1 Academic Language: Equity for ELs NCSU Annual ESL Symposium May 19, 2017 Glenda Harrell, ESL Director Amanda Miller, ESL Coordinating Teacher Includes information from Title III/ESL Update to WCPSS Board Members (Student Achievement Committee) on May 9, 2016
2 Why is the district plan for ELs important? Language Assistance Programs for ELs must: 1. Be based on a sound educational theory, 2. Be implemented effectively with sufficient resources and [appropriately trained] personnel, and 3. Be evaluated annually to determine whether they are effective in helping students overcome language barriers (and achieve academic success). Castañeda v. Pickard, 648 F.2d 989 (5th Cir. 1981); U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. (2014, October). Dear colleague letter: Resource compatibility; U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights, & U.S. Department of Justice. (2015, January). Dear colleague letter: English learner students and limited English proficient parents.
3 Annual October 1 Headcount of ELs in WCPSS Submitted to North Carolina General Assembly in November
4 # Former ELs Increasing
5 # ELs & Former ELs
6 WCPSS Language Assistance Program for ELs August 2012; October 2014; August 2015
7 Comprehensive Moderate Transitional Clarify Use of Criteria to Determine Student s Level of Language Support Clearly communicate how to determine levels of language support. Clarify factors that directly impact an EL s capacities to participate in learning experiences using English. Guide and inform how levels of service change as ELs develop academic English. Recognize how language and content are taught and assessed differently. Clarify the Role of ESL Teachers in Program for ELs Specify which ESL approaches/methodologies are provided in WCPSS. Implement ESL instruction with fidelity (based on sound educational theory). Convey critical importance of collaboration between teachers of ELs. Clarify Language Supports Needed Schoolwide Demonstrate the types of language assistance needed at each level of service for ELs to be able to participate meaningfully. Describe how language scaffolds support ELs and allow access to learning. Facilitate collaboration and sharing of expertise between teachers of ELs. Establish an expectation that teachers develop their capacity to scaffold learning for ELs.
8 Schedule Review Summary Types of ESL Services in Reported by WCPSS ESL Teachers N=177 Elementary N=121 Scheduled ESL Middle School N= Scheduled ESL In-Class ESL Co-Teaching Planning/Teaching/ Collaborating (Before/After School) High School N=29 27 Scheduled ESL Advanced Language Support 13 Advanced Language Support 7 11 Co-Teaching 3 Co-Teaching 7 74 Extra Support Before/After School, During Lunch 21 Extra Support Before/After School, During Lunch 27
9 Fidelity Check: Academic Language is Essential Language IS the means of instruction. Students demonstrate conceptual understandings through language. Students of other languages and non-standard English bring knowledge and experiences that are valuable. They are bright and capable. Decisions about students abilities are based upon their use of standard academic language. Teachers modeling of academic language is critical. Oral language is a bridge to literacy. Vocabulary is one aspect of academic language. Words are useful only when put together to convey meaning. BOE Update December 8, Improving the WCPSS Language Instruction Educational Program (LIEP) for English Language Learners.
10 WCPSS ESL Instructional Mission & Goals July, 2014 Ensure effective language instruction and services for ELs occur within specialized ESL and during the rest of the school day. ESL Teachers: Understand and prepare ELs to use complexity of language needed for success in core instruction Learn to recognize, formatively assess and document progression of language development Understand how to connect data to language development when interpreting results of benchmark and summative assessments; interpret the data from annual ACCESS results to inform instruction BOE Update December 8, Improving the WCPSS Language Instruction Educational Program (LIEP) for English Language Learners.
