1 Fundamentals of Engineering Education Research Rigorous Research in Engineering Education Initiative (NSF DUE ) CLEERhub.org HKUST Summer Workshop on Engineering Education Innovation 29 June, 2012 Ruth A.Streveler Purdue University Karl A. Smith Purdue University and University of Minnesota
2 Overview What are we going to do? Welcome and introductions Topics of the workshop Background and context Features of engineering education research Research questions and methodologies Print and online resources Global communities and their networks Format of the workshop Interactive and team-based work
3 Engineering Education: Advancing the Practice Karl A. Smith Research Process Metallurgy Learning ~1974 Design ~1995 Engineering Education Research & Innovation ~ 2000 Innovation Cooperative Learning Need identified ~1974 Introduced ~1976 FIE conference 1981 JEE paper 1981 Research book 1991 Practice handbook 1991 Change paper 1998 Teamwork and project management 2000 JEE paper 2005 National Academy of Engineering - Frontiers of Engineering Education Symposium - December 13-16, Slides PDF [Smith-NAE-FOEE-HPL-UbD v8.pdf]
4 Process Metallurgy Dissolution Kinetics liquid-solid interface Iron Ore Desliming solid-solid interface Metal-oxide reduction roasting gassolid interface
5 Dissolution Kinetics Theory Governing Equation for Mass Transport Research rotating disk Practice leaching of silver bearing metallic copper ( c v) D v y dc dy D 2 d c 2 dy 2 c
6 First Teaching Experience Practice Third-year course in metallurgical reactions thermodynamics and kinetics
7 Lila M. Smith
8 Engineering Education Practice Third-year course in metallurgical reactions thermodynamics and kinetics Research? Theory? Theory Research Evidence Practice
9 University of Minnesota College of Education Social, Psychological and Philosophical Foundations of Education Statistics, Measurement, Research Methodology Assessment and Evaluation Learning and Cognitive Psychology Knowledge Acquisition, Artificial Intelligence, Expert Systems Social psychology of learning student student interaction
10 Lila M. Smith
11 Cooperative Learning Theory Social Interdependence Lewin Deutsch Johnson & Johnson Research Randomized Design Field Experiments Practice Formal Teams/Professor s Role Theory Research Evidence Practice
12 Cooperative Learning Positive Interdependence Individual and Group Accountability Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction Teamwork Skills Group Processing [*First edition 1991]
13 Cooperative Learning Research Support Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., & Smith, K.A Cooperative learning returns to college: What evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4), Over 300 Experimental Studies First study conducted in 1924 High Generalizability Multiple Outcomes Outcomes 1. Achievement and retention 2. Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning 3. Differentiated views of others 4. Accurate understanding of others' perspectives 5. Liking for classmates and teacher 6. Liking for subject areas 7. Teamwork skills January 2005 March 2007
18 Engineering Education Research and/or Innovation STORY When and how did you become interested in engineering education research and/or innovation? Was there a critical incident or memorable event associated with your initial interest?
