SSA focus on Improvement in Quality of Elementary Education

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1 SSA focus on Improvement in Quality of Elementary Education Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, a flagship programme of Government of India for the promotion of Universalisation of Elementary Education, has several features that seek to improve the quality of elementary education. The physical spaces of schools can be transformed into learning spaces only if certain basic provisioning is ensured. This provisioning includes, inter alia, an adequate number of teachers in schools, facilities for training of teachers, structures to provide regular on site academic support, grants to facilitate development of teaching learning material to aid classroom instruction, textbooks for children from special focus groups etc. 1. The programme places great emphasis on preparing the teachers for teaching, by building their capacity through a series of training programmes. The SSA provides for regular 20-day in service training for every teacher every year, along with facilities for 30 day training for newly recruited teachers and 60 day training for teachers that have not received pre service training. Training covers several pedagogical issues, including content and methodology, to improve teaching learning transactions at classroom level. States have started exploring several innovative means of imparting these trainings, including use of the distance, selflearning mode and use of the educational technology. Teacher training under SSA emphasizes child-centred pedagogy and competency based teaching learning. In , about 29.5 lakh teachers underwent the annual in service training.ncert has prepared guidelines for in service teacher training under SSA, called The Reflective Teacher that advocates an optimum training duration of about 10 days per year. In service training as suggested by NCERT, should be split up into institutional training training on site (that is, in the school), implementation of recommended strategies by the teachers in their own classroom settings and finally, meetings at BRC/CRC level to facilitate peer interaction amongst teachers. 2. Classroom transactions can be meaningful only with an optimum Pupil Teacher Ratio. Nearly 7 lakh teachers have been appointed under SSA so far. 3. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan also provides for grants to schools and teachers for developing local context specific, teaching learning materials that have the potential to improve pedagogical processes in the classroom. Nearly lakh teachers have been provided with grants for developing TLM in The SSA also addresses other systemic issues of physical infrastructure and incentives in the form of free textbooks for all children belonging to the SC and ST categories and for all girls. Most first general learners belong to threes categories and benefit from this provisioning. Free textbooks have been distributed to core children in In the year , free textbooks were distributed to 6.39 crore children. Emphasis is being laid on timeliness of distribution of textbooks to eligible children. 5. Decentralized academic resources institutions in the form of about 6700 Block Resource Centres and about Cluster Resource Centres have been established across the country to help teachers performance by providing them professional support. The issue of capacity building of these institutions is being taken up with States on a regular basis and a national level research study is also expected to be commissioned shortly, to ascertain the efficacy of these structures for decentralized academic support. Further, the EC of SSA has issued certain clarifications that have facilitated the setting up of resource centers in urban

2 areas as well. NCERT has developed tools for monitoring quality under SSA that aim to sensitize States towards the need to focus the attention of BRCs and CRCs on academic support that includes in-class observation of classroom transactions, ensuring that SSA provisioning for quality (grants for schools and teachers, textbooks etc.) actually reach the schools, organizing need-based teacher trainings etc. 6. State, District and Block Level Resource Groups have been set up and participation of teachers in these groups is increasingly becoming evident. This has helped produce better textbooks, Teaching Learing Materials and training modules. State level academic resource groups have been set up in 24 States, for developing a vision and perspective regarding pedagogy, teachers training etc. and making classroom transactions more activity based. 7. Several States are undertaking successful quality improvement initiatives like the 3Rs Learning Guarantee Programme in Maharashtra that has enabled more than eight lakh children get remedial support for satisfactory learning, Language Improvement Programme in Andhra Pradesh, Integrated Learning Improvement Programme in West Bengal, new institutionalized mechanism for independent testing in Karnataka, etc. Learning outcomes in selected competencies in various subjects are assessed independently through Karnataka State School Quality Assessment Organisation. States have instituted systems for large scale independent assessment of pupil achievement levels and are using the result for systemic improvement like focused teachers training, developing remedial teaching programmes, etc. Several large-scale innovative inter-ventions have been initiated by State SSA programs (Annexure I). Such initiatives are being documented and are shared with other States/UTs to propagate similar innovative quality interventions across the country. Ministry has facilitated the documentation and dissemination of the following case studies, to facilitate cross state sharing of good practices under SSA: i) Quality Improvement Programme, Andhra Pradesh ii) 3 Rs Guarantee Programme, Maharashtra iii) Integrated Learning Improvement Programme, West Bengal. iv) School Performance Monitoring, Uttaranchal. v) Learning Achievement Tracking System, Orissa vi) Home based Education Practices for Children With Special Needs in SSA vii) NGO initiatives in inclusion: SSA experience viii) Shiksha Sangam Documentation of innovative interventions under SSA by IIM Ahmedabad Other than these, NCERT has also documented the following state initiatives for quality improvement: i) School Improvement Initiatives in Kolhapur, Maharashtra. ii) learning Guarantee Programme, Karnataka.

