NESA FALL LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE: HIRING THE BEST TEACHERS

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1 NESA FALL LEADERSHIP CONFERENCE: HIRING THE BEST TEACHERS October 2013

2 Time in School Year Needed to Achieve the Same Amount of Learning 90th Percentile Teacher 10th Percentile Teacher 0 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 Years Needed Leigh, Economics of Education Review (2010) Influences on Student Achievement: Explained Variance Teachers 30% Home 5-10% School 5-10% Peers 5-10% Students 50% Hattie, (2003) 2

3 Value of Adding Highly Effective Teacher (Chetty, Friedman, & Rockoff, 2011) 3

4 Teacher Effectiveness: Improving Schools One Classroom at a Time Teachers have a powerful and long-lasting influence over the students they teach. Teachers directly affect children in how they learn, what they learn, how much they learn, and the ways they interact with one another and the world around them. Considering the degree of influence of the teacher, it is important to come to an understanding of what teachers should do to promote positive results in the lives of children with regard to school achievement, positive attitudes toward school, interest in learning, and other desirable outcomes. Moreover, this understanding should be based not only on what experts and stakeholders think teachers should do, but also on what educational research has shown to be important in the preparation and practice of effective teachers. Effectiveness is an elusive concept to define when we consider the complex task of teaching. Some researchers define teacher effectiveness in terms of student achievement; others focus on high performance ratings from supervisors; still The effective teacher others rely on comments from students, administrators, and other interested stakeholders. Because of the many areas of a teacher s influence, it is challenging to define what outcomes might be defined as evidence of effectiveness and how those outcomes should be measured. In addition, many variables outside the teacher s control also affect each of the potential measures of effectiveness. This synopsis seeks to shed light on the elusive concept of teacher effectiveness by compiling research results accumulated across several decades to define specific teacher traits and behaviors that contribute to student achievement and other measures of effectiveness. We focus specifically on the teacher and his or her preparation, personality, and practice, rather than on other influences such as student demographics, school and district administration, or organizational decision-making outside the teacher s control. Recognizes complexity. Teaching is a complex activity because the disciplines to be taught are complex and because students are complex. Communicates clearly. The teacher s job requires clear communication of expectations, encouragement, and caring as well as of content. Is conscientious. The effective teacher cares about students and ensures that students recognize this caring and feel supported and encouraged. The effective teacher cares about his or her classroom and ensures an organized and positive learning environment. 4

5 Prerequisites of Effective Teaching Does intelligence relate to effective teaching? How did effective teachers gain their knowledge of teaching and learning? Does certification status relate to teacher effectiveness? How important is teaching experience to effectiveness? Studies have had mixed results. Verbal ability has been linked to student performance. The relationship of teachers verbal ability to student achievement may be a result of the relationship between teachers verbal ability and their abilities to convey ideas in a clear and convincing way to students. A teacher s formal pedagogical preparation has been shown to have a positive impact on student achievement in mathematics, science, and reading. Through methods courses Some studies support that content knowledge is important to effective teaching up to a point, but that beyond a certain competence level in the subject area, the ability to convey the content to students in a way that they can grasp, use, and remember is more important and is not necessarily related to additional knowledge or coursework in the content area. Teachers with formal training in meeting the needs of special populations of students (e.g., ESL, gifted and talented) have been shown to be more effective with promoting achievement within these populations. Teachers with certification of some kind (standard, alternative, or provisional) tend to have students with higher achievement rates than teachers working without certification. Secondary teachers certified within their field have significantly higher achievement rates among their students than teachers working out-of-field, especially in the area of mathematics. Teachers with more experience tend to show better planning skills, are better able to apply a range of teaching strategies, and they demonstrate more depth and differentiation in learning activities. More experienced teachers tend to know and understand their students learning needs better. The effect of teacher experience seems to level off after a certain number of years teachers with more than three years of experience are more effective than those with three years or fewer, but these benefits seem to level off after about five or more years. The Teacher as a Person What role does caring play in teacher effectiveness? What is the role of fairness in effective teaching? Numerous studies asking what makes a good teacher have demonstrated the importance of caring in the eyes of teachers and students; also, supervisors who rate teachers place priority on how teachers show students they are caring and supportive. Specific characteristics are: listening, gentleness, understanding, knowledge of students as individuals, warmth and encouragement, and love for children. Students interviewed for their views on effective teachers consistently note the importance of fairness and respect at all levels of schooling - from elementary through high school. Among the elements of fairness and respect are the following: responding to misbehavior at an individual level rather than holding a whole class responsible for the actions of a few; demonstrating cultural respect, understanding, and racial and cultural impartiality; and offering all students opportunities to participate and to succeed. 5

