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1 Quality teaching in NSW public schools:

2 Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 2nd edn. State of NSW, Department of Education and Training Professional Learning and Leadership Development Directorate 2006 RYDE NSW Downloading, copying or printing of materials in this document for personal use or on behalf of another person is permitted. Downloading, copying or printing of material from this document for the purpose of reproduction or publication (in whole or in part) for financial benefit is not permitted without express authorisation. ISBN SCIS This publication is part of the series: Quality teaching in NSW public schools. The series includes: Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Discussion paper (book) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Starting the discussion (book) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: An annotated bibliography (book) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: A DVD introduction (DVD) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: A classroom practice guide (book) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Continuing the discussion about classroom practice (book) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Continuing the discussion about classroom practice: Lesson extracts K 6 (video) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Continuing the discussion about classroom practice: Lesson extracts 7 10 (video) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Continuing the discussion about classroom practice: Lesson extracts K 10 (DVD) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: An assessment practice guide (book) Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Continuing the discussion about assessment practice (book)

3 Contents Introduction 5 Purpose of this document 5 Planning for school change 5 Support for Quality teaching 6 Introductory support resources 6 Second phase support resources 6 Third phase support resources 6 Introducing the assessment practice guide 8 Purpose of the guide 8 Introducing the assessment tasks 10 Purpose of the assessment tasks 10 The assessment tasks 11 Purpose of the coders comments 12 Ideas for coding assessment practice 1 Coding assessment practice 1 Coding plans for assessment 1 Appendix 1: Assessment tasks 15 Appendix 2: Coders comments on the assessment tasks 1

4 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

5 Introduction Purpose of this document This document, Continuing the discussion about assessment practice, provides ideas and strategies for developing teachers understanding and enriching professional dialogue about the model of pedagogy described in Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Discussion paper (NSW Department of Education and Training, 200). Specifically, this document suggests ways in which school leaders and teachers can use the third phase of support resources to build understanding about the NSW Quality teaching model and to support teachers in improving their assessment practice. These third phase resources are: An assessment practice guide Continuing the discussion about assessment practice. These resources are intended to be used by schools after they have introduced the discussion paper into their school community and have committed to a strategic focus on Quality teaching in their school plans. Planning for school change In May 200 the Department released Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Discussion paper (NSW Department of Education and Training, 200). The discussion paper was developed to focus and support the work of school leaders and teachers in addressing teaching and learning in NSW public schools. The paper proposes a model of pedagogy that can be applied from Kindergarten to Year 12 and across all key learning areas. The Department s focus on pedagogy is a long-term strategic priority. Understanding the model outlined in the discussion paper and how it can support improved teacher practice will take time. In the introductory support document, Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Starting the discussion (NSW Department of Education and Training, 200), a planning framework was provided to support school leaders interested in using the discussion paper as a catalyst for inquiry into pedagogy and whole-school change. The suggestions in this support document, Continuing the discussion about assessment practice, can assist in the implementation stage of that planning framework. Schools still in the early stages of introducing the discussion paper may find it helpful to refer back to the suggestions in the introductory support document, Starting the discussion. Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 5

6 Support for Quality teaching Resources to support schools in introducing and working with the Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Discussion paper have been provided in three phases in Introductory support resources (Term 2, 200) The initial phase of support is designed to introduce the NSW Quality teaching model described in the discussion paper. The support resources accompanying the discussion paper include: A video introduction. In the video, the discussion paper is introduced by the former Director-General of Education and Training and Managing Director of TAFE NSW, Jan McClelland. The NSW Quality teaching model is then explained by Dr James Ladwig and Professor Jennifer Gore. An annotated bibliography. The bibliography details the empirical and theoretical basis for the NSW Quality teaching model described in the discussion paper. Starting the discussion. This document suggests ideas for using the discussion paper, the video introduction and the annotated bibliography. It is recommended that the Quality teaching in NSW public schools: Discussion paper is read and these introductory resources are used to engage with the NSW Quality teaching model before working through the ideas suggested in this document. Second phase support resources (Term, 200) The second phase of support helps to develop teachers understanding and enrich professional dialogue about the model as it applies to classroom practice. It includes three resources for use in assisting teachers to enhance their classroom practice. Continuing the discussion about classroom practice. This document provides suggestions on ways the following two resources can support and extend teachers professional learning and dialogue over time, as well as coders comments for each of nine video-taped lesson extracts. A classroom practice guide. The guide elaborates the eighteen elements of the model and provides a description of each element, a 1 5 coding scale and notes and suggestions to help clarify what it might mean to teach well in relation to each element. Continuing the discussion about classroom practice: Lesson extracts K 10. Nine videotaped 15 to 20 minute lesson extracts are provided in video and DVD form as professional learning tools to assist teachers to use the classroom practice guide and deepen their understanding of the elements of the model. Third phase support resources (Term, 200) The third phase of support helps to develop teachers understanding and enrich professional dialogue about the NSW Quality teaching model as it applies to assessment practice. It includes two documents for use in supporting teachers efforts to enhance their assessment practice. Continuing the discussion about assessment practice. This document provides ideas for using the assessment practice guide, a set of assessment tasks, and coders comments for each of the assessment tasks. 6 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

