in a community of learners. In K. McGilly (Ed.), Classroom lessons: Integrating cognitive theory and classroom practice (pp ). Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. B Rosenshine, B. (1995). Advances in research on instruction. Journal of Educational Research, 88(5), C Roth, W. (1991). Open-ended inquiry. The Science Teacher, 58(4), D Nowell, L. (1992, April). Rethinking the classroom: A community of inquiry. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Conference on Creating the Quality School, Norman, OK. E Ornstein, A. (1995). Strategies for effective teaching (2nd ed.). Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark. F American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1990). Science for all Americans: Project New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Page 97 of 132

351 In summary, students construct their own knowledge by actively taking charge of their learning one of the primary tenets of inquiry. New standards in science and mathematics teaching call for inquiry teaching methods that enable students to contribute their own ideas and to pursue their own investigations. Nevertheless, no single teaching method is appropriate in all situations, for all students. Instructors need to know how and when to use a variety of strategies. C Embedding teaching strategies within an overall inquiry-based pedagogy can be an effective way to increase student performance in academics, critical thinking, and problem solving. In an inquiry-based classroom, students and teachers share responsibility for learning, and collaborate on constructing new knowledge. For instance, students have significant input into just about every aspect of their learning how their classroom is set up, how time is structured, which resources are used, how investigations shall proceed, and how findings are reported. What is inquiry? Inquiry oriented instruction engages students in the investigative nature of science, says David L. Haury in his article, Teaching Science through Inquiry (1993). D Haury also cites scientist Alfred Novak's definition: "Inquiry is the [set] of behaviors involved in the struggle of human beings for reasonable explanations of phenomena about which they are curious." In other words, inquiry requires activities and skills that focus on the active search for knowledge or understanding to satisfy a curiosity, says Haury. A National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. B Flick, L. (1995, April). Complex instruction in complex classrooms: A synthesis of research on inquiry teaching methods and explicit teaching strategies. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching, San Francisco, CA. C Good, T., & Brophy, J. (1997). Looking in classrooms (7th Ed.). New York, NY: Longman. D Haury, D. (1993). Teaching science through inquiry. Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education. (ED359048). Page 98 of 132

352 Inquiry is also central to mathematics. Today, mathematics education encompasses more than arithmetic and algorithms. It is a very diverse discipline that involves data, measurements, and recognition of patterns. "The process of 'doing' mathematics is far more than just calculation or deduction; it involves observation of patterns, testing of conjectures, and estimation of results," states the National Research Council in Everybody Counts, a report to the nation on the future of mathematics education. A Why use inquiry? There is strong evidence that inquiry-based instruction enhances student performance and attitudes about science and mathematics, says David Haury B. David Haury states that at the middle school level, students who participate in inquiry-based programs develop better laboratory and graphing skills, and learn to interpret data more effectively. He believes the research indicates that inquiry-based programs foster scientific literacy and understanding of scientific processes; vocabulary knowledge and conceptual understanding; critical thinking; positive attitudes; higher achievement on tests of procedural knowledge; and construction of mathematical knowledge. Inquiry-based teaching: Improves student attitude and achievement. A poll by Bayer Corporation of Pittsburgh showed that students who used hands-on experiments and team problem-solving in science classrooms have a better attitude toward the subject than students who learned science through lectures and assigned textbook reading. C Three out of five students (ages 10 to 17) said that they would be "a lot more psyched" about science if they could do more experiments themselves and use a computer to communicate with scientists and A National Research Council. (1989). Everybody counts. Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences. B Ornstein, A. (1995). Strategies for effective teaching (2nd ed.). Madison, WI: Brown and Benchmark. C Lawton, M. (1997, April 23). Hands-on science gets a thumbs up from students. Education Week, p. 12. Page 99 of 132

353 other students. Fifty-four percent of the students using more inquiry-oriented methods said that science is one of their favorite subjects, compared with 45 percent of the students in traditionally taught classes. In addition, nearly 25 percent of the students in traditional classes said that science is their most difficult subject, while only eighteen percent of the students using inquiry strategies said so. Facilitates student understanding. Students develop critical thinking skills by learning through inquiry-based activities. Students learn to work collaboratively, to articulate their own ideas, and to respect the opinions and expertise of others. They learn inquiry skills that they can use in other aspects of their lives and intellectual pursuits. Constructivist theory supports this and states that knowledge is constructed through one's personal experience by assimilating new information with prior knowledge. A Facilitates mathematical discovery. The role of inquiry in the study of mathematics is just as central as it is in science. "It is the union of science, mathematics, and technology that forms the scientific endeavor and that makes it so successful," points out the Benchmarks B. According to standards written by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics C, inquiry is one of the most important methods in which students learn mathematical concepts and knowledge: by exploring, conjecturing, reasoning logically, and evaluating whether something makes sense or not. D A King, A., & Rosenshine, B. (1993). Effects of guided cooperative questioning on children's knowledge construction. Journal of Experimental Education, 61(2), B American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy: Project New York, NY: Oxford University Press. C National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. (1991). Professional standards for teaching mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. D Rosenshine, B. (1995). Advances in research on instruction. Journal of Educational Research, 88(5), Page 100 of 132