6 Teacher as a Person continued How do effective teachers interact with their students? What is the effective teacher s attitude toward the profession of teaching? What is the role of reflective practice in effective teaching? Teachers who are accessible and professional towards student interact with students by: behaving in a friendly and personable manner while still maintaining appropriate teacher-student role structure; giving students responsibility and respect, and treating secondary students in particular as adults when appropriate; demonstrating interest in students lives beyond the classroom; paying attention to what students have to say; and demonstrating a sense of fun and a willingness to play The dedication of effective teachers stands out in the following ways: positive attitudes about life and teaching which have also been linked to student motivation and achievement; extra hours spent preparing and reflecting upon instruction; promotion and participation in a collegial, collaborative work environment; involvement in graduate study; and acceptance of responsibility for student outcomes. Within effective schools, there is a pattern of emphasis on reflective practice individually and collectively among teachers. Effective teachers not only reflect upon their teaching, but also hold high expectations of themselves as well as their students and hold a strong positive belief in their own efficacy. Classroom Management and Organization What are the key classroom management skills of effective teachers? Establishing routines and procedures to limit disruption and time taken away from teaching and learning, resulting in: proactive discipline establishing and communicating clear rules and expectations for behavior from the very beginning of the school year; and establishment of procedures for routine, daily tasks and needs. Maintaining momentum and variety, resulting in: smooth orchestration of transitions and continuity of momentum throughout the day; variety and challenge in activities; and multitasking ability to engage in more than one action at the same time. What are the important elements of organization in effective teaching? Monitoring and responding to activity, resulting in: awareness of overall activity levels in the classroom; movement around the classroom for nearness to trouble spots and to encourage attention; anticipation of potential problems to limit disruption; and resolving minor inattention and disruption before they become major disruptions. To have materials prepared and ready for use in advance of the lesson, including extra materials in case of unexpected problems or sudden arrivals of new students. To create and maintain procedures that support students in knowing what they are to do when with a minimum of repetition of directions. To be effective organization of space, including communicating to students where to store what materials. 6

7 The Teacher Teaching How do effective teachers think about the importance of instruction? How do effective teachers plan for instruction How do effective teachers employ instructional strategies? How do effective teachers communicate content and expectations to students? How do effective teachers support student engagement in learning? How do effective teachers monitor student learning and how do they use their findings? Organizing and Orienting for Instruction They prioritize instruction and student learning as the central purposes of schooling and communicate an enthusiasm and dedication to learning that their students reflect in their own behavior and practice. They maximize their allocated instructional time through effective classroom management and organization skills that ensure smooth transitions, maintain momentum in the lesson, and limit disruptions. Identify clear lesson and learning objectives and carefully link activities to them. Some considerations include organizing content presentation, carefully selecting curriculum resources that reflect the objectives and student characteristics, incorporating graphic organizers, and preparing questions in advance to check for understanding and extend the learning. Implementing Instruction By effective use of direct teaching, including guided and independent practice By hands-on learning, especially in science By problem solving across the curriculum that draw on students own experiences By using concept mapping and to promote understanding and retention Students and teachers asked about teaching effectiveness consistently note the importance of clarity in explanation of content. Step-by-step directions, clear examples, and guided practice in an activity have been shown to contribute to high levels of student engagement and student success. Through teacher and student questions a dialogue is established about the understanding of the content. Graded homework can have a positive effect on student achievement and communicates a teacher s intentions when feedback is given on it. Effective teachers vary instructional strategies, and the types of assignments and activities given to students in order to support increased student engagement. Student engagement tends to be higher when activities are led and paced by the teacher, and is lowest during presentations by other students. Student engagement is maximized when students are engaged in authentic activities related to the content under study; for example, in primary classrooms, effective teachers engage all students in a variety of reading and writing tasks throughout the day. Successful student engagement encourages a more positive attitude toward school. Monitoring Student Progress and Potential Teachers in schools with high achievement rates use pre-assessments effectively to support targeted teaching of skills. The effective teacher thinks through likely misconceptions that may occur during instruction and monitor students for signs of these misconceptions, re-teaches material to students who did not achieve mastery, and they offer tutoring for students who seek additional help. They demonstrate effectiveness with the full range of student abilities in their classrooms, regardless of how academically diverse the students are. 7