3 8. SSA also supports remedial teaching of children and nearly 34 lakh children were covered under this in The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005, developed by NCERT, endeavours to reduce the curriculum load and make learning more enjoyable for children. NCERT has prepared a three-phased programme for the development of textbooks from till The NCERT textbooks have attempted to incorporate the concerns articulated in the NCF regarding gender sensitivity and a child centered, constructivist approach to learning. NCERT is assisting States in setting up core groups for reviewing their syllabi in the light of NCF, NCERT is providing technical resource support to the Core Groups set up by States/UTs through the involvement of resource persons who were associated in the formulation of NCF, 2005 and other related activities including syllabus and textbooks preparation. NCERT is also making available a sum of Rs.10 lakhs per State/UT in order to trigger off these processes. The NCF 2005has been shared with the States. 10. Several research studies under SSA are also underway to gather data and trends in teacher absenteeism, students attendance, time on task by students and teachers, professional competence and deployment of para teachers, etc. Periodic pupil achievement surveys by NCERT are also conducted. The NCERT studies reveal low achievement levels as follows: Classes Maths Language EVS Class III (SD 24.89) (SD 22.05) Class V (SD 21.30) (SD 18.30) (SD 20.67) Classes Maths Language Science Social Science Class VII (A) Class VIII (B) Note: (A) 10 States; (B) 17 States & 3 UTs The results of these studies are expected to be factored in by States, to address systemic issues in elementary education, for quality improvement under SSA. 11. Capacity building of states, to address quality issues in EE, is also a regular feature under SSA. Technical and academic support is available to States through NCERT and the technical support group for SSA. The NCERT has designed a sourcebook for pupil assessment and a set of in-service teacher training guidelines for SSA. NCERT has also undertaken documentation of good practices under SSA and periodic pupil achievement surveys. NCERT is also undertaking monitoring of quality aspects of SSA. TSG for SSA has facilitated workshops on multilingual education for States with substantial tribal population and on the teaching of Science and Mathematics. It has also promoted documentation and cross-state sharing of good practices under SSA. Besides, it has also promoted awareness and understanding of non-government efforts for quality education, like the reading campaign and ASER by Pratham, Learning Guarantee Program by Azim Premji Foundation, reading programme by KATHA etc. TSG has also facilitated the identification of teacher and trainer performance standards,

4 and an assessment of states teacher training modules to enable teachers to perform as per desired standards. ********************

5 S. no. Innovative Interventions under SSA Category/ Theme of Key points innovative intervention 1) Children s Language Improvement Programme (CLIP) 2) Integrated Learning Improvement Programme (ILIP) Annexure I 1. Started in Andhra Pradesh in Accelerated learning programme for enhancement of achievement levels in language and mathematics. 3. Introduction of a special reading period in school. 4. Strengthening school library with children's literature. 5. Grading of classrooms and schools on the basis of children s performance. 6. Impact assessment in 2006 showed positive trends. 1. Covers classes Operational in 4903 schools in 20 districts covering 12, 40, 000 children. 3. Programme focus on quality education at the lower primary level and on improving teaching learning process. 4. ILIP involves changes in classroom culture, learning and mastery of competencies, use of work books and teaching learning materials, continuous and comprehensive evaluation, systematic documentation of children s profile, tracking behavioral changes and academic achievement, fortnightly CRC meetings etc. 5. An assessment of class two students in hundred schools of six districts in 2004 showed significantly improved performance in Maths and EVS. 3) 3 R S Guarantee Programme 1. Started in Maharashtra in Effort to provide quick remedial lessons to academically weak children. 3. To ensure that not a single child progressing class 1 to class 2 lacked reading, writing and arithmetic competencies. 4. To ensure that weakness evident among children of classes 2 to 7 would be removed through intensive remedial

6 II Computer aided education teaching. 5. 8,31,075 children were identified as needing remedial lessons and were covered through the programme from March 2005 to April Three hours of extra teaching everyday was provided to identified children. 7. Third party evaluation in May 2005 showed that more than 82 percent of the children were able to read, write and perform simple arithmetic operations. 1) Computer Aided Learning, Andhra Pradesh 2) CALTOONZ; a computer aided learning project of Delhi 3) Computer assisted learning centers in Karnataka 1. Started in mid 2004 in collaboration with Azim Premji Foundation. 2. At present, CAL covers about 3.5 lakh children in 23 districts through 1702 centers. These centers cover 3575 schools and about 7500 teachers. 3. CDs containing material related to teaching Telugu, English, Maths, Science and Social Science for classes 1 to 8 were developed and supplied. 4. There are 42 CDs in Telugu and 17 CDs in Urdu, mapped class wise and subject wise. 1. The project uses animation and multimedia and in preparing remedial content. 2. Makes learning fun for children. 3. The purpose of the project is to makeup prior deficiencies in the teaching learning process at the entry level into class 6, through a multimedia foundation course containing the curriculum of class 1 to The content covers all topics prescribed by SCERT/ NCERT/ CBSE. 5. The programme covers 200 schools. 1. Being implemented from in 540 schools in partnership with Azim Premji Foundation. 2. Covers upper primary schools with enrolment of 150 to 250 children. 3. Involves provision of 2 to 3 computers per school, training of teachers and development of appropriate content on CDs.