354 How to apply inquiry model? The following are the key elements of a successful application of the inquiry model: Creating an inquiry-based classroom. Teachers need to design and manage learning environments that provide students with the time, space, resources, and safety needed for learning. Vast number of opportunities for active learning and access to a rich array of tools and resources are critical to students' ability to do inquiry. A Engage students in designing the learning environment. Invite students for their ideas and suggestions on such decisions as how to use time and space in the classroom. This task is part of challenging students to take responsibility for their learning. Besides, as students pursue their inquiries, they need access to resources and a voice in determining what is needed. Students frequently identify excellent out-of-school resources. The more independently students can get what they want, the more they can take responsibility for their own work. 6 Reflect the nature of inquiry. The learning environment should reflect the intellectual attitude and social values that characterize the way scientists and mathematicians practice inquiry. 6, Integrate science laboratories into the regular class day. It is essential to teach students that doing science is not separate from learning science. A Borasi, R. (1992). Learning mathematics though inquiry. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Page 101 of 132

355 Use inquiry in the mathematics classroom. It is imperative to utilize several strategies for creating an environment that is conducive to initiating and supporting students' inquiry in mathematics. Use management strategies to facilitate inquiry. Research on inquiry and teaching methods show that effective teachers use "significant managerial skill while promoting the active participation of students" during inquiry activities. 10 While an inquiry-based teaching allows students significant freedom to create, chart their own learning, debate, and engage in activities, 6 their explorations should be within a structure. The teacher provides this structure with management strategies that help him/her to create a safe, well-organized, and effective environment where all students can learn. Teacher orchestrates discussions so that student participation and thinking are at a high level. Teacher also ensures that students understand the core content in every lesson. Share control. Full inquiry is accomplished when students are actively engaged in an investigation, manipulating concrete objects, conferring with peers, pursuing their own line of inquiry, and creating their own solutions to a problem. 6 It takes a skillful and experienced teacher to guide students' learning, to keep students on task, to know when to let classroom discussions go off in a new direction, to make sure the lesson progresses coherently toward learning goals. Spark student motivation. Students' individual characteristics can be vital in determining their learning outcomes (Margaret Wang and Herbert Walberg in their article, Teaching and Educational Effectiveness: Research Synthesis and Consensus from the Field (1991)). Regulating and taking responsibility for one's own learning is the most important Page 102 of 132

356 characteristic for high achievement. Other significant characteristics include perseverance in learning tasks and motivation for continual learning. As a conclusion, a current view of teaching suggests that students and teachers must share responsibility for learning. No longer are teachers thought to be sole dispensers of knowledge. Rather, they should balance the need to ensure that students have ample opportunity to learn core concepts, with students' need to explore alone and with one another and to construct their own understandings. Inquiry-based teaching is central to science and mathematics learning. 6 It is a significant tool teachers can use in helping students boost their performance in 10, 12 academics, critical thinking, and problem solving. Exemplary Computer-Enhanced Support Computers have been in schools for a long time. While some teachers have integrated computers into the classroom successfully many others have not achieved that or have not used them at all. Technology assessment reports indicate that computers have often been used by teachers as a replacement for existing tools, such as books and chalkboards, or the only instructional medium to teach rather than an alternative medium through which different tasks might be performed and different objectives might be achieved. From this perspective, the insufficient computer-based applications drive the curriculum in the classroom. However, in the designing alternative school systems, the vision of classroom instruction should be changed and computers should play an important role in this change process. It is our perception that computers have to be integrated into curriculum; namely, the curriculum should drive technology usage. Page 103 of 132

357 In the Charter School, the computer technology shall become a prominent part of the classroom; the teacher shall no longer serve as the sole expert with absolute mastery and control of content knowledge and instructional procedures. Instead, with the help of the computer, learning shall become more interactive with responsibility shared among teachers and students. The teachers no longer function solely as transmitters of content knowledge. Instead, they become facilitators of learning. Students play a more active role in their own learning. Thinking differently from many other schools the Charter School shall look at the technology integration from a broader perspective and promote the use of computers in the classroom whenever and however it is appropriate and efficient. More specifically, through our exemplary computer integration we shall achieve the following: Students in the Charter School will use computers to design their own products. Schools have to generate creative people. Students in the Charter School will use the capabilities of computers, such as word-processing, database, spreadsheets, presentation and graphic software, to create high quality homework and class work, so that they are able to better accomplish tasks and express their ideas with different illustrations and demonstrations to teachers as well as their classmates Students in the Charter School shall explore instructional programs on their own. In our opinion, a teacher should not be the only information source in the classroom. Today there are many interactive computer software programs very well designed to teach the same objectives the Charter School wants to teach. Our students shall use and explore appropriate instructional software programs in or out of the classroom to expand their knowledge and skills and have a better grasp on the objectives in specific areas or topics. Page 104 of 132