8 Stronge and Associates Educational Consulting, LLC World s Best Schools Hire Hire the Best Prof. Develop Develop the Best Evaluate Keep the Best Prof. Develop Support the Best Hiring the Best Teachers: Why is it a challenge? 8

9 Why Do Teachers Leave? Reasons? Solutions? Teacher Selection What Works? What Doesn t? 9

10 Stronge and Associates Educational Consulting, LLC Hiring Process Applicant Pool Pool Completed Applications Completed Applications Interviews Screening Building Superintendent Add l Sources Performance Reference Check Decision 10

11 The Hiring Process: Credential Screening 11

12 STANDARD APPLICATION For Teaching Positions in Yourtown Public Schools Position(s) Desired Teacher Name Layton Kristen M LAST FIRST MIDDLE SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER 1 Present Address 45 College Terrace Lane, Apt STREET (AREA CODE) TELEPHONE Elizabethtown TX CITY STATE ZIP CODE Permanent Address 112 Parchment Lane Address (if available) STREET (AREA CODE) TELEPHONE Beachtown TX CITY STATE ZIP CODE List, in order of preference, the grades, subjects and/or positions for which you are applying: 1. Elementary Inclusion 2. Elementary Resource 3. Elementary Self Contained CERTIFICATION (LIST ALL AREAS IN WHICH YOU HOLD VALID PENNSYLVANIA AND/OR OUT-OF-STATE TEACHING CERTIFICATES. NOTE: APPLICANTS HOLDING A CERTIFICATE FROM ANOTHER STATE MUST OBTAIN A PENNSYLVANIA CERTIFICATE IN ORDER TO TEACH IN PENNSYLVANIA PUBLIC SCHOOLS.) AREA OF CERTIFICATION ISSUING STATE DATE ISSUED Special Education N-12 TX *scheduled to graduate in August EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND School or Institution and Location Major/ Minor Diplomas, Degrees Or Credits Earned High School na na na College/University Elizabethtown College Elem. Ed BS 3.94 Grade Point Average (GPA) College/University Elizabethtown, TX Special Needs Concentr. 12

13 EXPERIENCE (Present or most recent first) Dates Name of Employer and Address Your Title Elizabethtown United Methodist Church From 8/04 Nursery Worker 34 Divinity Drive Elizabethtown TX To Present (Area Code) Telephone: Work Performed: coordinated the church member volunteers to assist the nursery worker (me) with the care of 15 children ranging in age from birth to 2 years old Reason for Leaving: Will be graduating in August Name & Title of Adam Paul, Pastor Supervisor: Dates Name of Employer and Address Your Title From Summers Camp Dream POB 543 Turkey TX Camp Counselor To (Area Code) Telephone: Work Performed: Co-directed the activities of 6 campers with disabilites. Activities included swimming, canoe instruction, nature appreciation, and self-esteem lessons. I lived with the campers and ensured their healthy livingwhile at camp. Reason for Leaving: seasonal work Name & Title of Marilyn Hanson, Camp Director Supervisor: Please list activities that you are qualified to supervise or coach: Swimming Lessons (WSI Certified) If you have not been previously employed in a teaching position, please complete the following: STUDENT OR PRACTICE TEACHING Grade or Subject Taught Name and Address of School College Supervisor Cooperating Teacher 3 rd Grade Self-contained Little Elementary School 1. Madison Jane (MJ)Wilkerson 90 Tiny Lane Lucketts TX 2. Louise Anderson 13

14 REFERENCES References should include superintendents, principals or professors who have first-hand knowledge of your professional competence and your personal qualifications. Experienced teachers should include the superintendent and principal of the two most recent schools in which employed. If any person(s) listed should not be contacted for reference at the present time, indicate in the left-hand margin the date contact(s) may be made. Name Position Address Telephone John Parker Principal Little Elementary School, 90 Tiny Lane, Lucketts, TX Melinda Burke Professor Elizabethtown College, 234 Nicarry Hall, Elizabethtown Marilyn Hanson Camp Director Camp Dream, POB 543, Hastings, TX Louise Anderson Cooperating Teacher Little Elementary School, 90 Tiny Lane, Lucketts, TX OTHER QUALIFICATIONS Summarize special job-related skills and qualifications acquired from employment or other experiences (including U.S. military service) and/or state any additional information you feel may be helpful in considering your application, i.e. honors, awards, activities, technology skills or professional development activities: Students to Students is a philanthropy project I organized where my sorority sisters were each paired with a student with disabilities from a local elementary school. Sisters met weekly with the student and provided tutoring, then the sorority sponsored three outside of school events for everybody. The project has served 45 elementary school students since its inception in

