1 SCHEME OF WORK IGCSE HISTORY (0470) 20th Century Core This scheme of work covers just the 20th century core. Activities are suggested that will help candidates address the issues that are central to the syllabus, and indeed the questions in the examination papers. They do not pretend to cover all the factual information candidates will need but are designed to encourage research, discussion, analysis and evaluation. The focus is on the requirements of Paper 1 but sources exercises have also been suggested. The most satisfactory way to prepare candidates for Paper 2 is to ensure they have regular practice in interpreting and evaluating sources. This is best done through using past Paper 2s although some of the textbooks also have useful source exercises. It has been assumed that teachers and students will be using one of the three main textbooks: the approved book 'Modern World History' by Tony McAleavy, (CUP), which covers the 20th century Core Content only. 'Modern World History' by Nigel Kelly and Greg Lacey (Heinemann) and 'Modern World History' by Ben Walsh (John Murray), both of which cover the 20th century Core and some of the Depth Studies. All three of these books are very useful - the latter two have been written for a similar GCSE syllabus but it should be pointed out that none of them fully meet the requirements of the IGCSE syllabus. The other book mentioned is 'Peace and War' by Colin Shephard, Andy Reid and Keith Shephard (John Murray). This makes no attempt to cover the entire syllabus but does include some very useful exercises. It is not recommended as a class text but a copy for the teacher would be useful. One other publication is worth mentioning -Ben Walsh's Modern World History, Teacher's Resource Book (John Murray). This contains many exercises and worksheets. When these books are mentioned, page references have not been given because the books appear in many different editions where the page numbers do change. A revised book list for this syllabus will be produced by CIE shortly and this will include a wider range of basic texts and more books on individual topics. History websites vary in quality, and none have been developed specifically for IGCSE History. Those recommended in this Scheme of Work are, in the main, sites that support UK GCSE courses. They are recommendable particularly for the source material they include, and in some instances the classroom activities they offer, but they do need to be used carefully, keeping IGCSE requirements in mind. It is impossible to be totally prescriptive about the content which is included in the 20th century Core. The syllabus presents the content not as a definitive list of topics, but as a series of questions to be explored. This Scheme of Work provides one way of achieving this. It sticks closely to the syllabus structure, though there is one significant departure from it with the inclusion of background material on the origins and nature of the First World War. It is worth pointing out that, whilst it is entirely justifiable to include these as an introduction, they are not actually part of the 20th century Core.
2 History: Core content Option B; The 20th century, International Relations since 1919 Learning Outcomes Learning Activities Resources Key Question 1 Were the Peace Treaties of fair? Causes of First World To have a brief overview of the events leading to the First World War It is necessary for students to have some idea of these events so they can judge aspects of the Treaty of Versailles. Good brief coverage in McAleavy, Shephard and Walsh To have some understanding of the difference between long and short term causes of the war and the part played by the major powers. The First World War To gain an impression of conditions on the Western Front. Interpretation of sources. Construct timeline of main events concentrating on formation of the two alliances and the development of the arms race. Construct timeline of events in In groups decide who was most to blame for the outbreak of war. Award points out of 10 to each of: Britain, France, Germany, the Serbs, Austria, Russia. Students only need an impression of what it was like in the war. This is to enable them to understand the wish of people like Chamberlain to avoid another war at all costs. This understanding could be gained through watching a video or examining a series of photographs of the Western Front. See websites for these and some excellent activities. Paper 2 June and November 2000 (useful source exercises on events leading to the war - see the 19th century option). For teachers wanting to go into this area in more depth there are some useful worksheets and exercises in Walsh's Teacher's Resource Book There is a mass of material on the following websites including sources, worksheets and exercises. WW.htm
3 The Peace Treaties To know the main terms of the treaties. aims of the Big Three To be able to evaluate the treaties without using hindsight impact of Versailles on Germany. The ability to construct a multicausal explanation. The aim of this section of teaching should be to end up with the students able to make an informed judgement about the Treaty of Versailles. They will need to know a little about the other treaties but the bulk of the time should be spent on Versailles. Students need to understand the pressures and limitations on the peacemakers before they criticise the treaty too easily. Consideration of the long-term consequences of the Treaty is better left to Key Question 3. Students given photos of Clemenceau, Lloyd George, Wilson. Draw speech bubbles around each saying what they wanted from the negotiations. Students work in groups of four with Britain, France, the USA and Germany represented. Each group given one area to study from: punishment of Germany, Germany's eastern border, Germany's western border. Teacher to give them some possible ideas. Each group draws up their own treaty. Compare these to the final Treaty of Versailles. Discuss why they differ. Did do they do the best they could at the time? Was Germany punished too harshly? Study cartoons and written sources on Germany's reaction to the Treaty. Design front page of German newspaper reporting the Treaty. Essay on how far the Treaty was responsible for the events in Germany in 1923: hyperinflation, the Munich Putsch, occupation of the Ruhr. Good coverage in Kelly and Lacey, McAleavy, Shephard, Walsh. For materials for the activity see Peace and War Teacher's Resource Book. For similar activity see For source exercise see Kelly and Lacey. See McAleavy and Walsh. Paper 1 June 1999, Q1. Paper 1 June 2003, Q5.