19 Workshop frame of reference Workshop is about Identifying faculty interested in engineering education research Deepening understanding of engineering education research Building engineering education research capabilities Workshop is NOT about Pedagogical practice, i.e., how to teach Convincing you that good teaching is important Writing engineering education research grant proposals or papers Advocating all faculty be engineering education researchers
20 Levels of inquiry in engineering education Level 0 Teacher Teach as taught Level 1 Effective Teacher Teach using accepted teaching theories and practices Level 2 Scholarly Teacher Assesses performance and makes improvements Level 3 Scholar of Teaching and Learning Engages in educational experimentation, shares results Level 4 Engineering Education Researcher Conducts educational research, publishes archival papers Source: Streveler, R., Borrego, M. and Smith, K.A Moving from the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning to Educational Research: An Example from Engineering. Improve the Academy, Vol. 25,
21 Workshop Intentions / Participant Learning Outcomes 1. Describe key features of engineering education research 2. Explain emergence of engineering education research as a discipline 3. Describe recent reports and their relevance for and relationship with engineering education research 4. Summarize growth of engineering education research 5. Speculate on the future of engineering education research
22 Some history about this workshop Rigorous Research in Engineering Education (RREE1) One-week summer workshop, year-long research project Funded by National Science Foundation (NSF), About 150 engineering faculty participated Goals Identify engineering faculty interested in conducting engineering education research Develop faculty knowledge and skills for conducting engineering education research (especially in theory and research methodology) Cultivate the development of a Community of Practice of faculty conducting engineering education research
23 RREE Approach Theory (study grounded in theory/conceptual framework) Research that makes a difference... in theory and practice Research (appropriate design and methodology) Practice (implications for teaching)
24 Source: Stokes, D Pasteur s quadrant: Basic science and technological innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. Research can be inspired by Use (Applied) No Yes Understanding (Basic) Yes No Pure basic research (Bohr) Use-inspired basic research (Pasteur) Pure applied research (Edison)
25 RREE2 Follow-up proposal (RREE2) Includes a series of 5 short courses* Fundamentals of Engineering Education Research Selecting Conceptual Frameworks Understanding Qualitative Research Designing Your Research Study Collaborating with Learning and Social Scientists *Recorded and posted on CLEERhub.org
26 Today s objectives 1) Identify principal features of engineering education research 2) Frame and situate research questions and methodologies 3) Gain familiarity with several print and online resources 4) Become aware of global communities and their networks
27 What does high-quality research in your discipline look like? What are the qualities, characteristics, or standards for high-quality research in your discipline? Think of it this way: Research in my field is highquality when. Individually, list the qualities, characteristics or standards in your discipline Compare your lists, and as a group, develop a list of high-quality research qualities, characteristics or standards
28 What does high-quality research in your discipline look like? (Workshop list) (Workshop list)
29 What does education research in your discipline look like? What are the qualities, characteristics, or standards for high-quality education research in your discipline? Individually, list: 1) Which qualities, characteristics, or standards identified in the previous list DO NOT apply? 2) What qualities, characteristics, or standards can you envision that are DIFFERENT for education research? As a group, combine your lists.
30 Guiding principles for scientific research in education 1. Pose significant questions that can be investigated empirically 2. Link research to relevant theory 3. Use methods that permit direct investigation of the question 4. Provide coherent, explicit chain of reasoning 5. Replicate and generalize across studies 6. Disclose research to encourage professional scrutiny and critique How do our lists compare with the NRC six? Is a global list possible? Do cultural contexts matter? Source: Scientific Research in Education, National Research Council, 2002
31 The research process and reasoning Practical Problem and helps motivates Research Answer Research Question leads to Research Problem Research Process informs Warrant Claim Reason Evidence Acknowledgment and Response Research Reasoning
32 Most common frameworks in educational research Theories of learning Theories of motivation Theories of development Theories of contextual effects See Marilla Svinick s Handbook A Guidebook On Conceptual Frameworks For Research In Engineering Education.
33 Multiple theoretical frameworks Which comes first: framework or observation? Can go in either direction
34 Multiple theoretical frameworks Going from framework to research question to research study Framework Self-determination framework says - students motivation for a task is affected by the degree of control they have over it. Therefore If we manipulate the degree of student control, we should see variations in motivation levels. Design Different groups are given different degrees of control over the topic and process of their project and their motivation for the project is measured at various times throughout the semester.
35 Multiple theoretical frameworks Going from observation to framework to research question to research study and back to observation Observation Some students in a class participate more than others. Possible Frameworks Learning theory: Prior knowledge differences Motivation theory: Goal orientations, task value, self-efficacy Contextual variables: Course contingencies; classroom climate Design possibilities Measure and regress level of participation on potential variables. Manipulate course contingencies or course practices.