15 Elizabethtown College Office of Teacher Education Student Teacher: Kristen Layton End of Semester Final Grade Form College Supervisor: M.J. Wilkerson To be completed by Final Grade: Satisfactory Unsatisfactory College Supervisor Please provide an explanation for the final grade awarded and a statement that reflects your evaluation of this student teacher as a prospective classroom teacher. Kristen s cooperating teacher commented, Kristen s greatest ability is her creativity. Her development of a unit called Little Bodies was an excellent display of this creativity applied to the teaching-learning process. I agree with her cooperating teacher and believe her to be a very effective teacher in the making. Her ability to plan effective and engaging lessons comes a close second to her creativity. She also did a superb job of implementing suggestions and displayed excellent growth as a teacher. Kristen has been labeled, a self-starter, energetic, and tireless at locating materials. Her placement in an inclusion setting provided a real opportunity for Kristen to exhibit her skills as a prospective teacher. She had a strong commitment to the most efficient use of instructional time. She used a variety of techniques to monitor student understanding and delivery of instruction. She was very consistent in her discipline and yet did so in such a way that students were treated fairly, with respect. Kristen utilized cooperative learning, concept attainment, interpretation of data, and several other methods of instruction. She always was able to make suggestions/improvements as to how she could have done something a little better. Her unit, Little Bodies, was a very creatively planned math unit which integrated student characteristics, opinions, facts, etc., into the delivery of math instruction. The entire classroom became transformed to relate the findings discovered during each lesson (i.e., bulletin boards with true-to-life size paper cutouts of bodies incorporating weight, height, likes). Her organization and implementation of cooperative learning activities proved to be very effective. Transitions, directions, team roles, individual expectations were all smooth, clear, and communicated well. Kristen Layton will be and already is an excellent teacher. Continued growth and experience will provide her with even greater accomplishments. She did a great job student teaching and will only do better when she is given her own class and students. Signature MJ Wilkerson Date 11/30/present year 15

16 Evaluation of Student Teacher To be completed by the cooperating teacher Elizabethtown College Office of Teacher Education Student Teacher: Kristen Layton Cooperating Teacher: Louise Anderson School: Little Elementary School Grade Level/Subject: 3 rd grade-inclusion Please evaluate your student teacher by commenting on each of the four performance areas identified on this form. Planning for Instruction Kristen did an excellent job in planning a unit of study on Native American Literature. She selected books and materials appropriate to the diverse reading levels of students in the class. She also integrated other subjects into the unit. Her goals for the students were clear and appropriate. She demonstrated a good understanding of the content which was studied. Teaching for Student Learning Kristen worked very hard to adapt a unit plan so as to make it both interesting and relevant to the unit being studied. She developed an introductory unit on statistics and incorporated something she called Little Bodies into the unit. This was basically a cut-out of a person which she taped to the wall and then added pertinent information about the student body. The students seemed to enjoy the daily questions and the presentation added a lot of visual interest to the classroom. Kristen developed a number of evaluation tools on her own. One of particular interest was a group quiz, since most of the unit involved group work she wanted to have some form of evaluation which reflected the way the students learned the material. This worked very well. She made a daily attempt to informally evaluate learning and understanding on a continuous basis. She did this with excellent questions (some of which she prepared in advance). Another strength was that she tried very hard to involve ALL students. She attempted to call on every student at least once during each segment of the day. 16

17 Creating a Productive Learning Environment Kristen often referred students attention to the classroom rules, which were established by them and posted in the classroom. She demonstrated interest in each child and often gave assistance on an individual basis. She had many discussions with individual students concerning respectful classroom behavior. She always made it a point of having these discussions in private so as not to embarrass the student. Not only was she consistent in what she considered inappropriate, but her discussions were always fair and explained her concerns with the student. I will not say students always agreed but their actions showed these discussions usually worked. Kristen did her best to rearrange student seating arrangements to promote equity and to ensure a positive learning environment. For example, when placing students in long-term groups she carefully selected groups of three by considering both personality and intellectual factors. She was successful in doing this. Teacher Professionalism Kristen often gathered resource materials which pertained to curriculum content (e.g., posters from the forestry dept., books) and she shared these with all of the 3 rd grade teachers. She was present at Open House to meet parents and students. She also attended a PTA meeting. She demonstrated a sense of efficacy and accepted responsibility for student learning. She was also willing to ask for help with troubling students. She showed a high degree of professionalism in her dealings with myself, other teachers, and administrators. Additional Comments Kristen s greatest asset in my opinion is her creativity. The following is a brief list of this creativity: She took candid photographs of students on a field trip and prepared a powerpoint slideshow for Open House night, Developed review games for students Made a bulletin board of math rules The aforementioned Little Bodies unit Once Kristen became comfortable with her students and her own teaching skills, she became more and more spontaneous and would often alter her lesson to involve individual students as situations came up (teachable moments). Finally the word problems she prepared for her math lessons were created from scratch and were not traditional boring. In addition she used the students names in the problems and, therefore, added a greater degree of involvement for the class. Signature Louise Anderson Date 11/29/present year 17

