5.1 Sound & Light Unit Overview

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1 5.1 Sound & Light Unit Overview Enduring Understanding: Sound and light are forms of energy that travel and interact with objects in various ways. Essential Question: How is sound energy transmitted, absorbed, reflected? How does light energy travel and interact with objects? Connecticut Content Standard 5.1 Sound and light are forms of energy. Grade Level Expectations Students should be able to... GLE Descriptor Lesson in Generalize that vibrating objects produce sound if the vibrations are transferred from the object through another material (e.g., air, a solid, or a liquid). Demonstrate how the loudness, pitch and quality/timbre of sound can be varied. Design and conduct investigations to determine factors that affect pitch. Describe the properties of materials that reflect or absorb sound. Analyze properties of materials that cause sound to be reflected or absorbed, then apply findings to design a device that reflects or absorbs sound. Construct simple musical instruments (e.g., rubber band guitars, drums, etc.) that produce sounds with various pitches, volume and timbres. Provide evidence that light travels in straight lines away from a source in all directions. Investigate how light is refracted as it passes through a lens or through one transparent material to another. Demonstrate that white light is composed of many colors. Explain that all visible objects are reflecting some light to the human eye. Contrast the way light is reflected by a smooth, shiny object (e.g., mirror or pool of water) and how light is reflected by other objects. Measure angles to predict the path of light reflected by a mirror. Determine whether a material is opaque, transparent or translucent based on Page 1 of 7

2 14 how light passes through it. Design and conduct light absorption experiments that vary the size, length, direction and clarity of a shadow by changing the position of the lightblocking object or the light source. Science Grade Level Concepts Students should understand that... Concept 5.1.a b 1 2 Descriptor There are a variety of sounds in our environment. Sounds have characteristics, such as loudness, pitch and quality (or timbre ), that allow them to be identified. For sound to occur, there must be a vibrating object, a material through the vibrations are transferred (for example, air or water), and a receiver (for example, an ear) to perceive the sound. Objects can be caused to vibrate by actions such as striking, strumming, bowing, plucking or blowing. Sounds can vary in loudness ( volume ). Volume is affected by the strength of the force causing the vibration. For example, striking a drum forcefully or gently produces sounds with different volumes. Sounds can have a high or low tone ( pitch ). The pitch of a sound depends on the speed of the vibration. Objects that vibrate quickly have a high pitch, while those that vibrate slowly have a low pitch. Pitch is affected by characteristics such as the shape, length, tension or thickness of the vibrating material (for example, the vibrating material may be a string, a glass, a wire or a drum). Sound travels (is transmitted ) through materials by causing them to vibrate. Sound is not transmitted if there are no materials to vibrate. Solids, liquids and gases (air) transmit sound differently. Sounds can be reflected or absorbed, depending on the properties of the material it hits. Sound tends to bounce off smooth, hard surfaces, producing an echo; sound tends to be absorbed by soft, porous surfaces, producing a muffled sound. Light travels in straight paths away from a source of illumination in all directions until it hits an object. Some sources of illumination produce their own light (for example, the sun, fire, light bulb); other sources of illumination reflect light produced by something else (for example, the moon or a mirror). Light interacts with objects in various ways; it can be reflected off the object, absorbed by the object, or refracted through the object. Page 2 of 7 Lesson in

3 Materials can be classified based on how much light passes through them. Transparent materials allow most light to pass through them. Translucent materials allow some light to pass through them. Opaque materials do not allow any light to pass through them. Objects that have flat, smooth surfaces reflect light and produce a mirror-like image. Objects that have curved or uneven surfaces scatter the reflected light and produce distorted or blurry images. Light always reflects away from a mirror at the same angle that it hits the mirror. The angle of incoming light equals the angle of reflected light. Objects that block light traveling from a source produce shadows. The shape, length, direction and clarity of a shadow depend on the shape and position of the object, and the location of the light source. Light changes direction ( refracts ) as it passes from one transparent material to another (for example, as it passes from air to water or through lenses. Connecticut Inquiry Standards Descriptor Lesson in B INQ 1 Make observations and ask questions about objects, organisms and the, 2 environment. B INQ 2 Seek relevant information in books, magazines and electronic media. B INQ 3 Design and conduct simple investigations., 2 B INQ 4 Employ simple equipment and measuring tools to gather data and extend the, 2 senses. B INQ 5 Use data to construct reasonable explanations, 2 B INQ 6 Analyze, critique and communicate investigations using words, graphs and, 2 drawings. B INQ 7 Read and write a variety of science-related fiction and nonfiction texts. B INQ 8 Search the Web and locate relevant science information. B INQ 9 Use measurement tools and standard units (e.g., centimeters, meters, grams, kilograms) to describe objects and materials. B INQ 10 Use mathematics to analyze, interpret and present data. Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Standard Descriptor Lesson in Addressed Reading: Informational Text RI.5.4 Determine the meaning of general academic and domain-specific words and, 2 phrases in a text relevant to a grade 5 topic or subject area. Page 3 of 7