7 4. The plan is to provide computer-assisted learning to about 100,000 children in convergence with other programmes of the central and state governments. 4) Head Start, Madhya Pradesh 1. Initiated towards the end of Covers 2070 Jan Shikshan Kendras (JSKs) in all districts (JSKs are cluster resource centers that cover 10 to 12 schools). 2. Each JSK has been provided with 3 computers, a printer, CDs containing multimedia rich lessons and library books. 3. In 2006, 494 new JSKs are being covered. III Workbooks, primers and learning enrichment 1 Multilingual approach for education of tribal children, Andhra Pradesh 2) YUVA; hand book for teachers in the school adolescent education programme, Delhi 1. The purpose is to attract and retain tribal children in schools. 2. The key innovation is the provision of instruction in tribal dialects and publishing language text books in different tribal dialects. 3. The dialects taken up are Savara, Konda, Koya, Kuvi, Adivasi Oriya, Banjara, Kolami and Gondi. 4. SSA has brought out sets of 8 language textbooks in the 8 dialects listed above. 5. The curriculum was build around tribal culture and way of life. 6. Telugu script is used, though the content and the medium of instruction were in the tribal dialect. 7. Teaching in the tribal dialect is gradually replaced by instruction in telugu so that by class 6, children are comfortable in telugu. 8. The project was taken up 10 schools for each tribal dialect and number of the schools is being increase by 10 every year. 1. YUVA covers class 6 to Seeks to sensitize adolescents to issues that confront them as they grow up. 3. The programme takes a life skills approach, after identifying age specific information and awareness needs. 4. Life skills are a set of abilities needed for

8 3) Accelerated reading programme in Karnataka 4) Preparation of workbooks in mathematics and science, class 4 to 8, Kerala IV Book Fairs and Libraries 1. Books fairs in Madhya Pradesh adaptive and positive behavior, to enable children deal with the challenges of every day living. 5. The skills taught through this programme are social skills, thinking and critical skills and negotiation skills. 1. Implemented in collaboration with Akshara Foundation, Karnataka. 2. Implemented in 131 schools in Bangalore for enhancing children s reading achievement levels. 3. The foundation has 39 community libraries around Bangalore and 112 mobiles ones (2005) covering about 8700 children. These libraries circulate about children s books. 1. Workbooks were developed as supplementary material to address the hard spots the children face. 2. Workbook contents are aligned with those of textbooks. Workbooks have problems, puzzles and activities drawn from local contexts and day-to-day life. These workbooks reinforce the learning of science and mathematics. 3. Workbooks are being prepared for all subjects of all classes from 1 to 8 from Purpose is to promote a book reading culture. 2. By 2005, Libraries were set up in schools through convergence with various schemes. 3. Book fairs were started at district level to give readers the option of selecting the books they wanted for their libraries. 2. Active libraries, Uttar Pradesh 1. 12,015 Libraries has been established after the participation of Village Education Committee members and teachers in book exhibitions organized by the National book trust. 2. A teacher-training module for an active library was developed for teacher training in

9 v. External Pupil Assessment/School Monitoring Systems Sl. No. State/ UT 1. Assam 2. Gujarat 3. Karnataka Innovative initiatives for independent pupil assessment and remedial support Assam runs innovative programmes like Bidyajyoti (operational in six districts), Learning Assurance Programme and Naba Padakshepa Schools that keep track of children's learning process in a systematic manner and extend remedial support to slow learners. Gujarat has undertaken a series (four till now) of studies on Learning Achievement of children in collaboration with Bhavnagar University (first 3 studies) and Saurashtra University (latest study) to construct the Gujarat Achievement Profile (GAP I, GAP II, GAP III and GAP IV). Other than identifying the slow learners and hard spots in learning, the State has been attempting to extend remedial support to teachers and learners on a continuous mode for enhancing quality of classroom transactions. Karnataka's Trimester system of learners' evaluation was introduced in 60,000 schools of the State with an aim to make learning more meaningful, remove fear psychosis about examination system, remove the habit of memory testing and also evaluate the child both in scholastic and non-scholastic areas in a child friendly manner. Children are tested thrice a year. Highlights of the programme include oral testing, project work, competency based testing, importance to life skills, grading mechanism, and remedial support to slow learners. Study undertaken on Trimester system has found better learning achievement and systemic appreciation towards the approach. Recently the State has designed Karnataka School Quality Assessment Organisation (KSQAO) for further improvement.

10 4. Orissa 5. Uttaranchal Orissa has initiated Learners Achievement Tracking System (LATS) to assess the learning achievement of students regularly. Basing on the findings, the State attempts to shape its teacher training, academic support and remedial measures from time to time and thus improve learning achievement across the State. School Performance Monitoring System in Uttaranchal is a state wide initiative to grade schools as per their infrastructure, learning practices including learners' evaluation and learning achievement. The State also has initiated an innovative programme for improving the effectiveness of own system of learners' evaluation.

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