18 Layton, Kristin Yourtown School District Credentials Screening Form Applicants should have or be eligible for a state license (i.e., Y or P on item 1) in order to be recommended for a screening interview. Screened Applicants Modified for Professional Development Score of 7 or Above - Code with R Recommended for Interview Score of 6 or Below - Code with D Do not Interview * The actual form has space for multiple applicants information to be recorded in columns. *Applicants without teaching experience who have completed or are in the final semester of a teacher training program, including student teaching, and who have maintained a minimum GPA of 2.50 should be recommended for a screening Interview Code with N to indicate the applicant is new to the profession. Educational Degree Credentials Screening Form Points Assigned 1. Current License in area seeking employment Certified teachers assigned to teach in their area of Y for Yes N for No P for Pending (e.g., certified in certification are more effective than those teaching out-offield another state, awaiting certification) or who are not certified 1. Additionally, educational policies call for highly qualified teachers which can be defined as a certified teacher assigned to his/her area of certification GPA in BA Degree (3.0 and 3.4 = 1 point, 3.5 or GPA may be used as an indicator of knowledge, higher = 2 points) communication skills, and responsibility; however, it has limits in its application to individuals who completed their studies many years ago. 3. Graduate Degree (1 point if earned) Example if the graduate degree is in education: Teachers who have educational coursework are knowledgeable about how students learn and how to package material for student learning Degree in major teaching area (1 point) A major or minor in the subject an educator teaches is related to higher levels of student achievement Add-on Endorsements (1 point per additional endorsement up to 2) With the requirement in public schools for teachers to be highly qualified, a candidate with multiple endorsements provides flexibility in placement of the applicant. 6. Student Teaching (1 point) Teaching experience is influential up to a point where it 7. Teaching Experience (1 point per year for up to 4 years) 8. Coursework/experience with instructional technology (1 point) 9. Coaching/extracurricular experience (Y for Yes and N for No) 10. Critical needs area with major in subject (Y for Yes and N for No) Total Points Recommendation for a Follow-up Interview Code * Teaching experience in an accredited K-12 institution levels off; however, students of experienced teachers often have higher levels of achievement. 5 It is also influential in teacher effectiveness particularly in the areas of planning, classroom management, questioning, and reflection. 6 Technology is an emerging area related to effectiveness. 7 Effective teachers use the relationship as a positive source of influence and establish a rapport with students. 8 This information is not used to cut applicants who do not possess such experiences. School system needs Quick reference of applicant s qualifications 18