11 Collaboration Across Areas Title I Academic Partners Office of Student Assignment Counseling and Student Services Student Information Systems Special Education Services Office of Early Learning Intervention Services Human Resources
12 WCPSS District Efforts (December, 2014) Focus on Literacy Disciplinary Literacy, K-12 Writing Rubrics, SWRL Cultivating Successful Core for ELLs: Research & Practice Series central office and school partners Collaboration with Academics Partners Scaffolding Social Studies for ELLs, Co-Teaching Collaborative, Academic Language focus ESL Program Evaluation ESL schedule review; Instructional Audit, ESL courses, Lit review Next Steps in Spring 2015 Help teachers facilitate meaningful interaction for frequent language practice that reveals the thinking behind learning. Cultivate expertise across central office teams to facilitate use of academic language for learning. BOE Update December 8, Improving the WCPSS Language Instruction Educational Program (LIEP) for ELLs
14 Professional Learning Series Teaching and Assessing Academic Language Development December 1 or 2, 2015 and May 3 or 4, 2016 Elementary ESL Teachers & Academic Language Coaches Secondary ESL Teachers & Academic Partners Special Education & Intervention Specialists
15 ESL Pedagogy: An Emerging Area of Study Research Focus 1970s-1990s Bilingual Education v English-Only Language of Instruction 1978 Higher Order Thinking for Learning18 Language is a tool to mediate understanding Natural Approach, BICS & CALP5,9,17 ESL theory emerges (cognitive and sociocultural) National Reading Panel Identify best ways to teach reading (English-only) 2000 SIOP Framework as Schoolwide Approach6 Practices for teaching content and language simultaneously 2002 National Study of Long-Term Academic Achievement14 What impacts long-term academic success for ELs? 2003 Academic Language for English Learners12 Focused on international university students 2005 National Review of Research7 What evidences for EL students exists? 2006 National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Student and Youth1 Response to lack of evidences for ELs in the National Reading Panel report Guide to Literacy Research8 Review of two nationwide syntheses of research7, Research Specifically for ELLs2,3,4,10 How do ELs attain academic proficiency in English? 2015 Changing ESL Pedagogy 13,16 Measures of language development and impact on academic achievement, essential teacher knowledge 2014 Construct of Academic Language15 How do we operationalize and teach it?
16 Selected References 1. August, D, & Shanahan, T. (eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 2. Bravo MA, Cervetti GN. (2014). Attending to the language and literacy needs of English learners in science. Equity & Excellence in Education. 3. Burr, E., Haas, E., & Ferriere, K. (2015). Identifying and supporting English learner students with learning disabilities: Key issues in the literature and state practice (REL ). Wash-ington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences. 4. Carlo MS, August D, Mclaughlin B, Snow, C.E., Dressler, C., Lippman, D.N (2004). Closing the gap: Addressing the vocabulary needs of English-language learners in bilingual and mainstream classrooms. Journal of Education. 5. Cummins, J. (1999). BICS and CALP: Clarifying the distinction. ERIC document ED Echevarria, Short, & Powers,. (2006). School reform and standards-based education: A model for English-language learners. Journal of Educational Research, 99(4), Genesee, F. Lindholm-Leary, K., Saunders,, & Christian,. (2005). English language learners in U.S. schools: An overview of research findings. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 10(4), (CREDE) 8. Goldenburg, C., Coleman, R. (2010). Promoting academic achievement among English learners A guide to the research. Corwin. 9. Krashen, S. D. (1996). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall 10. Montero MK, Newmaster S, Ledger S. (2014). Exploring early reading instructional strategies to advance the print literacy development of adolescent SLIFE. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 58(1): National Academy of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine. (2017). Promoting the educational success of children and youth learning English: Promising futures: Washington, D.C.https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24677/promoting-the-educational-success-of-children-and-youth-learning-english 12. Scarcella, R. (2003). Academic English: A conceptual framework. University of California Linguistic Minority Research Institute 13. Téllez, K. & Mosqueda, E. (2015). Developing teachers knowledge and skills at the intersection of English language learners and language assessment. Review of Research in Education Thomas, W. P., Collier, V. P., & Center for Research on Education, Diversity,and Excellence. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students' long-term academic achievement (CREDE) Uccelli P., Barr, C., Dobbs, C., Phillips Galloway, E., Meneses, A., & Sanchez, E. (2014). Core academic language skills (CALS): An expanded operational construct and a novel instrument to chart school-relevant language proficiency in pre-adolescent and adolescent learners. Applied Psycholinguistics. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/ /academic_language_uccelli_et_al_final_version.pdf?sequence=1 Valdés, G., Kibler, A., & Walqui, A. (2014). Changes in the expertise of ESL professionals: Knowledge and action in an era of new standards. Alexandria, VA: TESOL International Association Van Lier, L. (1996). Interaction in the language curriculum: Awareness, autonomy, and authenticity. New York: Longman Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes.cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
17 Why Academic Language? It s equity It s a shift in the standards It s essential to college and career readiness It s access to content It s imperative for student success It s about all students It s the responsibility of all teachers
18 All students are Academic Language Learners
19 Developing Academic Language Discourse Level Sentence Level Word/Phrase Level
20 Gottlieb & Ernst-Slavit
21 Gottlieb, M., & Ernst-Slavit, G. (Eds.). (2014). Academic Language in Diverse Classrooms. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin.
