1 Academic Ranking and Quality Assurance in Online Education Richard Yelland OECD Directorate for Education UOC, Barcelona, 22 September 2011
2 Presentation Part 1 The Enduring Value of Higher Education A. Higher Education and Human Capital B. Lifelong and Lifewide learning C. The value of Higher Education Part 2 The Global Context A. A world of change B. The Indian example Part 3 Online and Distance Learning A. A well-established approach B. Exporters and importers C. A complex model of governance Part 4 Markets and Quality A. A distorted market B. Confidence in the quality of education C. Further complexities Part 5 AHELO: a quality assurance and improvement tool A. General overview B. Strands of work C. Expected outcomes
3 Part 1 The enduring value of Higher Education A. Higher Education and Human Capital B. Lifelong and Lifewide Learning C. The value of Higher Education
4 A. Higher Education and Human Capital Higher Education (HE) has an enduring social value based in its twofold nature Social Capital, e.g. economic development and social well-being. Individual Capital, e.g. social status, personal income and health. Labour market earnings, economic growth, wider markets of consumption, and cultural capital are necessarily correlated with employability, income and individual literacy. Human Capital: individual gain and social participation
5 A. Higher Education and Human Capital Education has a direct impact in the development of the notion of a healthy lifestyle Appropriate management of illnesses + Reduction of health threatening behaviours = healthier individuals Individual tendencies for healthy lifestyles tend to have a corresponding collective behaviour: public support for healthy environments and thus healthier societies The Individual and Social effects of education can be translated into Institutional, Cultural, or Political Capital
6 B. Lifelong and Lifewide Learning What skills and capacities are needed to face efficiently our rapidly changing knowledge-based social contexts? UNESCO s Four Pillars of Learning Learning to Know Learning to Do Learning to Live Together Learning to Be The acquisition, exercise and expansion of individual cognitive abilities and judgement, and self-control over their own social roles. The application of the individual s abilities to specific real-life situations, social and work related, and the capacity to adapt those abilities in particular contexts to solve specific problems. The development of civic qualities and collectively shared attitudes, and civic performance towards other individuals. The growth and application of the individual knowledge and judgement to the self and self s well-being.
7 C. The Value of Higher Education What is Higher Education s added value to this complex learning process? What do we know about the learning outcomes in Higher Education? What are the roles of HEIs in this process of lifelong learning? How is Higher Education translated into social capital? In what ways is online education any different from classroom-based education? How can we broaden access to higher education while maintaining its quality and value? How can higher education institutions and systems be transformed so that they help more of us to face the challenges of our fast changing societies; to generate and deliver the required knowledge; and to foster the development of skills, competencies and cognitive tools in a broad population.
8 Part 2 The Global Context A. A world of change B. The Indian example
9 The composition of the global talent pool has changed Countries share in the population with tertiary education, for and year-old age groups, percentage (2009) year-old population year-old population About 39 million people who attained tertiary level About 81 million people who attained tertiary level
10 The composition of the global talent pool has changed Countries share in the population with tertiary education, for and year-old age groups, percentage (2009) year-old population other, 14,5 United States, 20,5 Korea, 5,7 Australia, 1,6 Mexico, 3,9 Italy, 2,0 Spain, 3,5 Japan, 10,9 Brazil, 4,5 France, 4,1 Canada, 3,1 United Kingdom, 4,4 China, 18,3 Germany, 3,1
11 and will continue to change Share of new entrants into tertiary education in 2009 (all OECD and G20 countries) Other countries, 4,8% China, 36,6% Netherlands, 0,5% Chile, 1,3% Australia, 1,3% Italy, 1,4% Spain, 1,6% Poland, 2,1% Germany, 2,5% Argentina, 2,7% Korea, 3,1% Mexico, 3,1% United Kingdom, 3,3% Japan, 4,2% Other Portugal 0.5% Czech Republic 0.4% Israel0.4% Sweden 0.4% Belgium 0.4% Hungary 0.4% Austria 0.4% New Zealand 0.3% United States, Switzerland 0.3% 12,9% Russian Federation, 10,0% Indonesia, Slovak Republic 0.3% Denmark 0.2% Norway 0.2% Ireland 0.2% Finland 0.2% Slovenia 0.1% Estonia 0.1% Iceland 0.0%