19 1 Darling-Hammond, L. (2000). Teacher quality and student achievement: A review of state policy evidence. Educational Policy Analysis Archive, 8(1). Retrieved March 21, 2000, from Darling-Hammond, L., Berry, B., & Thoreson, A. (2001). Does teacher certification matter? Evaluating the evidence. Educational Policy Analysis, 22(1), ; Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D. J., Gatlin, S. J., & Heilig, J. V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 13(42). Retrieved April 2, 2009, from Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school teacher certification status and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(2), ; Laczko-Kerr, I., & Berliner, D. C. (2002, September 6). The effectiveness of Teach for America and other under-certified teachers on student academic achievement: A case of harmful public policy," Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10(37). Retrieved November 4, 2003, from Palardy, G. J., & Rumberger, R. W. (2008). Teacher effectiveness in first grade: The importance of background qualifications, attitudes, and instructional practices for student learning. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 30(2), ; Rice, J. K. (2003). Teacher quality: Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. 2 No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, Pub. L. No , 115 Stat (codified in 20 U.S.C. 6301). 3 Berliner, D. C. (1986). In pursuit of the expert pedagogue. Educational Researcher, 15(7), 5-13; Monk, D. H. (1994). Subject area preparation of secondary mathematics and science teachers and student achievement. Economics of Education Review, 13 (2), ; Rice, J. K. (2003). Teacher quality: Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute; Scherer, M. (2001). Improving the quality of the teaching force: A conversation with David C. Berliner. Educational Leadership, 58(8), 6-10; Wayne, A. J., & Youngs, P. (2003). Teacher characteristics and student achievement gains: A review. Review of Educational Research, 73(1), Fetler, M. (1999). High school staff characteristics and mathematics test results. Educational Policy Analysis Archives, 7(9). Retrieved on March 21, 2000, from Goldhaber, D. D., & Brewer, D. J. (2000). Does teacher certification matter? High school certification status and student achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 22(2), ; Rowan, B., Chiang, F.S., & Miller, R. J. (1997). Using research in employees performance to study the effects of teachers on student achievement. Sociology of Education. 70, Fetler, 1999; Glass, G. V. (2002). Teacher characteristics. In A. Molnar (Ed.), School reform proposals: The research evidence. Retrieved on November 4, 2003 from educ/epsl/epru/epru_research_writing.htm; Hanushek, E. A., Kain, J. F., O Brien, D. M., & Rivkin, S. G. (2005). The market for teacher quality. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved December 6, 2008, from Rivkin, S. G., Hanushek, E. A., & Kain, J. F. (2005). Teachers, schools, and academic achievement. Econometrica, 73(2), ; Rockoff, J. E. (2004). The impact of individual teachers on student achievement: Evidence from panel data. The American Economic Review, 94(2), ; Wenglinsky, H. (2000). How teaching matters: Bringing the classroom back into discussions of teacher quality Princeton, NJ: Milliken Family Foundation and Educational Testing Service. 6 Covino, E. A., & Iwanicki, E. (1996). Experienced teachers: Their constructs on effective teaching. Journal of Personnel Evaluation in Education, 11, ; Fetler, 1999; Reynolds, A. (1992). What is competent beginning teaching? A review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 62(1), ISTE research reports: Overview: Research on IT [informational technology] in education. (n.d.)accessed on September 22, 2002 from /tlcu/overview.html; Pierson, M. E. (2001). Technology integration practice as a function of pedagogical expertise. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 33(4), ; Russell, M., Bebell, D., O Dwyer, L., & O Connor, K. (2003). Examining teacher technology use: Implications for preservice and inservice teacher preparation. Journal of Teacher Education, 54, Baker, J. A., Grant, S., & Morlock, L. (2008). The teacher-student relationships as a developmental context for children with internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. School Psychology Quarterly, 23(1), 3-15; Buyse, E., Verschueren, K., Verachtert, P., & Van Damme, J. (2009). Predicting school adjustment in early elementary school: Impact of teacher-child relationship quality and relational classroom climate. The Elementary School Journal, 110(2), ; Cornelius-White, J. (2007). Leaner-centered teacher-student relationships are effective: A meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 77(1), ; NWREL. (2001). Understanding motivation and supporting teacher renewal. Retrieved on October 20, 2003 from 19

20 The Hiring Process Teacher Quality Index: Building Level Interview 20

21 Sandra R. Weatherby 3 Sunny Drive (123) Cloudsdale, Yourstate OBJECTIVE To obtain a secondary social studies teaching position. WORK EXPERIENCES Random County Public Schools, Cloudsdale, Yourstate TEACHER, EIGHTH GRADE SOCIAL STUDIES Taught eighth grade United States History using a variety of strategies such as interdisciplinary studies, cooperative learning, lessons based on learning styles, and inquiry method Organized City Public Schools, Sunny, Yourstate Teacher, Eighth Grade Social Studies Implemented new eighth grade World Geography curriculum. Developed and implemented exploratory activities for ESL students. RELATED VOLUNTEER EXPERIENCES 2007 present Cloudsdale Youth Club, Cloudsdale, Yourstate Program Coordinator: Coordinated the community tutoring program, Kids in the Middle, providing targeted assistance to middle school students present Glorious Skies Church, Cloudsdale, Yourstate Sunday School Director: Recruited and trained Sunday School teachers for grades 1-12, selected curriculum, ordered materials, and coordinated Sunday School activities with other church-related functions. EDUCATION May 2002 May 1996 M.A., Curriculum and Instruction with an emphasis on Secondary Social Studies Rival University, Friendsville, Yourstate B.A., History (Yourstate certified in secondary history) Yourstate University, Goteam, Yourstate ACTIVITIES AND HONORS Member, Phi Alpha Theta, History Honor Society National History Day Judge for local and regional events since Teacher of the Year for Random Middle School, Random County Public Schools, Cloudsdale, Yourstate 21