358 Teachers in the Charter School shall teach ideas or skills directly from computers. We consider the computer as an educational tool that should be used in the classroom whenever and wherever it fits in the curriculum. Appropriate teachers shall use a computer's unique features to combine different mediums, such as sound, animation, color picture, interactivity etc., in one environment so that they shall create presentations that are visually appealing to students and capable of illustrating ideas, knowledge and skills from different perspectives. Teachers in the Charter School shall employ computers to create an alternative teaching environment in the classrooms. A traditional classroom where a teacher gives lectures and students passively listen to the teacher is not responding to the need of modern and hi-tech society any more. Learning should be active and student-centered, that is, students should actively take a part in the learning process and perform classroom activities by themselves rather than sitting and listening. Also, teachers should be mentoring and coaching students to direct and help them find and use information they need to gain necessary objectives. The computer is a unique tool that helps teachers design and implements student-centered applications that keep the students active in the learning process. Teachers in the Charter School shall tailor curriculum to students' individual needs through computers. It is known that not all students in the same classroom have equal abilities. For effective instruction teachers should generate different instructional approaches to different student groups. Using the unique features of computers, teachers in the Charter School will design and implement individualized instructions that eliminate the personal differences among the students for quality instruction. Page 105 of 132

359 Teachers in the Charter School shall use computers to create simulations of real-life applications. Learning transfer is a critical issue in education. Most of the time students learn abstract knowledge in the classroom and are not able to use it in the practical life. Our teachers will employ computers to design and use real-life simulation programs that help students apply their knowledge and skills to deal with realistic problems. Students in the Charter School shall develop critical or higher-order thinking skills using computers. The foundation of scientific information is critical thinking, which entails collecting data about problems, analyzing it, considering alternative solutions, and applying the most effective solutions. Computers are excellent tools to perform the aforementioned tasks to improve higher-order thinking skills. Our students will learn and apply appropriate computational techniques to collect and analyze data to deal with problems, so that they will be able to demonsrate scientific knowledge. Project-Based Instruction Project-based learning is an instructional approach to engage students in sustained, cooperative investigation. Within its framework students collaborate, working together to make sense of what is happening. Additionally, project-based instruction emphasizes students' own artifact construction to represent what is being learned. In project-based instruction, students find solutions to nontrivial problems by Asking and refining questions Debating ideas Making predictions Designing plans and/or experiments Page 106 of 132

360 Collecting and analyzing data Drawing conclusions Communicating their ideas and findings to others Asking new questions Creating artifacts. Projects can serve as bridges between phenomena in the classroom and real-life experiences. Questions and answers that arise in daily enterprise are given value and are proven open to systematic inquiry. Three important features of project-based learning are those: Project-based education requires active engagement of students' effort over an extended period of time. Project-based learning also promotes links among subject matter disciplines and presents a broadened,, view of subject matter. Projects are adaptable to different types of learners and learning situations. There are two essential components of projects: A driving question or problem that serves to organize and drive activities. Culminating product(s) or multiple representations as a series of artifacts, personal communication, or consequential tasks that meaningfully address the driving question. The Charter School shall facilitate project-based instruction in the classroom with: A "driving question" that is anchored in a real-world problem and ideally uses multiple content areas. Page 107 of 132

361 Opportunities for students to make active investigations that enable them to learn concepts, apply information, and represent their knowledge in a variety of ways Collaboration among students, teachers, and others in the community so that knowledge can be shared and distributed between the members of the "learning community" The use of cognitive tools in learning environments that support students in the representation of their ideas: cognitive tools such as computer-based laboratories, hypermedia, graphing applications, and telecommunications. Contextual Learning According to the constructivist learning theory, learning occurs when students process new information or knowledge in such a way that it makes sense to them in their frame of reference. This approach to learning and teaching assumes that the mind naturally seeks meaning in context where the person is located and that makes sense and appears useful. In contextual learning students carry out activities and solve problems in a way that reflects the nature of such tasks in the real world. Because knowledge is better transferred when it is embedded in a more general understanding of its entire structure and contextualized into the content familiar to the learner, the Charter School shall rethink curriculum and instruction under the light of contextual learning. Whenever appropriate the Charter School shall modify traditional methods and disciplines to teach material in meaningful contexts. More specifically in designing real-life context in the Charter School classrooms: Artificial distinctions between actual applications and academic studies shall be eliminated Page 108 of 132