12 B. The Indian example 1 With its population of 1.2 billion India is facing rapid changes in HE India s education system reflects the country s federal configuration: the central and the state governments play important roles in the regulation of vocational and tertiary education 1.Rajagopalan, T. A study of the development of the State Open Schools (SOSs) in India Report for The Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, 2011
13 B. The Indian example There are about 534 universities and colleges in India The population of the country between 14 and 18 years old for 2011 is estimated in million A target 40% Gross Enrolment Rate for Higher Education by 2020 = 40 million students. Most of the resources designated to education are 1 destined to primary education Per-student funding in HE was lower in the period than in the mid s 1. Hill, S. & Chalaux, T. Improving access and quality in the Indian education system Economics Department Working Papers No. 885, OECD, Paris, 2011, pp.8, Mishra, Sanjaya Development of an Action Plan for the Creation of a Capacity Building Cell within the National Institute of Open Schooling, India Report for The Commonwealth of Learning, Vancouver, 2010, p. 10
14 B. The Indian example Distance Learning Programmes There are more than 100 HEIs offering Distance Learning programmes in India today The Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) Created in 1985 is today the biggest university in the world, with more than 3, 000, 000 enrolled students The National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS) Had a cumulative enrolment of 1.6 million students in 2009 and by 2010 it had over 3700 study centres across India, UAE and Nepal, and a staff of 251 people
15 Part 3 Distance and Online Learning A. A well-established approach B. Exporters and importers C. A complex model of governance
16 A. A well-established approach Online and Distance Learning are no novel tools in HE They are a significant part of an increasingly complex HE market The British Open University was established in the late 1960 s and now it imparts courses to more than 250, 000 students However, not only Open Universities are part of the Distance and Online Learning market
17 B. Exporters and Importers In the distance-online learning market there are at least two major roles to which HE systems adapt Countries like China and South Africa focus in the import of education programmes seeking to expand educational opportunities and prospects Importers Exporters Countries like the US, Australia and the UK are exporters of distance and online learning programmes based in their wide HE infrastructure
18 B. Exporters and Importers Heavy exporters have become heavy consumers In the US, during the late 1990 s about 1.6 students were enrolled in distance learning courses based in different platforms (print-and-mailed, electronic or else) in HEIs based in the US. By % of all undergraduates in the US took at least one distance learning course, while in the amount increased to 20% meaning about 4.3 million undergraduate students About 0.8 million took their whole programme through 1 distance learning. 1. U.S. Department of Education,National Center for Education Statistics. The Condition of Education 2011 (NCES ), Indicator 43
19 C. A complex model of governance Online Learning increases the complexities of the HE market. The alliance of non-profit and for-profit organisations sharing resources and pursuing common goals, increases the particularities of the HE market Quality assurance has to deal with two key features: No direct classroom attendance: howtoallow for a different experience of learning Availability of services online: student services and resources must be sophisticated and reliable.
20 Part 4 Markets and Quality A. A distorted market B. Confidence in the quality of education C. Further complexities
21 A. A distorted market What are the proxies available for determining the value and the quality of HE products? HE market is not based in standard demand and supply market logics: the same product is delivered at different prices and its quality is usually determined by unreliable proxies What happens then with online learning?
22 B. Confidence in the quality of education Confidence in the quality of higher education is essential Accreditation and quality assurance of online and distance learning must demonstrate their comparability with presential learning. It must avoid current perceptions of the quality and value of higher education heavily influenced by international rankings.