22 TQI Form is abbreviated for training purposes Applicant s Name: Sandra Weatherby Standard Format Teacher Quality Index (TQI) Building Level Interview Date: Teaching Position Sought: Middle School History Teacher Time: Interviewer: Instructions: After asking a question prompt, listen for responses related to the Sample Quality Indicators, then make brief notes in the space provided. Before proceeding to the next question prompt, score the candidate s overall answer using the four-point Performance Appraisal Rubric based on the preponderance of evidence (i.e., where the answer best fits). 1. Professionalism PROMPT Share with me why teaching is the profession of choice for you. Sample Quality Indicators Displays enthusiasm for learning/subject matter Interacts with students Possesses a high level of motivation Notes Highly Effective In addition to meeting the criteria for Effective... 3 points The applicant effectively communicates with individuals about his/her passion/dedication to the profession using examples. Effective 2 points The applicant communicates with clarity and gives some examples (e.g., concrete and abstract). Partially Effective 1 point The applicant clearly communicates a broad idea, but the response lacks specifics. Ineffective 0 points The applicant does not clearly communicate or provide concrete examples. 2. Learning Environment PROMPT Tell me what you do with students during the first few weeks when you are working with them to establish a positive classroom environment. Sample Quality Indicators Establishes clear rules and routines Gets to know the students Offers opportunities for students to be successful with the classroom guidelines Highly Effective In addition to meeting the criteria for Effective... 3 points The applicant builds a classroom community by providing opportunities for students to take responsibility and have ownership of the classroom. Effective 2 points The applicant spends more time in the beginning weeks of school establishing routines and reinforcing the rules so that students know what is expected of them. These expectations are communicated to students families. Notes Partially Effective 1 point The applicant shares classroom operating procedures with students and families. Offers limited opportunities for students to practice the routines and be successful following the rules after the initial introduction. Ineffective 0 points The applicant presents the rules and starts instruction during the first week of school, but does not give examples of how they build a rapport with students or reinforce the classroom guidelines. Adaptation of a protocol available in Stronge, J. H., & Hindman, J. L. (2006) The teacher quality index: A protocol for teacher selection. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. 22

23 3. Instructional Planning PROMPT Share with me your long and short-term planning process for instruction. Sample Quality Indicators Sequences contents Relates concepts to prior knowledge Selects lesson objectives and aligns activities to them Highly Effective In addition to meeting the criteria for Effective... 3 points The applicant consistently prioritizes instruction through by aligning the short term plans to the long range plans in order to enrich and expand the state standards and district curriculum. Effective 2 points The applicant reinforces his/her focus on instruction through allocation of time to address all state and school district objectives by consolidating isolated facts into broader concepts. Notes Partially Effective 1 point The applicant does long and short range planning, but treats them as isolated planning functions. Ineffective 0 points The applicant does not make long range plans to maximize the instructional time during the year. 4. Instructional Delivery PROMPT Describe how you engage students in their learning. Sample Quality Indicators Solicit students comments and questions Uses a variety of hands-on/minds-on activities Monitors students understanding and adjusts lesson pacing or activities Highly Effective In addition to meeting the criteria for Effective... 3 points The teacher systematically designs activities for different students and achieves high levels of active engagement. Effective 2 points The teacher modifies activities to address the changing needs of students and to enhance their active engagement. Notes Partially Effective 1 point The teacher makes minor changes in activities to meet the changing needs and interests of students and to enhance engagement. Ineffective 0 points The teacher makes little/no changes in activities to meet the needs of students or to enhance engagement. 23