362 Students shall be provided with hands-on experiences in which they learn about and participate in workplaces New teaching strategies and instructional principles shall be designed and implemented based on the notion that teacher is no longer the presenter of information and the textbook is not the only information source in the classroom. The instructional principles can be articulated as follows (but not limited to those): anchor all learning activities to a larger task, support the learner in developing ownership of the task, design an authentic task, design the task to reflect the complexity of the environment the learner shall face, support and challenge the learner's thinking, encourage testing ideas against alternative views and alternative contexts, and provide opportunity for reflection on the content learned and the learning process A. Direct Instruction Direct instruction, the classical teaching method, is based on the notion that learning can be facilitated through clear instructional presentations that rule out likely misinterpretations and facilitate generalizations. As a teaching strategy, it is a systematic and highly structured instructional process that focuses on teaching and practicing basic skills and knowledge to A Savery & Duffy, Page 109 of 132

363 prepare students to advance to higher-order skills. Some key components of this process are scripted lesson plan that is evaluated and revised, curriculum designed to build new skills on previous learned ones and group sessions where teacher and students interact. It is our empirical finding that through direct instruction, students learn and master information at the knowledge level, rather than the application level, in an extremely efficient and very costeffective manner. Under the light of this finding, the Charter School shall adopt an effective direct instruction module to teach students introductory and fundamental skills and knowledge. More specifically, our one unit direct instruction module shall involve the following activities: Motivating Learners: Gaining learners' attention and maintaining that attention throughout the lesson. Arousing learners' curiosity (showing interesting graphs, video clip, music, or sounds, etc.) Making instruction relevant to learners' interest (relating instruction to events going on in the learners' lives, experiences) Entertaining learners (incorporating humor in to the lesson, using game-like activities, setting up simulated version of real life events) Getting learners to be involved actively in the lesson (asking questions, requiring learners to solve problems, small group activities) Arranging conditions for students success (asking questions and presenting problems that are at the right level of difficulty) Being enthusiastic Page 110 of 132

364 Providing learners with rewards that may be tangible or intangible (snacks, tokens, praise, etc.) Informing Students of Objectives: Telling learners what they are about to learn. Listing components of objectives Describing outcomes of instruction Giving examples of what the learners shall be able to do Helping Students Recall Prerequisites: Helping students retrieve memories that are necessary or helpful in achieving new objectives and make sense of new information to relate it to something they already know or something already experienced. Relating new knowledge and skills to knowledge and skills that have already been learned Reminding learners of the necessary prerequisite knowledge and skills Asking students to recall the prerequisite knowledge Asking students to demonstrate the prerequisite knowledge Providing special instruction for learners that have lack of the prerequisites in order to make them ready like the rest of their classmates. Presenting Information and Examples: Stating, describing and explaining information that learner shall be learning, presenting relevant examples. Informing rule or rules and conditions of the problems Providing learners with a verbal or visual description of process Page 111 of 132

365 Arranging conditions so that learners are able to discover information for themselves Guiding students to information and directing and correcting as necessary Giving examples so that learners can see how they can use the information Providing Practice and Feedback: Giving learners adequate, relevant practice and corrective feedback. Providing appropriate practice exercises Providing learners with informative feedback Summarizing Lesson: End lesson with some type of summary to bring closure to the lesson. Ending a lesson some type of summary Restating in simple terms the lesson objectives A brief review of the skills that were taught during the lesson Having learners summarize what they learned Having learners apply what they learned in order to solve a final problem or question Higher Order Thinking With emphasis on accountability and increased student achievement, educators, parents, and legislators have been considering more about how we want our teachers to teach our students to think. As children move from elementary to middle to high school, the ability to think in different ways becomes more and more important. Higher Order Thinking is thinking on a higher level. It is more than memorizing facts or retelling something to someone exactly the way it was told. We must understand information, Page 112 of 132

366 connect ideas, categorize them, manipulate them, put them together in new or novel ways, and apply them as we seek new solutions to new problems. Higher-Order Thinking Skills can be articulated as follows: It is the way you solve problems, process information, perceive information, encode information for storage, and retrieve the information and then, how you use that information. (Cognitive strategies) It is the way you monitor understanding and comprehension, evaluate progress towards goals, decide the effectiveness and efficiency of solutions strategies and modify the approach to problem solving. It is metacognitive concerns. To make these decisions one would have to know about different types of strategies and the tasks to do them. It is about knowing how to construct knowledge. What is your schema? Or, what do you already know about this topic of study? What are the previously acquired ideas and relationships organized in your memory? skills: The Charter School shall use the following strategies to teach higher-order thinking Teach students how to learn, how they learn themselves, and how others learn and can learn from them. Challenge students to use a number of different approaches to solving real problems. Link new information to previously studied concepts & ideas. Give support, reinforcement as students try new approaches to problems. Give complex tasks to students so they shall be forced to consider multiple tasks. Page 113 of 132