7 An assessment practice guide. The guide elaborates fourteen elements of the model, with a description of each element, a 1 5 coding scale and notes and suggestions to help clarify what it might mean to assess well in relation to each element. To download any of the support resources or for information about other support currently available for Quality teaching in NSW public schools go to this web site address: https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/proflearn/ Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 7

8 Introducing the assessment practice guide Purpose of the guide An assessment practice guide has been written to support school leaders and teachers in their implementation of the NSW Quality teaching model in relation to assessment practice. Its purpose is to support teachers professional learning, dialogue and practice. Assessment is the process of identifying, gathering and interpreting information about students learning. The central purpose of assessment is to provide information on student achievement and progress and set the direction for ongoing teaching and learning. [Principles for assessment and reporting in NSW government schools, NSW Department of Education and Training (1996)] For the purpose of the guide, assessment tasks are in written form. Written form can be either materials prepared for assessing students, such as homework tasks, in-class tasks, rich tasks, research projects, design projects, performance tasks, classroom tests and formal examinations; or, the transcripts of classroom activities designed for the purpose of producing evidence of student learning. Tasks can refer to short-term one-off activities or, as in some of the examples included in this document, long-term multi-dimensional projects. The assessment practices of teachers are clearly much broader than the written materials they distribute to students. The more restricted definition of assessment used in this guide, however, provides a specific pathway to improving assessment practice in general, as a key aspect of quality teaching. This guide is organised around fourteen of the elements of the NSW Quality teaching model. Engagement, social support, students self-regulation, and inclusivity are not included as coding elements for assessing tasks as they will be observed only in the context of implementing a task, and are best observed as elements of classroom practice [refer to A classroom practice guide]. The guide elaborates these 1 elements with a description of each element, a 1 5 coding scale, notes and suggestions. The coding process described in the guide can be used to support: teacher reflection and analysis, where teachers, individually or in groups, can use the guide to analyse assessment practice in order to understand how that practice might be improved the planning and enhancing of assessment; as teachers, individually or in groups, use the guide in order to maximise the potential of each assessment task to benefit student learning. The process of coding assessment tasks supports teachers professional learning in a number of ways: It assists teachers to understand the elements of the model by being able to identify and name each element as they observe it in different examples of assessment practice. It helps teachers come to a shared understanding of the NSW Quality teaching model through collegial discussion. It helps teachers to develop a deeper understanding of quality pedagogy, which in turn will help them to improve their own assessment practice. 8 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

9 It is important to reiterate that the purpose of this guide is to support teacher professional learning and practice. The coding process described in this guide should only be used where teachers have agreed to its use in relation to their work. The guide is not intended to be used for the purpose of teacher assessment. Any use for this purpose has the potential to undermine its value in supporting teacher professional learning and dialogue. The coding process The coding scales in the assessment practice guide can be used to code assessment materials, with the aim of reflecting on and refining or redeveloping those materials. Steps in the coding process When coding assessment tasks, it is suggested that you follow these four simple steps. 1. Have a copy of An assessment practice guide and a coding sheet with you. Coding sheets can be found in the Appendix to An assessment practice guide. 2. Read and reflect on the assessment task.. While reading and reflecting, note down any comments or evidence in relation to the elements of the NSW Quality teaching model.. After you finish reading the task, refer to the guide and go through each element one by one, assigning a score. Refer to any notes you have taken and carefully read the coding scale, then assign a score for each element on your coding sheet. Assigning a score When coding assessment tasks, you can score only what you can see on the task. There will be times when you cannot see evidence of an element in the written task but are tempted to score the element highly because you assume it will happen when teachers distribute or deliver the task or when students work on it. Despite this temptation, score only what you can see. Similarly, if you do not see any evidence of an element at all, you may be tempted to score this element as not applicable, rather than as 1. For the purpose of coding you should always assign a score to each element. A score of 1 may not necessarily reflect poor pedagogy, but rather indicate that a particular element was not a feature of the task you coded. However a consistent 1 on any element over time would indicate an area of assessment practice in need of attention. When you are coding, consider the explanations given for each element, using the descriptions of the scores from 1 5. Where you have difficulty in selecting between two scores, consider whether the minimum conditions of the higher score have been met. If these conditions have not been met, the lower score should be used. The five points on the coding scale represent distinctions that can be made in terms of the relative presence of the element. These distinctions, however, do not cover every possible way in which the element will manifest itself in assessment material. In these instances you will need to return to a judgment about whether the conditions for the higher score are met. If not, you should assign the lower score, even if the lower score descriptor does not capture exactly what you are coding. Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 9