23 C. Further complexities HE is broadly conceived as a public good Nevertheless, there is a growing tendency to believe that HE has to develop common grounds with private interests. A segmented market with asymmetric international rules Some higher education institutions and systems are effectively public monopolies, while others are highly autonomous private businesses. The information that would enable the market to function more efficiently is lacking. Governmental control is only partial Government intervention is aimed at establishing general competition rules to grant equal opportunities to all participants within one country. The international market is weakly regulated. Every HE system is different, but their constituent parts are operating in a convergent world. The problem for Governments is to foster quality, equity and efficiency without inducing unhelpful incentives.
24 C. Further complexities We face a market where the goods are not exchanged based on its price, but on perceptions of quality and of social value The mere assessment of any sort of reforms or rule shaping for The themere development assessment of of any the sort of HEreforms market, or rule presupposes shaping for the the definition development of what of the sort HE market, of individual presupposes and the definition social outcome of what is aimed tosort obtain. of individual and social outcome we aim to obtain OECD s Assessment of Higher Education Learning Outcomes (AHELO) points precisely into that direction.
25 Part 5 AHELO A. General overview B. Strands of work C. Expected outcomes
26 A. General overview What is AHELO? A ground-breaking initiative to assess HE learning outcomes on an international scale, by creating measures that would be valid: For all cultures and languages For the diversity of HE institutions Why is AHELO important? Employs a wide range of measures Provides a more balanced assessment of HE quality in all its forms and platforms No sacrifice of HEIs missions or autonomy in their subsequent efforts to improve performance
27 A. General overview Goal? What? Why? Who? How? To assess whether reliable cross-national comparisons of HE learning outcomes are scientifically possible and whether their implementation is feasible. A research approach to provide a proof of concept and proof of practicality. The outcomes will be used to assist countries to decide on the next steps. Data is being collected from a targeted population of students who are near, but before, the end of their first 3-4 year degree. OECD s role has been to establish broad frameworks that guide international expert committees and contractors charged with instrument development in the assessment areas.
28 B. Strands of work Discipline strand in Economics Discipline strand in Engineering Initial work on defining expected learning outcomes through Tuning approach. + contextual data Initial work on defining expected learning outcomes through Tuning approach. + contextual data AHELO focus on above content skills: students ability to reflect, and to apply their knowledge and experience to novel and real world tasks and challenges
29 B. Strands of work Generic skills strand International pilot test of the US Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA), to assess the extent to which problemsolving or critical thinking can be validly measured across different cultural, linguistic and institutional contexts. + contextual data With each assessment, a collection of contextual information: to look beyond student performance: (e.g. institutional missions, student characteristics and exposure to good practices, satisfaction). to make AHELO an effective tool to reveal best practices and to identify shared problems.
30 B. Strands of work Generic Skills Strand Colombia Egypt Finland Korea Kuwait Mexico Norway Slovak Republic United States Engineering Strand Australia Colombia Egypt Japan Mexico Slovak Republic Economics Strand Belgium (Flemish Community) Egypt Italy Mexico Netherlands Russia Slovak Republic
31 C. Expected Outcomes Goal Scientific and practical feasibility No publication of initial comparisons and no league tables Focus of final report on feasibility aspects: cross-cultural validity, cultural biases, reliability issues etc. Feasibility of implementation Political feasibility Focus on how to ensure student and faculty participation (or correct response biases) Need for some feedback (anonymous) Analyses to demonstrate the potential analytical value of AHELO for institutional improvement
32 C. Expected Outcomes No comparative data at the national level Institutions/departments are the units of analysis, hence measures and reporting at HEI/dept level Feedback to HEIs: performance profiles and contextual data, with their own results and those of other HEIs (anonymously) Pragmatic and cost-effective mode of delivery In time, a measure of value added
33 C. Expected Outcomes Once completed, AHELO should support the improvement of teaching and learning in higher education, by providing a tool for the assessment of quality in online learning as much as in other modes of instruction.
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