367 Offer models of how to solve problems and plan out loud with them. Give feedback about how to think or operate differently to solve the problem. Help students plan their approach to solving problems. Give students reasons to engage in higher-order-learning. Allow students to peer monitor, peer tutor and peer evaluate solutions using a rubric, which they understand and commit to. Compile information about solutions, and about important problems that our society and our world face, from a variety of sources for students. Explain to students how to make decisions based on organization and interpretation of data. Explain to students how to create and present original works through writing, graphics and performance by analyzing information and making evaluations, supported by wellreasoned arguments. Self-Directed Learning with Technology Today, when information doubles every 6 months, students must be trained to educate themselves while focusing their attention on their own work habits, knowledge bases, insights, aspirations, value systems and personal talents. If this can be achieved, schools shall cease to be merely transmitters of knowledge. Consequently, another method that shall be utilized in the Charter School is Self-Directed Learning (SDL) of individually prescribed materials. Self-directed learning consists of planning Page 114 of 132

368 and conducting a program of studies with each student that is tailored to his learning needs and to his characteristics as a learner. Self-directed learning is based on a carefully sequenced and detailed listing of instructional objectives. The main difference between self-directed learning and traditional instruction is that in self-directed learning the role of teacher is changed. The instructor will spend little time in lecturing to a group of people; spend much time evaluating students' record diagnosing needs, and preparing individual learning prescriptions for each student. Self-directed learning relies heavily on student self-direction. "There are two reasons for regarding selfdirected learning as a master key to educational reform. First, a sound education is one that prepares the individual to be an expert problem solver in responding to situations he or she encounters in his or her role as worker, citizen, family member, community member or private person. Competencies in self-direction enable a person to chart a life that expresses his or her individual choices of ends and means. Further, such competencies prepare a person to deal with various kinds of novel problems that are confronted in this world of rapid and unpredictable change. The second reason for viewing self-directed learning as a necessity for educational reform arises from the fact that effective instruction must be tailor-made to suit the characteristics of each individual learner". A In The Charter School, we believe that self-directed learning students will become more independent, more highly motivated, and much more able to work effectively on their own without constant direction. One other advantage of self-directed learning is that it induces the necessary selfdiscipline for learning. "If students do not understand that they have the freedom to learn, they A IPI Special Report, 1983 Page 115 of 132

369 are only a product of conditioning. Such students feel that school controls them; the individual feels shaped by outside forces and experiences. But self-directed students, while recognizing that schools have rules that must be followed, do not turn total control over to the school. Instead, they begin to face the paradox early in life that there are some things outside ourselves over which we have no control, but also a dimension of life over which we do. This dimension-choice and responsibility shapes our lives. Self-directed learners can choose what they conform to. Whereas conforming students tend to lack insight into their own motives and may simply go along with the crowd, self-directed learners have good self-understanding and are more independent. They follow rules, seek advice, and conform to policy, but for their own purposesto get what they need to be better people" A Technology makes it easier for teachers to individualize instruction and for students to engage in self-directed learning. Video, computer, and multimedia technologies can accommodate students with a variety of learning styles more flexibly than conventional materials. Some students, for example, may learn more readily with graphics or sound than through text alone. New technologies also allow students and teachers to tap into vast "digital libraries" of information and real-world resources. Students can search excellent collections, such as the Library of Congress, retrieving text, photos, and multimedia information around the clock. According to Len Simutis, director of the Eisenhower Clearinghouse for Mathematics and Science Education, retrieval skills shall become more important than remembering, and the traditional transmission mode of "oral authority" shall diminish in significance. A Areglado, R. J.; Bradley R.C.; Lane P. S.,1996 "Learning for life, Creating Classrooms for Self-directed Learning" Page 116 of 132

370 These are a few of the many reasons for which we believe technology should be used for as a tool for self-directed learning. For this purpose, Internet connection and necessary software shall be ready for students in the library and computer lab. However, self-directed learning shall not be restricted to only computer and related media. Whenever necessary, video films, tapes and printed media shall be used in order to achieve the mastery of the objective. Supporting and Stimulating Student Comprehension Improving Motivation The Charter School agrees with the idea that every student is motivated and that reluctance to learning is not a lack of motivation; students are motivated for the wrong reason. A To avoid failure, some students choose not to participate in many activities. Others see the system as being useless and irrelevant to their lives; thus, they choose to defy it. We also believe that the reasons for lack of motivation towards learning depend on the kinds of incentive systems that prevail in classrooms. From this perspective, the challenge for the Charter School is to create an environment of motivation where everyone strives for positive results. Providing incentives for learning will promote curiosity and result in a motivation to learn.. We believe that an important factor influencing behavior is one's sense of identity. The view that an individual holds of him of herself, has a direct impact on personal perception. For example, students who believe that they cannot understand math behave in ways that reinforce this A Raffini, J. P. 1993, Winners without losers: Structures and strategies for increasing student motivation to learn, Allyn and Bacon. Page 117 of 132