36 Books, journals, online resources The Craft of Research Scientific Research in Education Journal of Engineering Education (JEE) Thomson ISI Citation Index Some other journals
37 What is your experience? Silently reflect on your experience with engineering education research Jot down What has been the most exciting opportunity for you in this area? What has been the most difficult challenge you have faced? Share with the person next to you
38 Becoming an Engineering Education Researcher Adams, Fleming & Smith 1. Find and follow your dream. 2. Find and build community. 3. Do your homework. Become familiar with engineering education research. 4. Remember what it is like to be a student be open to learning and the associated rewards and challenges. 5. Find balance. You will feel like you have multiple identities. 6. Be an architect of your own career. 7. Wear your researcher lenses at all times. 8. Use research as an opportunity for reflective practice. Adams, R., L. Fleming, and K. Smith Becoming an engineering education researcher: Three researchers stories and their intersections, extensions, and lessons. Proceedings, International Conference on Research in Engineering Education;
39 Groups, centers, departments EERG ELC UCPBLEE Purdue CRLT North ESC CEER CELT CASEE Utah St VT FIC Clemson UDLAP CEER NITTT&R UTM E2I-HKUST CREE UICEE Engineering Education Centers Australia: UICEE, UNESCO International Centre for Engineering Education; Denmark: UCPBLEE, UNESCO Chair in Problem Based Learning in Engineering Education; Hong Kong: E2I, Engineering Education Innovation Center, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Pakistan: Center for Engineering Education Research, NUST, National University for Science and Technology; South Africa: CREE, Centre for Research in Engineering Education, U of Cape Town; Sweden: Engineering Education Research Group, Linköping U; UK: ESC, Engineering Subject Centre, Higher Education Academy; USA: CELT, Center for Engineering Learning and Teaching, U of Washington; CRLT North, Center for Research on Learning and Teaching, U of Michigan; Faculty Innovation Center, U of Texas-Austin; Engineering Learning Center, U of Wisconsin-Madison; CASEE, Center for the Advancement of Scholarship in Engineering Education, National Academy of Engineering; EEIC, Engineering Education Innovation Center, Ohio State University; CEER, Center for Engineering Education Research, Michigan State University. Engineering Education Degree-granting Departments USA: School of Engineering Education, Purdue U; Department of Engineering Education, Virginia Tech; Department of Engineering and Science Education, Clemson U; Department of Engineering and Technology Education, Utah State U; Malaysia: Engineering Education PhD program, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; India: National Institute for Technical Teacher Training and Research; Mexico: Universidad de las Americas, Puebla
41 Engineering education societies Societies with Engineering Education Research Groups ASEE, American Society for Engineering Education, Educational Research Methods Division; SEFI, Société Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs (European Society for Engineering Education), Engineering Education Research Working Group; Australasian Association for Engineering Education, Engineering Education Research Working Group; Community of Engineering Education Research Scholars, Latin America and Caribbean Consortium for Engineering Institutions Societies with Engineering Education Research Interests Indian Society for Technical Education, Latin American and Caribbean Consortium of Engineering Institutions, Asociación Nacional de Facultades y Escuelas de Ingeniería (National Association of Engineering Colleges and Schools in Mexico), Internationale Gesellschaft für Ingenieurpädagogik (International Society for Engineering Education), International Federation of Engineering Education Societies, South African Engineering Education Association (SASEE)
42 Forums for dissemination ASEE 2011 ASEE 2010 FIE 2010 FIE 2011 FIE 2009 SEFI 2009 REES 2011 GCEE 2009 SEFI/IGIP 2010 GCEE 2010 SASEE 2011 AAEE 2009 REES 2009 Conferences with engineering education research presentations: ASEE Annual Conference, American Society for Engineering Education, see AAEE Annual Conference, Australasian Association for Engineering Education, see FIE Frontiers in Education, sponsored by ERM/ASEE, IEEE Education Society and Computer Society, /fie-conference.org/erm GCEE Global Colloquium on Engineering Education, sponsored by ASEE and local partners where the meeting is held, see SEFI Annual Conference, Société Européenne pour la Formation des Ingénieurs, see REES Research on Engineering Education Symposium, rees2009.pbwiki.com/ SASEE South African Society for Engineering Education,