10 Using the scores Discuss your scores with others and reflect on what they mean for improving assessment tasks. The scores themselves are there to provide the basis for professional learning reflection and dialogue. High scores are not necessarily achieved by a particular style of assessment or assessment strategy. Rather, high scores require an approach to assessment that is clear about the answers to the following four questions in the context of trying to achieve high levels of Intellectual Quality, Quality Learning Environment and Significance: What do you want the students to learn? Why does that learning matter? What are you going to get the students to do (or to produce)? How well do you expect them to do it? Finally, remember that the purpose of undertaking the coding is to strengthen assessment tasks. Over time it is important to look at a number of tasks, as well as analysing units of work and classroom practice. Each of these activities contributes to the quality of teaching, and it is important to see them all as part of a whole. Introducing the assessment tasks Purpose of the assessment tasks Twelve assessment tasks are provided in Appendix 1 to support teacher professional learning in two important ways. They provide opportunities for teachers to start to use the coding process described in An assessment practice guide. They provide a common basis for discussion and developing a shared understanding about what each of the fourteen elements looks like in assessment practice. The assessment tasks have been gathered from teachers in NSW public schools. These teachers have made the tasks available in a spirit of teacher collegiality and professionalism and they should be respected for doing so. The twelve tasks reflect a variety of assessment practices, ranging from whole units of work to segments of lessons. The tasks span a range of subjects and stages, but there has been no attempt to provide a task for every subject. They are not meant to be exemplars or representations of how to score highly on each element in a particular subject area. Their intended purpose is to support professional learning in the ways outlined above. 10 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

11 The assessment tasks The K 6 assessment tasks are: Subject Stage Year Topic English Stage 1 Year 1 Description Science and Technology Stage 2 Year Weather protection structure Dance Stage Year 5 Dance solutions Mathematics Stage Year 6 Area and perimeter Human Society and Its Environment Stage Year 6 Aid organisations The 7 12 assessment tasks are: Subject Stage Year Topic Science Stage Year 7 Are you sure that s sugar? English Stage Year 7 Visual representation Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Stage Year 8 Three-on-two set moves Visual Arts Stage 5 Year 10 Personal issues Japanese Stage 5 Year 10 Planning an itinerary Design and Technology Stage 6 Year 11 Environmental and social issues Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Stage 6 Year 12 Health proposal Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 11

12 Purpose of the coders comments Each of the assessment tasks has been coded by an experienced team led by Dr James Ladwig and Professor Jennifer Gore. The team s comments are provided for each task in Appendix 2 of this document to support professional discussion and learning. The comments include the agreed code or score that the team assigned for each of the fourteen elements used in considering assessment practice, along with an explanation of how these scores were determined. The coders comments should be used only after teachers have independently read and coded a task, provided evidence for their score and discussed their scores with others. The scores are not ends in themselves. Variations among coders will not be unusual, especially in the early stages as teachers come to understand the elements of the quality teaching model. Use any differences as an opportunity to go back to the definitions, the notes and the evidence to strengthen the professional dialogue, and hence deepen the shared understanding of each element. It may be useful to code the same assessment task a number of times, at different times, to build consistency within the group and a shared understanding of the elements as they are manifested in the task. It is important to note that the tasks were not set up to illustrate high scoring assessment practice in terms of the NSW Quality teaching model. The range of scores given to these tasks helps to reinforce the following general messages: Even if tasks do not score a 5 on all elements, and indeed if they score a 1 on some elements, they can still be considered good tasks in terms of the NSW Quality teaching model if they score highly overall on all three dimensions. A score of 1 on an element may not necessarily reflect poor pedagogy, but rather indicate that the element was not a feature of the task. However a consistent 1 on any element over time would indicate an area of assessment practice in need of attention. While it is unrealistic to expect that every task will score highly on every one of the fourteen elements, it is important that teachers aim to score highly, on average, in all three dimensions for every task. In order to do this, teachers will need to consider what it will take to score more highly on each element. 12 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