371 perception. This may cause them to spend little effort towards completion of an assignment. With this in mind, The Charter School shall strive to enhance students' views of themselves. It is the goal of the Charter School to give every student the opportunities to meet the need for self-worth, autonomy and self-determination, competence and belonging and relatedness in a secure environment. In order to achieve these goals, The Charter School shall establish an appropriate classroom climate that cultivates a sense of security in students by 20 "Setting realistic, clearly defined limits, procedures, routines and expectations, Enforcing rules consistently and using natural and logical consequences rather than punishments, Encouraging the development of self-respect and responsibility and building trust." In order to enhance student self-esteem, The Charter School is planning to 20 "Set high expectations for all students and assist students in achieving them since we believe that when teachers believe in students, students believe in themselves, Provide all students with ample amounts of positive feedback regarding student strengths, achievements, attitude, actions, skills or social behaviors, Always try to explain the reasons or purpose for rules, assignments and learning activities, Value students' efforts as well as their accomplishments, Help students learn to accept their mistakes and successes, Accept students as valuable, worthwhile human beings, Celebrate the accomplishments and achievements of all students, Page 118 of 132

372 Encourage students to evaluate their behavior related to their goals and prior level of achievements, Create a psychologically safe climate in which students are encouraged to express their opinions and take risks." The Charter School shall enhance self-reliance by 20 "Allowing students to choose from several learning activities that meet the same objective." Providing opportunities for students to determine where, when and in what order to complete assignments when possible, Using minimally sufficient controls when behavior must be required or restricted, Encouraging students to use the skills of individual goal setting to define monitor and achieve self-determined objectives, Holding them accountable for the consequences of their choices instead of making judgments." Student competence shall be enhanced by 20 "Evaluate achievement against the attainment of clearly stated instructions and objectives, Keep the achievement as the constant and time as the variable in the class, Use individual goal setting strategies to allow students to define their own personal criteria for success, and think about their own learning, Use formative tests to identify the specific objectives not yet mastered by each student after initial instruction, Page 119 of 132

373 Use criterion-referenced rather than norm referenced evaluation procedures to determine students' grades, Allow students to retake, without penalty, parallel forms of exams that cover clearly stated objectives, Design learning and evaluation activities, so that performance outcomes are related to the level of effort expended, Match learning paths and pace of learning to the skill level of individual students, Provide advanced students with challenging opportunities to enrich and extend their content mastery." The Charter School shall enhance group relation and teamwork skills by 20 "Extensive use of using cooperative learning settings and helping students to learn the skills of empathetic listening, Helping students learn to express their feelings in ways that do not attack or injure others, Taking time to systematically help students learn to communicate acceptance and support for one another, Helping students learn to practice the skills of conflict resolution, Attempting to develop group goals and positive interdependence in the classroom, Cultivating individual accountability for contributing to the class and group goals, Avoid penalizing some students for the behavior of others and avoid forcing students to compete for a limited number of rewards, Affirming the importance of effective cause within the classroom, Page 120 of 132

374 Using feedback procedures to assess and discuss the interpersonal climate and personality of the classroom." Student interest and involvement shall be enhanced by 20 "Making connections to students experiences and everyday life, Assessing students' interests, hobbies and extracurricular activities, Supporting instruction with humor, personal experiences, incidental information and anecdotes that present the human characteristics of the content, Using divergent questions and brainstorming activities, Varying instructional activities while maintaining curricular focus and structure, Supporting spontaneity when it reinforces student academic interest." Parental Involvement Parental involvement in education is complex and multi-faceted. Joyce Epstein categorizes parental involvement into five types A "Basic obligations of parents, such as providing for their children's health and safety and creating a home environment that supports learning. Basic obligations of schools; such as communicating with parents about school programs and their children's progress. Parental involvement at the school site, for example, by attending sports events or student performances or by working as volunteers. A Jennings, L. (1990, August 1). Parents as partners. Education Week, pp Page 121 of 132

375 Parental involvement in learning activities at home. Parental involvement in school governance and advocacy." In the Charter School, all five types of family involvement shall be addressed wherever appropriate. For example, The Charter School shall provide meetings, seminars and educational activities for parents in order to assist the obligations in the second type mentioned above. To develop parental involvement and make it as productive as possible, a variety of strategies shall be considered. These strategies can be classified as policy, organizational, personnel, teacher-specific, and parent-specific. The parents, guardians or mentors of each student attending The Charter School shall be asked to sign the Charter School Family Contract which helps incite awareness about the importance of the Family-Student-The Charter School triangle for the success of the student. Parents as Educators project shall be put into work. The goal of this project is to help parents enhance their children's learning at home. Whenever possible the following techniques shall be utilized: A "Ask parents to read to their children regularly or listen to the children read aloud. Lend books, workbooks, and other materials to parents. Ask parents to take their children to the public library. (Provide the necessary information about how to get there, how to get a library card, and so forth needed.) Ask parents to get their children to describe (in detail, daily) what they did in school. A Epstein, J. (1987, January). What directors should know about parental involvement. Director, pp. 6-9 Page 122 of 132