4 W.5.2 W5.2d Writing Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic., 2 W.5.8 W.5.10 SL.5.1 SL.5.1a Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. Speaking & Listening Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 5 topics and texts, building on others ideas and expressing their own clearly. Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion., 2, 2, 2, 2 SL.5.1b Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions and carry out assigned roles., 2 SL.5.1c Pose and respond to specific questions by making comments that contribute to the discussion and elaborate on the remarks of others., 2 SL.5.1d Review the key ideas expressed and draw conclusions in light of information and knowledge gained from the discussions., 2 SL.5.4 SL.5.6 L.5.3 L.5.4 L.5.6 Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; speak clearly at an understandable pace. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, using formal English when appropriate to task and situation. Language Use knowledge of language and its conventions when writing, speaking, reading, or listening. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domainspecific words and phrases, including those that signal contrast, addition, and other logical relationships (e.g., however, although, nevertheless, similarly, moreover, in addition)., 2, 2 Page 4 of 7

5 Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS): NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas 1PS4 PS4A, PS4B 4 PS4 PS4B MS PS4 PS4A, PS4B NGSS Science and Engineering Practices NGSS Descriptor Lesson in Practice 1 Asking questions and defining problems, 2 Practice 2 Developing and using models, 2 Practice 3 Planning and carrying out investigations, 2 Practice 4 Analyzing and interpreting data, 2 Practice 5 Using mathematics and computational thinking Practice 6 Constructing explanations and designing solutions, 2 Practice 7 Engaging in argument from evidence Practice 8 Obtaining, evaluating, and communicating information, 2 NGSS Cross Cutting Concepts Cause & Effect Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimes multifaceted. Deciphering causal relationships, and the mechanisms by they are mediated, is a major activity of science and engineering. Systems & Models A system is an organized group of related objects or components; models can be used for understanding and predicting the behavior of systems. Energy / Matter: Cycles & Conservation Tracking energy and matter flows, into, out of, and within systems helps one understand their system s behavior. Structure & Function The way an object is shaped or structured determines many of its properties and functions. Vision of the Graduate: Pose and pursue substantive questions Critically interpret, evaluate, and synthesize information Explore, define, and solve complex problems Communication effectively for a given purpose Page 5 of 7

6 Advocate for ideas, causes, and actions Generate innovative, creative ideas and products Collaborate with others to produce a unified work and / or heightened understanding Contribute to community through dialogue, service, and / or leadership Conduct themselves in an ethical and responsible manner Recognize and respect other cultural contexts and points of view Pursue their unique interests, passions and curiosities Respond to failure and successes with reflection and resilience Be responsible for their own mental and physical health Instructional Support Materials: FOSS Pure Power Millmark Light & Sound (L/M; O/P; Q/R; S/T) BrainPopjr: Sound - Light - Science notebooks Discovery Education: A First Look: Sound ; Making Your Own Musical Instruments ; Fred Snite, Jr. Sees Race by Periscope from New Trailer Youtube: Reflection and Refraction Seeing the Light document 5.1 Types of Light document Rubber Bands (12) Metal Forks (2) String Large Button (1) Balloons (6) Cylindrical Containers (Pringles) (1-2) Pebble (1) Round Container for Water (1) Freezer Bags (2-3) Towel (1) Metal Trash Can or Bucket (1) Flashlights (at least one) 3 index cards (5x8) 6 large paper clips Small mirrors (at least two for each periscope being constructed) Blank piece of paper Opaque bowl Clear plastic cup pencil Shiny silver spoon Tennis ball Measuring tapes Chalk Pieces of foil and cling wrap Plastic bag Page 6 of 7

7 Supports & Extensions: Identified in individual lessons CT State Key Concept Words: reflect, absorb, refract, transparent, translucent, opaque, angle, vibration, transfer, volume, pitch, transmit, reflect, absorb Page 7 of 7

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