13 Ideas for coding assessment practice In order for teachers to develop confidence and expertise in applying the coding process to their own assessment practice, it is desirable to provide many opportunities for teachers to code tasks from a variety of contexts. Developing a deep understanding of the model does not necessarily require teachers to code and analyse their own practice. Indeed when they are first starting to use the coding scales, it may be more valuable for teachers to analyse and code the work of others by using available resources. The assessment tasks provided in this support document can be used for this purpose, but so can any assessment task available in the school or in curriculum support resources. Coding in a collegial group can help build a shared understanding of the elements and a level of professional trust on which to base collective efforts to improve assessment practice. Teachers can also use the process of coding to reflect individually on their own assessment practice. Below are some suggestions for how teachers could use the coding process in An assessment practice guide in these ways. Coding assessment practice Individual teachers or groups of teachers can use the assessment tasks initially to practise the coding process and to support their professional learning about the NSW Quality teaching model. Each of the 12 assessment tasks provided with this document can assist with this process, although teachers new to the process may prefer to start with the assessment task that most closely aligns with their teaching experience. Teachers can also use An assessment practice guide to reflect on an assessment task they have previously used. Some teachers may also wish to invite colleagues to analyse and code their tasks with the aim of giving them constructive feedback. Reflection on and analysis of scores should focus on these key questions: Is there an opportunity to increase the overall score for each of the three dimensions in the task? That is: Is there an opportunity to increase the intellectual quality of this task? Is there an opportunity to increase the quality learning environment aspects of the task? Is there an opportunity to increase the significance of this task? What elements would you need to improve in order to do this? How could you do this? If a particular element remains with a low score, will that have an impact on the overall quality of the dimension and of the task? Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 1

14 Using the assessment tasks Suggestions for specific steps which you might take when using the assessment tasks are provided below. 1. Choose an assessment task. 2. Read the assessment task and code it, using the four steps outlined in An assessment practice guide. (Also provided on page 9 of this document.). If you are doing this as a group activity, compare the scores you gave each element with those of others in the group and discuss the evidence that led to this score. Try to arrive at an agreed group score, not by majority vote, but by examining the evidence for a score and checking its alignment with the descriptor of that score in the assessment practice guide.. Read the comments on the task prepared by the coding team. 5. Compare their comments with your own response or that of your group. 6. As a way of deepening your understanding of the model, reflect on any similarities and differences and consider why the team arrived at their conclusions. 7. Reflect on what could be added or deleted to improve or enhance the task. 8. Reflect on the meaning which this process can have for your own practice. Coding plans for assessment Teachers can also apply the process of coding and the information provided in An assessment practice guide to help plan a related set of assessment tasks within a unit. In this context, you may not necessarily go through the formal process of coding and assigning a score to each element, but you can identify the areas where the plan could have been or can be improved, by keeping in mind these same key questions: Is there opportunity to increase the overall score for each of the three dimensions in these tasks? That is: To what degree do the Intellectual Quality scores reflect the intent of the overall unit? Is there an opportunity to increase the intellectual quality of this set of tasks or the unit? To what degree do the Quality Learning Environment scores reflect the intent of the overall unit? Is there an opportunity to increase the quality learning environment of this set of tasks or the unit? To what degree do the Significance scores reflect the intent of the overall unit? Is there an opportunity to increase the significance of this set of tasks or the unit? If a particular element remains with a low score, will that have an impact on the overall quality of the dimension and of the set of tasks? Are there elements that are particularly salient to the unit that, if highlighted in the tasks, would strengthen the overall dimension scores? 1 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

15 Appendix 1: Assessment tasks Subject Stage Year Topic Page English Stage 1 Year 1 Description 16 Science and Technology Stage 2 Year Weather protection structure 17 Mathematics Stage Year 5 Dance Stage Year 6 Area and perimeter Dance solutions Human Society and Its Environment Stage Year 6 Aid organisations 21 Science Stage Year 7 English Stage Year 7 Are you sure that s sugar? Visual representation Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Stage Year 8 Three-on-two set moves 29 Visual Arts Stage 5 Year 10 Japanese Stage 5 Year 10 Personal issues Planning an itinerary 0 Design and Technology Stage 6 Year 11 Environmental and social issues Personal Development, Health and Physical Education Stage 6 Year 12 Health proposal 6