376 Give an assignment that requires children to ask their parents questions. Ask parents to watch a specific television program with their children and discuss it afterward. Suggest ways for parents to include their children in any of their own educationally enriching activities. (These could be as commonplace as shopping for groceries, working on the car, taking care of the house, making minor repairs, working in the yard/garden, tending animals, and so forth.) Suggest (and demonstrate in person whenever possible) games or group activities related to the children's schoolwork that can be played by either parent or child or by child and siblings. Suggest (and demonstrate) how parents can use home materials and activities to stimulate their children's interest in reading, math and other subjects. Establish a formal agreement whereby parents supervise and assist children in completing homework tasks. Establish a formal agreement by which parents provide rewards or penalties (or both) based on children's school performance and behavior. Ask parents to come and observe the class, not help. Give a questionnaire to parents, so that they can provide feedback about their children's progress. Explain certain techniques for teaching, making learning materials, or correcting mistakes appropriately. Page 123 of 132

377 Ask parents to sign homework to ensure its completion. Ask parents to provide spelling practice, math drills, or other practice." To avoid assignments being used as useless attachments to current duties, faculty shall be assigned to work closely with parents using one-on-one settings and group activities. Working with parents in this way shall be the responsibility of each faculty member. The director and/or school board shall supervise these activities. If concrete actions are taken on the part of school personnel, the school can be a place where parents can expect a warm environment. The following actions shall be taken to improve the effective communication and partnerships with parents as described as: A "Publish a clear policy welcoming parental involvement, publicize it, and post it in the school buildings in an obvious place for all to see. Organize the staff, so that at least one person knows each student well- how he or she is doing in all subjects; whether he or she is making friends; whether he or she is anxious, afraid of failing, and so forth. Make sure that the school office is friendly and open and that parents are treated with respect and are not kept waiting. Sponsor parent-to-parent events, so that parents can get to know one another and develop common standards for their children's behavior and social life. A National Committee for Citizens in Education. (1989, Winter Holiday). Parent involvement in middle school-your young adolescent needs you more than ever. Network for Public Schools, 15(3),7,8-9 Page 124 of 132

378 Hire a full-time parent contact person whose job is to help parents understand how they can help their kids learn at home and understand the school structure. The parent contact person should also talk to teachers about parent's concerns and make home visits. Set up a parent room in the school building. Equip it with comfortable places to sit, a telephone, books about school age-children and what they need, and access to a copying machine. Some schools have even included a kitchen, a laundry room, sewing machine, computer and typewriter. Ensure that parents and school staff work together to determine parents' needs and provide necessary services. Sometimes parents will need things that do not seem directly related to their children's education, such as help in understanding the immigration laws or in getting their electricity turned back on. Provide in-person contact with parents whose primary language is not English, and be sure that translators are involved in all parent-teacher interaction as needed." Teachers must allow parents to be intimately involved in their children's education. This requires an understanding, on the teacher's part, of what it is like to be a parent. Teachers shall hold seminars and meetings to achieve this. To build trust with parents, strategies specific for each shall be used. This will help involve parents in their child's education, from academics to the development of a healthy self-esteem. Strategies to be used include: "Accept parents as they are and do not try to induce fundamental changes. Trying to change parents in some basic way communicates that something is wrong with them. Listen carefully with empathy, for the cognitive and emotional content of the parents' message. Page 125 of 132

379 Help parents feel comfortable and share information and resources when permissible. Focus on the parents' hopes, aspirations, concerns, and needs. Attending parents' concerns communicates caring. Keep promises. Be there when needed even if it creates inconvenience." At the Charter School we believe that "involving more parents more often and more productively requires changing the major location of parent involvement from the school to the home, changing the major emphasis from general policies to specific skills, and changing the major target from the general population of students or school staff to the individual child at home. 23 This is why we talk about specific behavior and organizational skills rather than traditional parents' day, or teacher parents' conferences. Traditional participation options will certainly be offered such as volunteer hours for school tasks, teacher meetings and conferences on specific needs of parents. Improving Student Attendance Poor attendance arises from a multitude of factors including family background, environmental or ecological, and psychological and social factors. Students are influenced by the educational system, the schools managerial aspects and teachers' attitudes. To improve attendance there must be a relationship between student, school, and home. If the atmosphere within the school is not positive and friendly and if there are insufficient resources, it is unmotivating for students to be present. If the environment is not one in which the students feel confortable and feel a sense of belonging, they will feel alienated. Specific things that shall be done to improve school attendance: An efficient policy in solving excessive absence may include: Page 126 of 132

380 Notifying the parent by phone. Warning letters sent to parents making them aware of the problem and possible actions that may be taken if the situation does not improve. Arranging conferences with the parent and student to help resolve the issue. Sending up a follow-up letter that explains the compulsory school attendance law or school policy. For students to avoid being alienated there must be an effective counseling and guidance system. Students are important and valued and must be made to feel as such using a spirit of collaboration and a sense of solidarity. Schools must be student-friendly. Making them rewarding institutions has been a major challenge. If students are to be positively educated, good student-teacher relationships in addition to good friendships with classmates are necessary. To the extent a student does not feel cared for at school, he or she does not feel 'present' at school." A At the Charter School the atmosphere and standards which enable the majority of students to succeed and have a good quality of life shall be maintained through continuous development of awareness that teacher's attitudes, expectations and personal characteristics play a significant role in influencing the nature of student-teacher interactions, relationships and attendance. In particular, the staff at the Charter School shall endeavor to: "be approachable, A Thing, E., in Tomlinson, J. (1991) 'Community Education: An assessment and the Challenge for the Future', British Journal of Educational Studies, XXXIX(1), February, pp Page 127 of 132