22 Where do you see evidence of the academic language shifts within these standards?
23 Let s Look at the Language in the Standards What is the purpose of the academic language in the standard, and how will it be utilized to access the learning of the concept knowledge?
24 What is the content of this ELA standard? RL Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
25 RL Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. Ask questions to demonstrate understanding of a text. Answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text. Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text. Refer explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers.
26 Vertical alignment RL K.1 - With prompting and support, ask and answer questions about key details in a text. RL Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. RL Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. RL Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. RL Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
27 Focus on Academic Discourse Structured Questions Sentence Starters Opportunity for Collaborative Conversation
28 How might we intentionally plan opportunities for the language of the standard to be embedded within the lesson? How do we ensure students not only understand but are also able to express their understanding of the concepts?
30 Standards What do we want students to know? Common Core English Language Arts Standards Grade 6 Reading for Literature CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
31 Here is our standard Now, what is the content? CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.6.1 Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
32 Concept skills and language skills cannot be separated; one cannot fully comprehend concepts without understanding the language surrounding those concepts.
33 Content of the Standard = Language Skills and Concept Skills CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RL.6.1 Concept Skills Language Skills Textual Evidence Cite Support analysis of what the text explicitly says Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. Support analysis of inferences drawn from text textual evidence support analysis explicitly Inferences drawn
34 Purpose Determine/define what proficiency will look like or how it will be demonstrated based on what the student should know and do. What is the language necessary to access and express understanding of the content (both concept knowledge & language skills)? g ua e a c A n O g n a L demic
35 Purpose Language of Cite Student uses language to identify, report, or describe information Possible words that cue the What does cite sound like? idea of citing: What does cite look like? Recount information presented by inform, The textrecount, states ; therefore someone or from text. provide, restate, give examples of, in short, in author s reasons strongly suggest that The Retell a text in oral or written form summary, to sum up, inargue that. One could conclusion, represent,. Summarize information found depict within text or from discussion
36 Infer analysis Support Student Uses inferences, predict implications, and/or Student useslanguage languagetotomake separate whole into parts/ Identify relationships hypothesize and patterns Looks Like: Possible Cue Words: defend, show, argue, justify, claim, due Describe process of to, because furthermore reasoning (inductive or Possible Cue of, Words: predict, represent, deductive) Looks Like: Generate hypotheses to Describe parts, causes or features, or main deduce Possible language of supporting (sound like):suggest outcomes idea of information I/She/He believe/believes this because. Describe in text observations or using multiple information Possible language of inference (sounds like): Looks Like: senses Describe parts, The primary reason for is. presented conclude, draw conclusions, speculate, Based on, I infer that. features, or main idea of information My Theconclusion most convincing reason My for inference is. is based in texton or from discussion. is. It is possible to speculate thatthat basedwhich on The text strongly suggests can. further show/depict. The text makes me think.
37 "What do my students need to be able to say about, and how might they say it?"
38 By unlocking the power of language in a standard, * language becomes a vehicle, rather than a barrier, to learning. (*K. Kinsella)
39 Contact Information Glenda Harrell, Title III/ESL Director Amanda Miller, Title III/ESL
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