16 Subject: English Stage 1 Topic: Description Preparation Divide the class into groups of approximately -5 students to enable focussing the assessment on one group at a time. Assessment task say to students I am going to give you time to write a description of yourself that I will make into a class book for your friends in the class to read. On this piece of paper (profile sheet) I have written some headings to help you. Together let s write a description of me before you do your own. [Together teacher and students complete the profile sheet. Teacher draws students attention to the grammatical features used, eg adjectives. Jointly construct a description of the teacher based on the information from the profile sheet. Teacher models how to construct complete sentences and use appropriate punctuation.] Now it is your turn. I want you to complete the profile sheet and then use this to write a description of yourself. I will be looking at the words you use, particularly those that help give a good description, how well you spell the words we have used before in our writing, and how well you use good punctuation, particularly full stops, commas and capital letters. While you are writing I may come and have a look at what you are doing. [While students are writing, teacher discusses each student s writing. Discuss some aspects of text structure and grammar, eg What happens in this part of the description? How have you organised the information in your description? Point to an adjective. Tell me who or what it describes.] Profile Name:... What I look like (You might like to include things like hair, eyes, etc) Things I like to do at school Things I like to do at home My personality 16 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

17 Subject: Science and Technology Stage 2 Topic: Weather protection structure Unit Design a weather protection structure for an outdoor area of the school and make a model to represent the design. Assessment Task: Analyse test results and suggest modifications to the model. Oral instructions introducing the assessment activity with student responses indicating the type of information to be elicited: Teacher: What was the first step for our design task? Students: We explored ideas for outdoor areas before we presented our sketches and designs to the class for feedback. Teacher: Did we use criteria for the feedback? Students: Yes, our design had to provide protection from the sun at different times of the day. It also had to shelter us from wind and rain. Teacher: How did you decide on the criteria? Students: We found out about weather patterns for our area, and that helped to show the direction for the wind. Teacher: What was the next step in the task? Students: We had to devise tests to simulate the effect of rain, wind and sun angles on our model and collate the data. Teacher: Well done. Now you are going to undertake the next step using the worksheets. This is to analyse your test results, evaluate and suggest modifications for your design. You will need to use your notes from last Wednesday when we did the testing. It s really important that you report accurately about how well your model went. You can do well on this activity even if your model performed poorly. Don t try to pretend it went well if it didn t, because a good answer can identify what went wrong and why. On Part B you get to suggest all the ways you could now modify your model to make it perform better. Name:... UNIT Design a weather protection structure for an outdoor area of the school and make a model to represent the design. Analysing, evaluating and modifying activity Part A Explain how your design or model performed during each of the tests. A good answer will accurately report what occurred to the model during testing and will explain why you believe this occurred. a) Protection from prevailing winter wind (strength and direction) b) Protection from direct sunlight at morning tea and lunchtime in summer c) Protection from rain (both intensity and the directions from which rain usually comes) Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 17

18 Subject: Science and Technology Name:... Part B Provide suggestions about how your design or model can be modified to improve its performance against the agreed success criteria. You should use drawings from top or side views that are clearly labelled to show your modifications. Make sure you explain why you would make each suggested modification. 18 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

19 Subject: Mathematics Stage Topic: Area and perimeter Class discussion questions Materials: Use a 1 cm grid overlay on an overhead projector. 1. How could you use the grid to construct a rectangle with an area of 2 units? [Several students draw a rectangle of 2 units] 2. How many different answers do you think there might be?. How would you check the area without counting all of the squares?. How could you work out other possibilities for rectangles with an area of 2 units? 5. What name do we give to the total length of the sides of a shape? 6. How could you work out the perimeter without adding up all the sides? Individual student work Materials: Four sheets of one centimetre grid paper, pencil, ruler. 1. Use 1 cm grid paper to draw different rectangles with an area of 2cm Label the length of the sides and the areas of the rectangles.. Describe how to find the area of a rectangle from its length and breadth.. Describe how to find the perimeter of a rectangle. Discussion questions 1. How did you check that every rectangle was the correct size? 2. How can we work out the area of rectangles?. What was the same and what was different about the rectangles you measured?. How can we be sure that you have found all of the rectangles? You are working at a dog boarding kennel and you have been asked to design a dog exercise yard. You have been given 2 metres of fencing wire and four posts. a. Design a dog exercise yard that can be made from 2 metres of wire fencing and four fence posts. Use a scale on the grid paper so that 1 cm is equal to 1m. Mark the positions of the fence posts. b. Design three different dog exercise yards and record the measurements for each of your three yards. c. Record the area of each of your dog exercise yards. d. Explain which of your yards would give a dog the best space for exercise. Justify your answer. e. If we know that the perimeter of the yard is 2 metres, can we say that we know what the exact area will be? f. Explain your answer in words and use the diagrams of your dog exercise yards to illustrate your argument. Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 19