4 Key Question 2: To what extent was the League of Nations a success? aims of the League. organisation of the League. To explain how the organisation impacted on the League's effectiveness. League did much of its important work through its agencies. To be able to explain why the League was more successful in the The key aim here is for students to able to analyse two or three success and failures of the League and be able to explain why the League succeeded or failed. In role as Wilson write a letter to the US Senate explaining the importance of the League, its aims, and why the US should join. Draw a diagram of the organisation of the League. This is not very exciting but students need to know the basic structure. However, stress that this is only important as far as it impacted on the performance of the League. Can students spot any features of the structure that might cause problems later? It is important that students do not restrict their examination of the League to its political activities. The work of its agencies should also be covered. This could be researched by students. Do not try and cover every crisis the League was involved in. Select 3 case studies from the 20s and ask Kelly and Lacey, MacAleavy and Walsh all useful. For links to sites about international relations generally and the League see All of the three main textbooks cover the organisation in some detail. None of the three main textbooks cover this area well Students should be encouraged to research the work of the ILO and some of the main commissions e.g. on slavery, refugees and health, on the internet. For some excellent activities on the League see
5 20s than in the 30s. To understand how the Depression had an impact on the work of the League. Causation. To explain why the League failed in the 30s. Understanding causation. Key Question 3: Why had international peace collapsed by 1939? Able to understand that causal factors often inter-acted, and that some were more important than others.. development of German foreign policy. Chronology. students to explain for each one (i) how effective the League was, (ii) why it was/was not successful. Then see if they can find any common factors across all three case studies. Write down one example for each of the following countries of how the Depression affected their attitude to international relations: Britain, the US, Germany, Italy, Japan, France. Concentrate on Manchuria and Abyssinia. Give the students a list of factors e.g. countries not belonging to the League, its lack of muscle, the decision making process within the League, attitude of Britain and France, the strength of Japan and Italy. Ask students to explain how these explain the League's failures. Students basically need to be able to understand the contribution of the following factors to the outbreak of war: the foreign polices of Germany in particular, but also Italy and Japan, and the failure by Britain and France to respond to these threats. It is important that students appreciate that these factors interacted with one another and that some were more important than others. A useful way to begin is to trace the development of German foreign policy Students need to be sure on the chronology of the main events. Get them to (includes role play on 'How would you have run the League') and a cartoon investigation of the Abyssinian crisis. Walsh is useful on this. Paper 1 November 1998, Q1, Q2. Paper 1 June 1999, Q2. Paper 1 June 2002 Q5. Paper 1 June 2003 Q6. For source exercises: Paper 2 June 2001 (when did the League die?) Paper 2 November 2001 (the League and Abyssinia). Good coverage in Kelly and Lacey, McAleavy, Walsh. An exercise analysing cartoons of the period can be found on Useful exercises and worksheets on all aspects of this Key Question can be found in Walsh (Teacher's Resource Book) For links to sites on causes of World War 2 see Detailed coverage of Hitler's foreign policy with links can be found on This is covered well, following this pattern, in Kelly and Lacey. There is also a very clear explanation in
6 To understand why a policy of appeasement was followed and to make an evaluation of the policy. Source interpretation and evaluation. roles played by the USA and the USSR. To compare the relative importance of causal factors. construct a time-line. This should cover how Hitler undoes parts of Versailles (disarmament, the Saar, the Rhineland) and the Anschluss, Czechoslovkia, Munich, the Nazi- Soviet Pact, and Poland. The next important issue to cover is why Hitler got away with it. At the centre of this is the debate about appeasement. Give the students (in pairs) a pack of sources, some primary some secondary, some written and some cartoons, some pro-appeasement, some anti. Ask the students to identify and explain which sources are pro and which are anti. Followed by class debate - Was appeasement a mistake? The roles of the USA and USSR also need to be considered. Students could consider which contributed most to the outbreak of war? - the isolationism of the USA or the Soviet Union signing the Soviet- Nazi Pact. All of the above needs to be brought together - a useful issue for doing this is 'How far was Hitler's foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939?' This could be done as an essay or as a source exercise. It should be made clear to students that it requires them to compare the importance of Hitler's foreign policy with that of other factors such as Versailles, the role of other countries, appeasement. MacAleavy. There is also a useful timeline in Shephard. Source exercise - Paper 2 June 2003 (Anschluss) See a document analysis exercise on appeasement - Materials following this pattern can be found in Shephard. Source exercise - Paper 2 November 2003 (appeasement). This is covered in this way in Shephard. There is a source exercise that asks this question in Kelly and Lacey. Useful Paper 1 questions can be found in; June 1999, November 1999, June 2002, November 2003, There is an interactive exercise on the causes of WW2 on it covers 6 causes and there are also some aids to essay writing. Key Question 4: Who was to blame for the Cold War?