44 Engineering Education Research Networking Session Connecting and Expanding the Engineering Education Research (EER) and Engineering Education Innovation (EEI) Communities ASEE Headquarters Session T106D in partnership with the Rigorous Research in Engineering Education Initiative (DUE ) ASEE Annual Conference June 12, 2012 T106D 7:00 am 8:30 am Facilitated By Karl A. Smith Purdue University and University of Minnesota Ruth A. Streveler Purdue University Slides posted -
45 Time Activity Allotted Introduction of session and facilitators 5 Brief report on status of EER & EEI Update on RREE CLEERHub.org (Collaboratory for Engineering 10 Education Research) Update on EER NRC DBER report 5 Update on EEI ASEE Innovation with Impact & NAE FOEE 10 Participant Networking Rapid introductions around guided questions Four to five conversations in groups of 3 as a way to meet many people 25 Identification of intellectual neighborhoods around research and innovation questions and opportunities individual reflection and writing Brainstorming on strategies to connect, expand, and sustain the emerging EER and EEI communities Summary of ideas for (1) local, (2) national conferences, etc. and (3) virtual community Individuals share reflections with the large group, facilitators sum up the session and participants complete feedback forms
46 Expanding and sustaining research capacity in engineering and technology education: Building on successful programs for faculty and graduate students Collaborative partners: Purdue (lead), Alverno College, Colorado School of Mines, Howard University, Madison Area Technical College, National Academy of Engineering
50 CLEERhub June 2012 Update
51 Objectives Explore available resources for your use. Share information about upcoming improvements.
52 CLEERhub s Vision & Mission Vision: - To be the leader in engineering education research content and collaborative opportunities. Mission: - Partnering with the community to develop engaging and useful content. - Continually improving user experience with regards to information availability, platform ease of use, and tools that enable collaboration.
53 What s Available Now Some of our most popular resources: Fundamentals of Engineering Education Research Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods Exploring How People Learn Engineering Example of a Learning Module.
54 What s Coming Up Expanding accessibility by adopting the HTML 5 standard. This enables users to access content via tablets and mobile devices. Self-scoring quizzes to help you gain insight into your understanding.
55 Self-Scoring Quizzes Many of our resources will have self-scoring quizzes to help you gain insight into your understanding.
56 I Want More Information! Request more info from your mobile phone. Or... Complete the request for more information from a computer. We ve shortened the URL to make it easier to write down.
57 Recent Reports/Initiatives National Research Council Discipline-Based Education Research (DBER) ASEE Innovation with Impact report NAE Engineering Education Research and Innovation Activities Froyd, J.E., Wankat, P.C. & Smith, K.A. (2012). Five major shifts in 100 years of engineering education. Proceedings of the IEEE
58 Discipline-Based Education Research (DBER) Understanding and Improving Learning in Undergraduate Science and Engineering
59 Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education: Goals Provide all students with foundational knowledge and skills Motivate some students to complete degrees in science or engineering Support students who wish to pursue careers in science or engineering
60 Undergraduate Science and Engineering Education: Challenges and Opportunities Retaining students in courses and majors Increasing diversity Improving the quality of instruction
61 What is Discipline-Based Education Research? Emerging from various parent disciplines Investigates teaching and learning in a given discipline Informed by and complementary to general research on human learning and cognition
62 Study Charge Synthesize empirical research on undergraduate teaching and learning in physics, chemistry, engineering, biology, the geosciences, and astronomy. Examine the extent to which this research currently influences undergraduate science instruction. Describe the intellectual and material resources that are required to further develop DBER.