24 5. Learning Environment PROMPT Tell me about a frustrating situation involving a student s actions and how you resolved it when you approached the student s parents/guardians about the behavior. Sample Quality Indicators Communicates rules Demonstrates respect for students and the family Monitors behavior and provides feedback Involves parents/guardians/other school personnel as appropriate in identifying solutions Highly Effective In addition to meeting the criteria for Effective... 3 points The applicant communicates clear expectations for behavior and helps students meet those expectations in a positive and constructive manner. Seeks to create win-win situations by involving appropriate people in supporting the student in making more positive behavioral choices. Effective 2 points The applicant communicates clear expectations about behavior to students and the parent/guardian. Sensitively inquires if there is anything the teacher should know that might help the situation. Shares with the family the teacher s plan of action. Notes Partially Effective 1 point The applicant inconsistently communicates expectations for behavior and is primarily reactive. Focuses on uniformity and compliance. The teacher sought support from home for his/her concerns and need for the student s behavior to improve. Ineffective 0 points The applicant does not communicate clear expectations for behavior to students and parents. Responds primarily with punitive measures and contacting the parents/guardians is a matte of procedure or carrying through on a consequence. 6. Instructional Planning PROMPT Think about a unit you have taught. Tell me why you selected particular instructional strategies to teach the curriculum. Sample Quality Indicators Uses a range of strategies Identifies the available resources Selects problem-solving, hands-on, and interactive strategies and resources Highly Effective In addition to meeting the criteria for Effective... 3 points The teacher diagnostically uses a wide range of instructional strategies to enhance student understanding of concepts. Effective 2 points The teacher uses a variety of instructional strategies that appeal to the interests of different students. Notes Partially Effective 1 point The teacher uses a limited number of instructional strategies with limited attempts to appeal to student needs or interests. Ineffective 0 points The teacher does not vary his/her narrow set of instructional strategies. 24

25 7. Assessment of/for Learning PROMPT Tell me how your assessment practice accommodate students learning needs. Sample Quality Indicators Holds students individually accountable Considers student s special needs Provides differentiated assessments Notes Highly Effective In addition to meeting the criteria for Effective... 3 points The applicant uses assessments that are differentiated for specific students, groups, or situations (i.e., gifted, special education). Effective 2 points The applicant differentiates assessment for special education students as stated in students plans (i.e., 504, IEP). Partially Effective 1 point The applicant relies on other sources (i.e., special education teacher, textbook suggestions) to modify activities and assessments. Ineffective 0 points The applicant makes no modifications in instructional practices and assessments. Convert ratings into points and write the number of points in the blank beside the question number. Ineffective = 0; Partially Effective = 1; Effective = 2; Highly Effective= 3. Then add the numbers to get a subtotal for the quality area. Finally sum the subtotals to get an overall rating. The maximum score is 39 points. Prerequisites of effective teachers Item13 = Professionalism Q1 + Q8 + Q11 = Learning Environment Q2 + Q5 = Instructional Planning Q3 + Q6 = Instructional Delivery Q4 + Q9 + Q10 = Assessment of/for Learning Q7 + Q12 = Applicant s Rank out of * Overall Rating Total * After all the applicants have been interviewed rank order the candidates you interviewed. 25

26 The Hiring Process: Performance Assessment 26

27 Kristine Hardy Objective Professional experience Professional memberships To secure a position where I can challenge students to advance their thinking about historical concepts, their relationship to present day events, and implications for the future present Appleton School District Appleton, AL Teacher Provided leadership as the history department chair since 2001 Taught Advanced Placement United States history, Advanced Placement World History, General United States history Supported student achievement as evidenced by approximately one-third of my Advanced Placement students earning the highest score of 5, while 90% of my students on average attain scores of 3 or higher Served as a mentor, student teacher cooperating teacher, and as a member of the school improvement team Phi Alpha Theta, History honor society National Education Association Awards received 2004 Chamber of Commerce Mini-Grant for an oral history project 1992 Grady High School Rookie Teacher of the Year Extracurricular activities Future Problem Solving Team Sponsor Education Samford University, Birmingham, AL M.Ed Indiana University, Bloomington, IN B.A. in history References Charles Smith, Principal, Grady High School, 123 Gala Drive, Appleton, AL (123) Melody Carter, Secondary Supervisor, Appleton Central Office, POB 12, Appleton, AL (123) Debra Jones, School Improvement Team Chair, Grady High School, 123 Gala Drive, Appleton, AL (123)

28 Questioning Techniques Analysis Chart Teacher s Name Kristine Hardy Date Time Started/Ended Observer s Name Grade/Subject World History and Geography Record all the questions asked by the teacher orally and in writing during the lesson. Place the question in the space beneath the appropriate level. Then tally the number of questions by level and calculate a percentage. Type of Question Total # Percent Recall Comprehension Application and beyond (analysis, synthesis, evaluation) Total of all questions Based on the percentages what level of thinking was targeted? How clearly worded were the questions? What were the applicant s strengths and areas for improvement? Strengths Areas for Improvement 28

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