20 Subject: Dance Stage Topic: Dance solutions Learning experiences Teaching notes Assessment strategies Non-locomotor sequence Use closed and open shapes and vary level: Begin in a closed shape on the floor Unfold the shape to stand, reach high with arms and rise onto balls of the feet Swing down towards the floor, bending knees Roll up through the spine to stand Melt slowly into the first closed shape and hold Repeat the sequence. Prepare a non-locomotor sequence in advance based on the structure at left. As students learn the sequence, reinforce vocabulary in relation to movement. Teach the sequences in 8-count phrases. Count the phrase as students perform to slow, rhythmic music (optional). Use descriptive language to extend each student physically, e.g. Try to reach the ceiling with your fingers! Swing your arms out in front of you in a wide arc as you bend towards the floor. Observe how well students demonstrate manipulation of size and height, width and depth in the movements they make during this sequence. Is each student controlling the space as he or she unfolds, reaches, swings, rolls up and melts? Locomotor sequence Vary level and direction: Begin on right foot, walk steps forward Pivot, using the right foot as support to face the back (2 counts) Reach high with arms and rise onto the balls of the feet (2 counts) Swing arms down and run backwards in a half circle to face another direction Repeat the sequence. Prepare a locomotor sequence in advance based on the structure at left. As students learn the sequence, reinforce vocabulary in relation to movement. NOTE: There are infinite variations to these warm-up exercises (nonlocomotor and locomotor sequences). Begin with simple movements, shapes and counting to progress to more complex phrasing. Observe how well students demonstrate manipulation of general space while travelling in this sequence. Is each student extending into, and controlling the space as he or she steps, runs, reaches and swings? Improvisation: closed to open Each student makes a tight, closed shape on the floor. From this closed shape they explore above by reaching up and to the side by reaching out, returning to the closed shape each time. Repeat with additional instruction using imagery. Use a variety of images to motivate imaginative responses, e.g. expand up like a balloon inflating, dig sideways like a backhoe, use your arms like plant tendrils reaching towards the sun, fold and melt into a ball as though you are animated clay. Observe how well students demonstrate manipulation of size and height, width and depth in the closed and open shapes they make. Learning experiences Improvisation: the box Each student explores the size and shape of an imaginary box (one cubic metre). Move out of the box, one dimension at a time (height, length, width). Group composition: the box In groups of, 5 or 7, organise movement into the following sequence: Begin in the confined space of a box (group shape) Explore moving outside the box by reaching in all directions Travel out of the box using locomotor phrases from the locomotor sequence Complete the sequence by returning to the box. Reflection View each of the group sequences and discuss: how the group has used size and dimension when exploring space how the group has interpreted the narrative of the sequence. Journal Students write a narrative using one group s dance sequence as a stimulus. Teaching notes Assessment strategies Illustrate the size of the box using the cubic metre kit available in schools or three one-metre rulers. Help students, by coaching, to use imagination to develop shapes moving in and out of the box: Show the audience the size of the hole you are moving through. The side of the box is shut! You must push through it! When you return to the box, make a curved shape. When you return to the box, make an asymmetrical shape. Observe creative use of the body in space through students responses to this activity. How do they respond to side coaching? Choosing odd-numbered groupings encourages students to work asymmetrically. Encourage students to consider the narrative of their sequence. The narrative has a beginning, a middle and an end. What develops in the middle? Is there a complication (e.g. one of the group strays, the group find they cannot re-enter the box)? What is the resolution? Assess the group s ability to collaborate to construct a narrative that incorporates manipulation of space in non-locomotor and locomotor sequences. Question students about their interpretation of the narrative through movement as they work through the process. In discussion, draw students attention to: the contrast between the use of space by the group when confined in a small area, and when they travel out into the room the way in which a story can be movement. Is everyone s interpretation the same? Assess each group s ability to perform movement that communicated a narrative through manipulation of space. Did each group use personal and general space in a creative way? Did each group organise movement phrases into a narrative form? How did the audience respond? Was the story clear? 20 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