63 Committee on the Status, Contributions, and Future Directions of Discipline-Based Education Research SUSAN SINGER (Chair), Carleton College ROBERT BEICHNER, North Carolina State University STACEY LOWERY BRETZ, Miami University MELANIE COOPER, Clemson University SEAN DECATUR, Oberlin College JAMES FAIRWEATHER, Michigan State University KENNETH HELLER, University of Minnesota KIM KASTENS, Columbia University MICHAEL MARTINEZ, University of California, Irvine DAVID MOGK, Montana State University LAURA R. NOVICK, Vanderbilt University MARCY OSGOOD, University of New Mexico TIMOTHY F. SLATER, University of Wyoming KARL A. SMITH, University of Minnesota and Purdue University WILLIAM B. WOOD, University of Colorado
64 Structure of the Report Section I. Status of Discipline-Based Education Research Section II. Contributions of Discipline-Based Education Research Section III. Future Directions for Discipline- Based Education Research
65 Section I. Status of Discipline-Based Education Research
66 Status of DBER: Goals Understand how people learn the concepts, practices, and ways of thinking of science and engineering. Understand the nature and development of expertise in a discipline. Help to identify and measure appropriate learning objectives and instructional approaches that advance students toward those objectives. Contribute to the knowledge base in a way that can guide the translation of DBER findings to classroom practice. Identify approaches to make science and engineering education broad and inclusive.
67 Status of DBER: Types of Knowledge Required To Conduct DBER Deep disciplinary knowledge The nature of human thinking and learning as they relate to a discipline Students motivation to understand and apply findings of a discipline Research methods for investigating human thinking, motivation, and learning
68 Status of DBER: Conclusions DBER is a collection of related research fields rather than a single, unified field. (Conclusion 1) High-quality DBER combines expert knowledge of: a science or engineering discipline, learning and teaching in that discipline, and the science of learning and teaching more generally. (Conclusion 4)
69 Section II. Contributions of Discipline-Based Education Research
70 Contributions of DBER: Conceptual Understanding and Conceptual Change In all disciplines, undergraduate students have incorrect ideas and beliefs about fundamental concepts. (Conclusion 6) Students have particular difficulties with concepts that involve very large or very small temporal or spatial scales. (Conclusion 6) Several types of instructional strategies have been shown to promote conceptual change.
71 Contributions of DBER: Problem Solving and the Use of Representations As novices in a domain, students are challenged by important aspects of the domain that can seem easy or obvious to experts. (Conclusion 7) Students can be taught more expert-like problemsolving skills and strategies to improve their understanding of representations.
72 Contributions of DBER: Research on Effective Instruction Effective instruction includes a range of wellimplemented, research-based approaches. (Conclusion 8) Involving students actively in the learning process can enhance learning more effectively than lecturing.
73 Section III. Future Directions for Discipline-Based Education Research
74 Future Directions for DBER: Translating DBER into Practice Available evidence suggests that DBER and related research have not yet prompted widespread changes in teaching practice among science and engineering faculty. (Conclusion 12) Efforts to translate DBER and related research into practice are more likely to succeed if they: are consistent with research on motivating adult learners, include a deliberate focus on changing faculty conceptions about teaching and learning, recognize the cultural and organizational norms of the department and institution, and work to address those norms that pose barriers to change in teaching practice. (Conclusion 13)
75 Future Directions for DBER: Recommendations for Translating DBER Into Practice RECOMMENDATION: With support from institutions, disciplinary departments, and professional societies, faculty should adopt evidence-based teaching practices. RECOMMENDATION: Institutions, disciplinary departments, and professional societies should work together to prepare current and future faculty to apply the findings of DBER and related research, and then include teaching effectiveness in evaluation processes and reward systems throughout faculty members careers. (Paraphrased)
76 Future Directions for DBER: Advancing DBER through Collaborations Collaborations among the fields of DBER, and among DBER scholars and scholars from related disciplines, although relatively limited, have enhanced the quality of DBER. (Conclusion 15)
77 Future Directions for DBER: Research Infrastructure Advancing DBER requires a robust infrastructure for research. (Conclusion 16 ) RECOMMENDATION: Science and engineering departments, professional societies, journal editors, funding agencies, and institutional leaders should: clarify expectations for DBER faculty positions, emphasize high-quality DBER work, provide mentoring for new DBER scholars, and support venues for DBER scholars to share their research findings
78 Future Directions for DBER: Some Key Elements of a Research Agenda Studies of similarities and differences among different groups of students Longitudinal studies Additional basic research in DBER Interdisciplinary studies of cross-cutting concepts and cognitive processes Additional research on the translational role of DBER
79 Acknowledgements National Science Foundation, Division of Undergraduate Education (Grant No ) Various volunteers: Committee Fifteen reviewers Report Review Monitor (Susan Hanson, Clark University) and Coordinator (Adam Gamoran, University of Wisconsin-Madison) Commissioned paper authors NRC staff (Natalie Nielsen, Heidi Schweingruber, Margaret Hilton)
81 Emphasis on Innovation ASEE Innovation with Impact report Excerpt from Presentation by Leah Jamieson, Dean, College of Engineering, Purdue NAE Engineering Education Research and Innovation Activities Briefing by Beth Cady, Program Officer, Engineering Education, National Academy of Engineering 81
82 ASEE Reports - A Path Forward
83 Seven Recommendations for Innovation with Impact Who 1. Grow professional development in teaching and learning. 2. Expand collaborations. What 3. Expand efforts to make engineering more engaging, relevant, and welcoming. How 4. Increase, leverage, and diversify resources for engineering teaching, learning, and innovation. 5. Raise awareness of proven practices and of scholarship in engineering education.