7 To understand 'capitalism' and 'communism' differences between what was agreed at Yalta and Potsdam. To suggest reasons why the Soviets and the Americans could not agree. This can be a difficult area for students. It helps students if this unit can be given a clear shape. This will enable students to find their way around the complicated events. This can be achieved by: (i) keeping the emphasis on the Key Question, (ii) avoid getting bogged down in too much detail, and (iii) using the main events (Yalta, Potsdam, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, blockade of Berlin) as case studies. Students to draw up a list of differences between American capitalism and Soviet communism. Half the students in the class to draw up a list of the agreements and disagreements at Yalta. The other students to draw up a list of the agreements and disagreements at Potsdam. Class as a whole to compare the two meetings. Discuss what are the differences between the two meetings. What are the disagreements between the Soviets and the Americans. Why did they disagree? Kelly and Lacey, MacAleavy and Walsh all cover this Key Question adequately. There are some useful worksheets in Walsh (Teacher's Resource Book). Two websites provide an enormous amount of information about the Cold War including Korea, the Iron Curtain, the Berlin Airlift, Hungary in 1956, the Berlin Wall, Prague Spring, Vietnam, the fall of the Berlin Wall. The first has interactive sections, many photographs and maps. They both contain a lot of digestible information. ank/maps/ ar/ Other useful sites on the Cold War include: Twentieth_Century/Cold_War and links to many other sites can be found at There are useful sections to help students with this exercise in Kelly and Lacey and MacAleavy. See Paper 1 May 1998 Q3, November 98 Q3, June 2002 Q7, November 2003, Q7. Useful source exercise on this
8 Interpretation and evaluation of sources. Using contextual knowledge to evaluate a number of courses of action. Understanding different consequences, both intended and unintended. Using the evidence to reach overall conclusion. Key Question 5: How effectively did the USA contain the spread of Communism? Were the Marshall Plan and the Truman Doctrine really the same thing? Students to look at cartoons and primary and secondary written sources (from US and Soviet view). The Berlin Blockade - decision making exercise. In groups students to play role of Americans/British/ French. How do they respond to the Blockade? Discuss advantages and disadvantages of: doing nothing, breaking the blockade by force, threatening a nuclear strike, an airlift. Students to consider the consequences of the Blockade. This unit needs to end with some work being completed on the overall question - Who was to blame for the Cold War? This could be a class debate or a Paper 2 exercise. The Cold War is an enormous topic. To make it manageable and to provide a clear focus for students this syllabus concentrates on Cuba and Vietnam. It is not necessary for other aspects of the Cold War to be covered (although see section on Korea later). issue in Paper 2, June 2004 Links to sites about the Marshall Plan can be found at A source exercise on the Berlin Blockade can be found in Kelly and Lacey. Also see Paper 1 June 2002, Q8. Useful material and exercises on the Berlin Wall at ury/cold_war There is a useful section on consequences in MacAleavy. Links to other sites on the Berlin Wall and Blockade at For this see Paper 2 November Kelly and Lacey, MacAleavy and Walsh all cover Cuba and Vietnam adequately.
9 Understanding the term 'Cold War'. Students need a very brief introduction on the meaning of the term Cold War and a little information on the arms race. Material for this can be found in Kelly and Lacey, and in Walsh. The Cuban Missile Crisis Identifying main points about the background. Students need some background on Castro coming to power and the Bay of Pigs. This could be summarised by students. There is a useful section on this in Kelly and Lacey. For the Bay of Pigs see ury/cold_war Using contextual knowledge to make informed decisions. Use the evidence to support decisions. Using contextual knowledge and evidence to construct an argument. The Cuban Missile is ideal for a simulation or a decision making exercise. Students need to consider two other issues (i) who won the Cuban Missile Crisis? This could be completed as a class debate. It is important that students realise it is possible to argue that the Soviet Union gained much e.g. Cuba was safe; (ii) what were the consequences of the Crisis? (did it make the world a safer place?). A decision making exercise can be found in Walsh (Teacher's Resource Book). There is an excellent simulation exercise for students to take part in as well as plenty of information/sources at: ng/index.html Links to other sites can be found at: Collections of sources can be found at A useful practice question can be found in Paper 1 November 2003, Q8. The Vietnam War A detailed coverage of the chronology of the war should be avoided. Students should cover three issues: (i) why did the USA go into Vietnam? (ii) what difficulties did the USA have in fighting the war? (iii) why did the USA withdraw (internal and external reasons.