21 Subject: Human Society and Its Environment Stage Topic: Aid organisations Task: Evaluate an aid organisation for financial support For this project you will work in pairs to investigate aid organisations and make a persuasive presentation to the class to justify the school supporting your chosen organisation. Once all groups have given their presentations you will be able to vote on which aid organisation to support. Task Requirements This task requires you to give a joint presentation of between 5 and 10 minutes to the class with your partner. Your presentation should provide persuasive arguments to support your choice of aid organisation. You may use charts, graphs and illustrations to support your argument. To prepare your presentation you should: 1. Scan each of the websites that have been book-marked for this task (see list below). As a pair decide on two aid organisations you would like to investigate in more depth. 2. Review and research information from the two websites. This should include: What sort of aid does the organisation provide? What are the main locations of its aid projects? Give some specific examples of the aid programs this organisation supports. What are the reasons for this type of aid?. Choose which organisation you want to support and: Compare the benefits of supporting your chosen aid organisation with the benefits of supporting the other organisation. Provide arguments to show that Australians can best fulfil their international responsibilities by supporting this organisation. Give recommendations for financial support of this organisation.. Negotiate with your partner how you will jointly present a comprehensive overview of, and argument for, the selected aid organisation. Some suggested aid organisations: Community Aid Abroad Oxfam Australia: Amnesty International Australia: Australian Red Cross: Australian Volunteers International: CARE Australia: Fred Hollows Foundation: Union Aid Abroad APHEDA: Make Trade Fair: Medecins sans Frontieres (Doctors without Borders): World Vision Australia: If you would like to choose another organisation to support, discuss it with your teacher first. Assessment marking guide You will be assessed on your ability to: investigate Australia s role in providing aid as part of our global responsibilities review information on different aid programs develop a persuasive argument through your presentation on the purpose and benefits of a particular aid organisation. Your work will be graded as: ( to 9 marks) (10 to 15 marks) (16 to 20 marks) Basic achievement Briefly describes the aid organisation. Does not identify or incorrectly identifies the interrelationships of aid between Australia and other countries. Gives a brief explanation of the aid organisation. Does not display sensitivity. Gives few recommendations, with limited relevance, on support for a particular aid organisation. Satisfactory achievement Describes the aid organisation in some detail. Identifies the interrelationships of aid between Australia and other countries. Explains the responsibilities of the aid organisation with some sensitivity. Gives some recommendations on support for a particular aid organisation. High achievement Describes the aid organisation in detail, with information extrapolated from different sources. Evaluates a range of information to identify the interrelationships between Australia and other countries through international aid organisations. Explains in detail the responsibilities of the aid organisation with sensitivity. Gives detailed and persuasive recommendations on support for a particular aid organisation. Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 21

22 Subject: Science Stage Topic: Are you sure that s sugar? Student instruction sheet Unit Focus Problem-solving strategies reduce the need to conduct exhaustive tests which can be inefficient and wasteful of resources. You have discussed a range of problem-solving strategies in class. This task is based on your recent learning in the topic Hazardous Substances about the properties of substances and how to identify unknown substances. This task requires you to use problem-solving strategies to identify unknown substances as efficiently as possible. Your responses will be assessed using the marking criteria your teacher discussed with you in previous lessons. Problem: A number of substances have been found in various parts of the school. These unknown substances have been placed into six containers and marked with labels based on where they were found, as shown below: 1. Science lab 2. Common room. Library. Cleaners store 5. Photocopy room 6. Kitchens. You will be given a set of six containers labelled as above. We know, from questions asked of staff who use these areas, that the substances in each are at least one of the following compounds: sugar, salt, starch, baking powder, plaster of Paris. Your task is to correctly identify which of the compounds is present in each of the containers in a limited time and with minimum destructive testing. Read the Task Sheet and criteria for assessment carefully and completely before you begin. You will be given 5 minutes to do this. Equipment list six unknown substances in containers labelled Science lab, Common room etc 1 x small dropper bottle of dilute HCl 2 x small dropper bottles 1 x small dropper bottle of iodine solution 1 x test tube rack with at least 5 test tubes 1 x evaporating basin 1 x spatula 1 x Bunsen burner 1 x small beaker 1 pair tongs 1 x stirring rod 1 x ceramic tile 22 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

23 Subject: Science Practical assessment task: Are you sure that s sugar? Task sheet (This is to be provided to your teacher on completion of the task) Student s name: You will recall the four tests we carried out in class to help identify compounds. We have carried out these four tests on the five compounds in class and the results are shown below. Compound Test salt sugar baking soda plaster of Paris starch heat no change black melted no change grey brown brown toast water soluble soluble insoluble insoluble insoluble dilute acid no fizz no fizz fizz no fizz no fizz iodine solution yellow yellow yellow yellow black The assessment task requires the following phases: 1. Planning your approach and making decisions 2. Conducting tests and recording data. Analysing your results and determining a solution. Evaluating your performance 1. Planning 1a. You have been given a total of 55 minutes to complete the task. Consider how you will allocate your time to various parts of the task. Phase Time 1. Planning your approach and making decisions 2. Conducting tests and recording data. Analysing your results and determining a solution. Evaluating your performance Total 55 mins 1b. Write down two reasons why you have allocated the times above. 1c. It is thought that one of the containers may be holding a mixture of two compounds. How could you identify whether the substance is one compound or a mixture? 1d. If one of the containers has a mixture of salt and starch, suggest a method to separate them, based on the information in the table. Indicate why the method should work. 1e. Design and outline the strategy that you have decided to use to help you efficiently solve the problem. The outline can be in any form, including a key or a flow chart. 1f. In order to solve the problem of which substance is present in each of the six containers, what data do you need and how will you collect it? 1g. Formulate a means of recording the data from your tests. Use the space below to set it up. Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 2