84 Seven Recommendations for Innovation with Impact (continued) Creating a Better Culture To measure progress in implementing policies, practices, and infrastructure in support of scholarly and systematic innovation in engineering education: 6. Conduct periodic self-assessments in our individual institutions. 7. Conduct periodic community-wide self-assessments.
85 Engineering Education Research and Innovation Activities Beth Cady Program Officer, Engineering Education
86 Center for the Advancement of Scholarship on Engineering Education Created to foster continuous improvement Extensive set of resources at Research-to-Practice documents Meeting agendas and reports of CASEE projects Equity-related resources Videos Summaries Please help us organize the site! Search terms, categories
87 Real-World Engineering Education Sponsored by AMD Innovative programs infusing real-world experiences Final publication to be released over the summer Includes program description and discussion of barriers/solutions
88 Frontiers of Engineering Education (FOEE) Catalyze a vibrant community of emerging engineering education leaders Recognize faculty accomplishment, facilitate learning, broaden collaboration, and promote dissemination of innovative practice in engineering education
89 FOEE (continued) Attendees share their work with peers Speakers on topics of interest to attendees Speakers/Coaches provide mentoring advice Opportunities to network with peers and coaches 150 alums Nominations for 2012 currently open Nominations from dean or NAE member Applications due in July Symposium will be October in Irvine, CA
90 1. a shift from hands-on and practical emphasis to engineering science and analytical emphasis; 2. a shift to outcomes-based education and accreditation; 3. a shift to emphasizing engineering design; 4. a shift to applying education, learning, and socialbehavioral sciences research; 5. a shift to integrating information, computational, and communications technology in education.
92 Aspect of System to be Changed What are options in approaching change? Intended Outcome Prescribed Emergent Individuals Disseminating: Curriculum and Pedagogy Developing: Reflective Teachers Environments and Structures Developing: Policy Developing: Shared Vision Henderson, C., Finkelstein, N., & Beach, A. (2010). Beyond dissemination in college science teaching: An introduction to four core change strategies. Journal of College Science Teaching, 39(5),
93 Change and Resistance Resistance is inevitable.
94 Change and Resistance Resistance is inevitable. Options Ignoring resistance seldom works Trying to steamroll resistance seldom works, e.g., you will be convinced by my data Anticipate and address resistance offers better results Engaging resistance tends to offer the best results Mauer, R. (1996). Beyond the Wall of Resistance: Unconventional Strategies that Build Support for Change. Austin, TX: Bard Press.
95 What Are Your Plans? Silently reflect on your interests and plans for applying and/or supporting engineering education research, or becoming an engineering education researcher. Jot down What do you plan to do next? What are your longer range plans? Share with the person next to you
96 Thank you! An e-copy of this presentation will be posted to: HKUST Summer Workshop on Engineering Education Innovation 29 June, 2012 Karl A. Smith Purdue University and University of Minnesota Facilitated By Ruth A. Streveler Purdue University
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