381 cultivate a greater sense of confidentiality concerning the students and their families, and avoid staff room 'gossip', enable students to feel they belong and offer them positions of responsibility, so that they feel trusted and are empowered to be good leaders, improve staff/student communication and offer students an effective channel through which they can express their grievances, praise and encourage students for their efforts, show no favoritism, speak politely, avoid being sarcasticor rude, speak in a 'normal' tone and pitch of voice, treat students with respect and as young adults." Parents must play an important role in the development of young people. Those who do not take an active part in their child's education tend to be uncooperative. We believe that positive contact between parents and teachers is important in solving attendance problems more effectively. Page 128 of 132

382 STATEMENT OF ASSURANCES Page 129 of 132

383 South Carolina Public Charter School Application Statement of Assurances Statement of Assurances This form must be signed by a duly authorized representative of the applicant group and submitted with the Charter School Application. As the authorized representative of the applicant group, I hereby certify under the penalties of perjury that the information submitted in this application for Greenville Renewable Energy Education (GREEN) Charter School is true to the best of my knowledge and belief; and further I understand that, if awarded a charter, the school and its governing board A. Will comply with all federal and state laws and constitutional provisions prohibiting discrimination on the basis of disability, race, creed, color, gender, national origin, religion, ancestry, or need for special education services. B. Will not charge tuition or other charges of any kind except as may be allowed by the sponsor and is comparable to the changes of the local school district in which the charter school is located. C. Will adhere to the same health, safety, civil rights, and disability rights requirements as are applied to other public schools operating in the same school district or in the case of the South Carolina Public Charter School District (SCPCSD), the local school district in which the charter school is located. D. Will meet, but may exceed, the same minimum student attendance requirements as are applied to public schools. E. Will adhere to the same financial audits, audit procedures, and audit requirements as are applied to public schools. F. Will report to its sponsor and the Department of Education documentation of the appropriate use of federal funds the Charter School may receive. Page 130 of 132

384 G. Will use the same pupil accounting system as required of public schools and districts. H. Will employ noncertified teachers in a ratio of up to twenty-five percent of its entire teaching staff (ten percent for conversion schools). All teachers in core academic areas will be highly qualified as defined in No Child Left Behind Act. I. Will employ one administrative staff member who is certified or experienced in the field of school administration. J. Will be secular in its curriculum, programs, governance, and all other operations. K. Will comply with the Freedom of Information Act. L. Will comply with the No Child Left Behind legislation. M. Will adhere to all provisions of reporting student truancy, discipline incidents and persistently dangerous situations as required by No Child Left Behind. N. Will assume liability for the activities of the charter school and will indemnify and hold harmless the school district, its servant, agents, and employees, from any and all liability, damage, expense, causes of action, suits, claims, or judgments arising from injury to persons or property or otherwise which arises out of the act, failure to act, or negligence of the charter school, its agents and employees, in connection with or arising out of the activity of the charter school. O. Will report to its sponsor and the Department of Education any changes to information provided under its application in a timely manner. P. Will report at least annually to its sponsor and the Department of Education all information required by the sponsor and by the Department, including, at a minimum, the number of students enrolled in the charter school, the success of students in achieving the specific educational goals for which the charter school was established, and the identity and certification status of the teaching staff. Q. Will adhere to all provisions of federal law relating to students with disabilities, including Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 that are applicable. Page 131 of 132

385 R. Will adhere to all provisions of federal law relating to students who are limited English proficient (LEP), including Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of S. Will comply with S.C. Code Ann (2004), which provides for the expulsion of any student who brings a firearm to school. T. Will comply with the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (20 U.S.C. 1232). U. Will comply with any school district desegregation plan or order in effect. V. Will adhere to all requirements of the Office of School Facilities as detailed in the Charter School Facilities Approval Form. W. Understand that, as a charter, we gain autonomy to make decisions in exchange for accountability to our authorizer. A.KADIR YILDIRIM 04/30/2012 Name of Charter School Planning Committee Chair Date 04/30/2012 Signature of Charter School Planning Committee Chair Date Page 132 of 132

386 South Carolina Public Charter School Application Guide (for schools planning to open fall 2013) Deadline for Receipt of Applications: 12:00 p.m., Tuesday, May 1, 2012 South Carolina Charter School Advisory Committee Mick Zais, Ph.D. State Superintendent of Education Contact Information: Constance D. Barnes, EdS Office of School Transformation South Carolina Department of Education 1429 Senate Street, Suite 513-E Columbia, SC

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