10 Causation - understanding the reasons why the USA went into Vietnam. Research skills: locating sources, planning, deploying and organising information. Interpreting and evaluating sources. Causation. Writing a multi-causal explanation. Students to research the reasons for American involvement. These should include events in Vietnam, the Domino Theory, gradual escalation of involvement of the US. Using websites students to research a project on the war in Vietnam. It should concentrate on comparing and evaluating the different ways the two sides fought the war. Watch a film about Vietnam and discuss how accurate they think it is in the light of their researches. This will take students to the crucial question: 'Why did the USA withdraw from Vietnam?' This could be answered in the form of an essay. Students should be careful to include factors in Vietnam, in the USA and international factors. None of the three books cover this issue particularly well. If students have access to all three books or can use additional sources (see web sites mentioned below) they should be able to put together a number of factors. Students can find an enormous amount of information at Another site - deals with the main questions and includes some sources. Links to other sites can be found at: There are plenty of books on the topic of the war itself and it is suggested that students are encouraged to some research in the library rather than just use the usual textbooks. The usual textbooks deal with this issue rather more satisfactorily. There is a useful practice question in Paper 1 June 2003, Q7 and source exercises in Paper 2 June and November 2000.
11 Key Question 6: How secure was the USSR's control over Eastern Europe, 1948-c.1989? Finding similarities and differences between similar historical events. Comparing and evaluating two interpretations. Understanding of causation. Ability to research and plan an essay. Ability to compare This is best studied as a series of case studies. Students should already know about Soviet power in Eastern Europe. The case studies are: Hungary 56, Czechoslovakia 68, the Berlin Wall, Solidarity in Poland, the collapse of Soviet control. Students should be asked to compare events in Hungary in 1956 with those in Czechoslovakia on They should compare: the events leading up to each crisis, the type and strength of opposition to Soviet control, the reasons for this opposition, the Soviet response, the outcome of the crises. Students to read relevant section in two from Kelly and Lacey, MacAleavy, and Walsh. Compare how they explain the reasons for the building of the Berlin Wall. How do they differ, how are they similar. Which one provides the best explanation? When they have done this they should write their own explanation of no more than 250 words. Students to explain why the Soviets had so many problems controlling Poland., including Solidarity. Students to research and write an essay 'How far was Gorbachev responsible for the collapse of Unfortunately all the textbooks cover this Key Question in less detail than some of the earlier ones. If possible at least two of the usual books should be used. has a large collection of sources about Hungary in Useful source exercises in Paper 2, June and November At least two books from: Kelly and Lacey, MacAleavy, Walsh. ex.html is excellent on the building and the fall of the wall. /arg61.htm has interesting material on Communist justifcations for the wall. Practice question in Paper 1 June, Q8 MacAleavy is useful on this. For Solidarity see oldwar0.html See relevant sections in the usual textbooks.
12 relative importance of a variety of causal factors. communism in Eastern Europe?' They need to be aware that they must not just write about Gorbachev. They must compare his importance with that of other factors such as Solidarity. Key Question 7: How effective has the UNO been? Comparing two organisations for similarities and differences. Distinguishing between the League and the UNO. Using contextual and evidence to reach a balanced judgement. Identifying similarities and The bulk of the work for this Key Question should be based around the two case studies: Korea and the Congo. However, students first do need to know something about the aims, organisation and decision making processes of the UNO. One way of covering this, which raises some interesting issues is to ask students to compare the aims, organisation and decision making processes of the UNO with that of the League of Nations. This will raise issues for discussion such as were lessons learned from the failure of the League when the UNO was created? Such an exercise will also make it less likely that students confuse the two organisations - a common weakness in examinations. One useful question to pose about the Korean War is how far was it a UN mission and how far was it really a US mission under the UN flag. The other question for students to consider is how far the war was a success. A useful way to cover the UN action in the Congo is to compare this with This is dealt with briefly in MacAleavy which can be supplemented by SAun.htm p/teacher_lessons/un.geography.htm The last of these has useful activities for students. Kelly and Lacey has a useful source exercise 'Has the United Nations been a failure?' gives detailed coverage of the war. has useful links. MacAleavy is useful as are the older editions of Kelly and Lacey, and Walsh.
13 differences. Comparing past and present to increase understanding of both. what happened in Korea. Students should consider how similar were; the causes, the roles played by the superpowers, the difficulties faced by the UN, and whether or not UN intervention was successful. There is a good opportunity here to raise questions about the position of the UN today. Are there parallels with the recent events relating to Iraq, especially with regard to the respective roles of the UN and superpowers like the USA. For practice questions see Paper 1 June 2001, Q8, and June 2003, Q8.