24 Subject: Science 2. Conducting tests and recording data Collect your data and record it in 1g above.. Analysing your results and determining a solution a. In the space below, record your solution to the problem. b. Select one of the tests you used and state whether it involved a chemical reaction and explain why.. Evaluating your performance a. Evaluate ONE of the following: either: the strategy you outlined to solve the problem (1d) i.e. how well did the strategy help you to solve the problem? or: the method you used to organise and record the data. (1f) Criteria for assessment 1. Identify when a chemical reaction is taking place by observing changes in temperature, the appearance of a new substance or the disappearance of an original substance. 2. Identify a process to separate components of a mixture.. Distinguish between compounds and mixtures.. Identify what type of data needs to be collected to solve a problem and justify why. 5. Formulate a means of recording the data to be gathered. 6. Use time and resources effectively. 7. Evaluate and modify an experimental procedure. 8. Identify data that support or discount a proposed solution to a problem. 9. Describe a strategy that could be employed to solve an identified problem. 10. Evaluate the appropriateness of the strategy used to solve a problem. Marking guidelines Level Level descriptors 2 1 The student has demonstrated a thorough* knowledge of the properties of mixtures and compounds, of how the properties can be used to devise methods of separation and of the indicators of a chemical reaction. The student has effectively* applied their knowledge and has allocated significant* time to planning so that time and resources are used effectively*. The student has demonstrated excellent* skills in identifying, organising, recording and analysing scientific data to solve a problem, and in evaluating procedures. The student has strong* understanding of how to devise and evaluate a strategy that could be used to solve an identified problem. The student has demonstrated a correct* knowledge of the properties of mixtures and compounds, of how the properties can be used to devise methods of separation and of the indicators of a chemical reaction. The student has made use* of their knowledge and has allocated a reasonable* amount of time to planning. The student has demonstrated good skills in identifying, organising, recording and analysing scientific data to solve a problem, and in evaluating procedures. The student has some* understanding of how to devise and evaluate a strategy that could be used to solve an identified problem. The student has demonstrated some correct* knowledge of the properties of mixtures and compounds, of how the properties can be used to devise methods of separation or of the indicators of a chemical reaction. The student has made some use* of their knowledge and has allocated some* time to planning. The student has demonstrated some* skills in identifying, organising, recording or analysing scientific data to solve a problem, or in evaluating procedures. The student has suggested* a strategy that could be used to solve an identified problem. The student has demonstrated little* knowledge of the properties of mixtures and compounds, or of how the properties can be used to devise methods of separation or of the indicators of a chemical reaction. The student has made little or no *use of their knowledge and has allocated little or no* time to planning. The student has demonstrated some* skills in identifying, organising, recording or analysing scientific data to solve a problem, or in evaluating procedures. The student has suggested* a strategy. * The meanings of these terms in the assessment grading have been discussed in class. 2 Quality teaching in NSW public schools

25 Subject: English Stage Topic: Visual representation Assessment Task You have been asked by the producers of the next Harry Potter film to create a new character for the film. The producers would like this character to appeal specifically to Australian audiences. A. Present the following information on the Harry Potter planning sheet: Choose a name for your character that reflects its personality and wizardry skills. Explain why this name is appropriate for your character. Create a visual representation of your character, incorporating aspects of visual design. Explain why you used these aspects to represent your character. Write a brief character description. You might like to include details about appearance, personality and wizardry skills. B. Write a paragraph suggesting a change to your representation that would alter the way your character might be viewed. Explain the effect of the change. C. Write a short narrative that tells about the role your character would play, and the relationships your character would have with other characters in the film. Explain what effect your character would have on the other characters and the story. Harry Potter Visual design planning sheet Use the following to help you create your character and design your visual representation. Character profile Name: Why is this name appropriate? Draw and label your character Continuing the discussion about assessment practice 25

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