Integrative Biology of Women s Health

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1 Integrative Biology of Women s Health

2

3 Espen E. Spangenburg Editor Integrative Biology of Women s Health

4 Editor Espen E. Spangenburg, Ph.D. Department of Kinesiology School of Public Health University of Maryland College Park, MD, USA ISBN ISBN (ebook) DOI / Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London Library of Congress Control Number: Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. Exempted from this legal reservation are brief excerpts in connection with reviews or scholarly analysis or material supplied specifically for the purpose of being entered and executed on a computer system, for exclusive use by the purchaser of the work. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the Copyright Law of the Publisher s location, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer. Permissions for use may be obtained through RightsLink at the Copyright Clearance Center. Violations are liable to prosecution under the respective Copyright Law. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. While the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication, neither the authors nor the editors nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein. Printed on acid-free paper Springer is part of Springer Science+Business Media (

5 Preface The word integrative is defined as bringing together parts to make up a whole. Hence, this book was designed to bring together viewpoints of scientists across a variety of disciplines, all relevant to women s health. The invited authors have all published significant material on matters relevant to women s health. Thus, it is expected that each author will provide the reader novel insight that might encourage new avenues of thought or research that would benefit women. A common problem often faced when designing an experimental approach to test a hypothesis is that scientists will simplify the biological complexity that likely underlies the problem to more easily identify the mechanism. Often dragged into this methodology is the assumption that the mechanism will respond in a similar fashion across both sexes. However, numerous seminal investigations conducted over past few decades have clearly demonstrated that biological mechanisms often behave differently across the sexes. In other words, men and women are different. Although the statement is obvious, when you examine the statement solely from the cellular or the tissue perspective the mechanisms that explain these differences remain poorly defined. Unfortunately, this has often led us to assume that clinical approaches used for treating chronic disease will work with equal fidelity in both men and women. The evidence is mounting that these assumptions are often not true and are likely the result of mechanistic differences that exist between sexes. A recent wave of scientific momentum has begun to develop where investigations are focusing on regulatory mechanisms specifically in women. The resulting data are often unique and in some cases challenge the previously defined dogma. The purpose of this book is to capture this momentum in the form of a collection of review-based chapters across a variety of biological areas. The book seeks to address the basic biology of women s health across a number of tissues including cardiac muscle, bone, skeletal muscle, and brain while discussing critical questions from a physiological and metabolic perspective. In addition, the book was designed to have translational appeal in that chapters contained within the book discuss scientific results that were obtained utilizing a wide array of approaches including cell culture of animals or humans. v

6 vi Preface In order to develop appropriate treatment interventions for women, this critical knowledge gap in women s health research must be addressed. The former Deputy Director of NIH, Dr. Ruth Kirschstein, once stated, Researchers must continue to make more intensive efforts to address the health needs of the whole woman. Overall, it is the hope of the authors of each chapter that the reader will be enlightened to the complex biological issues that are often presented in a unique fashion in women. College Park, MD, USA Espen E. Spangenburg, Ph.D.

7 Contents 1 Influence of Ovarian Hormones on Skeletal Muscle Contractility... 1 Dawn A. Lowe and Sarah M. Greising 2 Novel Findings in Bone Biology: Impact on Bone Health for Women Susan A. Bloomfield and Corinne E. Metzger 3 Estrogen Effects on Skeletal Muscle Marybeth Brown 4 The Contribution of Ovarian Hormones to the Cellular Regulation of Lipid Metabolism Espen E. Spangenburg and Kathryn C. Jackson 5 The Role of Estrogens in the Regulation of Peripheral Glucose Dynamics Paige C. Geiger and Anisha A. Gupte 6 The Impact of Estrogen Receptor α Expression in the Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome Andrea L. Hevener and Brian G. Drew 7 Metabolic Health in the Aging Female: Human Perspective Alice S. Ryan 8 Transitions Across a Lifetime: Unique Cardiovascular Physiology of Women and Relationship to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Juliana M. Kling, Virginia M. Miller, and Sharon L. Mulvagh vii

8 viii Contents 9 Estrogen, Cardiac Protection and Aging Anne A. Knowlton 10 Diet and Exercise Are Potent Modulators of Cardiovascular Disease in Women Kristen K.B. Barthel, Pamela A. Harvey, and Leslie A. Leinwand Index

9 Contributors Kristen K.B. Barthel, Ph.D. Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Susan A. Bloomfield, Ph.D. Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Marybeth Brown, Ph.D. Department of Physical Therapy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA Brian G. Drew, Ph.D. Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Paige C. Geiger, Ph.D. Department of Molecular and Integrative Physiology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA Sarah M. Greising Department of Physiology Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Anisha A. Gupte, Ph.D. Center for Diabetes Research, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA Pamela A. Harvey, Ph.D. Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Andrea L. Hevener, Ph.D. Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA Kathryn C. Jackson, M.S., Ph.D. Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA Juliana M. Kling, M.D., M.P.H. Department of General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, USA ix

10 x Contributors Anne A. Knowlton, M.D. Molecular and Cellular Cardiology, Departments of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of California, Davis, CA, USA Northern California Health System VA Medical Center, Mather, CA, USA Leslie A. Leinwand, Ph.D. Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology, BioFrontiers Institute, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA Dawn A. Lowe, Ph.D. Program in Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Corinne E. Metzger, M.S. Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Virginia M. Miller, Ph.D. Departments of Surgery and Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Sharon L. Mulvagh, M.D. Division of Cardiology, General Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Alice S. Ryan, Ph.D. VA Research Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, GRECC, Division of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine, BVAMC, Baltimore, MD, USA Espen E. Spangenburg, Ph.D. Department of Kinesiology, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA