BALTIMORE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

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1 BALTIMORE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS PART 1: GENERAL REQUIREMENTS APPROVED BY THE BOARD OF SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS, AUGUST 13, 2013 PREP AR ED BY GRIMM + PARK ER ARC HITECT CTS

2 BALTIMORE CITY BOARD OF SCHOOL COMMISSIONERS Shanaysha Sauls Chair David Stone Vice-Chair Lisa Akchin Cheryl A. Casciani Marnell A. Cooper Robert Heck Tina Hike-Hubbard Peter Kannam Cody L. Dorsey Student Commissioner BALTIMORE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS

3 BALTIMORE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Chief Academic Offices Teaching and Learning Special Education Student Support and Safety DISTRICT OFFICES Chief Operation Offices Facilities Design and Construction Facilities and Maintenance Facilities Planning Office of New Initiatives Office of Engagement Communications Family and Community Engagement Chief Technology Offices IT Classroom Support IT Support Security And Data Center Services Food and Nutrition BALTIMORE CITY COMMUNITY ADVOCATES BUILD Clergy Committee Baltimore Education Coalition Community School and Engagement Steering Committee Sustainability Advocates Student Representatives PCAB/PTA Council BALTIMORE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS

4 CONTENTSPART 1 Part 1: General Requirements A. Executive Summary B. City Schools Mission C. City Schools Portfolio D. School Safety and Security E. Community Use Guidelines F. Sustainability G. Instructional Technology H. General Design Criteria I. Building Design Criteria J. Site Design Criteria K. Project Specific L. Additional Educational Specification Content Part 2: Prototype Specific Requirements (under separate cover) Volume I PK to 5 Prototype Volume II Volume III Volume IV PK to 8 Prototype 6 to 12 Prototype 9 to 12 Prototype BALTIMORE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS

5 PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS A. Executive Summary I. Introduction II. 21st-Century Buildings Initiative III. Methodology IV. Document Organization H. General Design Criteria I. Building Design Criteria J. Site Design Criteria B. City Schools Mission I. Guiding Principles for the Educational Specification Process II. 21st-Century Teaching and Learning III. Design Criteria for 21st-Century Spaces IV. Building Organization K. Project Specific Process L. Additional Content C. City Schools Portfolio I. Introduction II. School Grade Organization III. School Sizes D. School Safety and Security I. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design II. Design Criteria E. Community Use Guidelines I. Guiding Principles II. Design Requirements III. Special Services F. Sustainability I. Introduction II. Principles III. Specific Goals G. Instructional Technology I. Goals II. General Requirements III. Classroom Requirements BALTIMORE CITY PUBLIC SCHOOLS EDUCATIONAL SPECIFICATIONS

6 A. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY I. Introduction Baltimore City s students look to to prepare them for success in college, career and life. To be successful, they must have the right mix of knowledge and skills to be competitive with their peers from other educational settings, cities, states and countries. City Schools students are engaged, powerful, creative learners, gifted with a wide range of unique talents and interests, who will exercise leadership in directing their own lives and in shaping the world around them. They come to the district with big hopes and unlimited potential potential exhibited daily in achievements inside and outside the classroom, and in displays, large and small, of curiosity, confidence, civic engagement and leadership. The district must maximize this potential for all students, by creating access to the best possible teaching and learning, in the best possible learning environments. It is in this sense of responsibility and spirit that City Schools is transforming its school buildings into spaces that not only allow, but inspire 21st-century teaching and learning. There is real momentum in and, even more important, there is a powerful sense of possibility for the first time in decades throughout the district and the city around City Schools students and schools. We must build on this momentum and provide our students with school buildings that support their education and the progress they are making. The time is now! The are intended to guide the design of the school projects in support of this vision and provide the guidance and framework needed to ensure that the vision of the Baltimore City Schools plan is achieved and successful. II. 21st-Century Buildings Initiative In 2012, the Baltimore City Board of School Commissioners established a bold vision for City Schools: to give students the buildings they deserve now. This vision set in motion City Schools 21st-Century Buildings Initiative. To fulfill this vision, the Board articulated a set of guiding principles that the district in turn used to develop a plan with specific recommendations for renovating and replacing all of its school buildings, starting in The following are the principles set forth by the 21st-Century Buildings Initiative: 1. Invest to support academic success for all students. 2. Maximize fiscal responsibility and stewardship of resources. 3. Engage school communities to inform the creation of excellent school buildings for their students. 4. Align school buildings with demographic trends, enrollment trends and parent and student choices. 5. Invest to have maximum impact on community stability, growth or development. 6. Provide diverse options in every geographic area of the city. 7. Create school buildings on the cutting edge of technology and environmental sustainability. Additional information can be found on Baltimore City School s website. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1

7 III. Methodology This document comes after years of groundwork laid by the leadership and personnel at Baltimore City Schools, numerous work efforts with the help of consultants, and extensive community interest and involvement. It is the culmination of extensive work dedicated to the exploration of educational philosophy and the ways in which that philosophy can inform the shape and arrangement of program spaces. Specifically, over the course of several months, the consultant team met with numerous specialists within City Schools and many community groups to discuss and receive feedback related to school design. These sessions took the form of workshops where ideas were presented and explored and the team listened and responded to input. The team also worked closely with the Interagency Committee on School Construction (IAC) to ensure that all requirements of the Maryland State Department of Education and the IAC were incorporated into the document. The document also complies with the intent and requirements of the 10-Year Plan. IV. Document Organization The are organized into two distinct parts. This volume, Part 1 of the, includes the general requirements for all projects. It will not need to be recreated and will be included for each project as part of the site specific educational specifications. Part 2 of the provides information related to four specific prototypical school configurations in several alternative sizes, each to be used as a basis for the site specific educational specifications. It is not intended that these specific prototypes will correlate to every individual project. Moreover, the goal is that these sections will be customized to suit each unique school. The general guidelines in these sections are considered to be applicable based on school population, but the specific number and configuration of spaces could change. Each community is unique and specific changes will be needed to the for each school to ensure that they meet the needs of individual communities given their vision for the school, the district portfolio strategy for academic programming and budgetary considerations. In addition to these two parts, Project Specific will be developed. Refer to the section titled Project Specific Process for more details on how the individual educational specifications will be created for each site and school project.. In addition to the, City Schools is developing Design Standards to be used by the consultant teams as part of the design of school buildings. These Design Standards provide detailed and specific information about the construction techniques and materials to be used in the 21st-century Buildings Initiative. The details provided in the Design Standards are beyond the scope of the but are coordinated to support the vision set forth in this document.. 2

8 B. CITY SCHOOLS MISSION I. Guiding Principles for the Educational Specification Process II. The consultant team met repeatedly with representative members of various departments at City Schools. Many of these meetings included visioning sessions in which the group developed specific value statements for the vision of this work as it moved forward. The following comments are a result of those efforts. We envision that our schools will: foster deep community engagement and sense of ownership by giving everyone the opportunity to invest in and actively participate toward the success of their schools. build on the positive momentum currently focused on the City s schools to recruit and maintain the best educators and encourage them to cultivate innovation in flexible and adaptive teaching environments. employ the latest available technology with the ability to evolve and fully integrate with the way we learn. embrace a process that adapts to the wide range of diverse neighborhood environments across the city and instills a sense of pride by addressing the specific needs and legacy of each distinct community. create flexible learning environments and clustered spaces that nurture collaboration and interaction across disciplines as well as between communities. deliver a competitive, high-quality learning experience that rivals competitive school choices in the area and keeps families in the city. integrate sustainability throughout the design, construction, operations and maintenance of schools, leading to improved resource stewardship, occupant health and student outcomes. address the unique safety needs of each neighborhood, while providing welcoming and inviting buildings. 21st-Century Teaching and Learning The world has changed dramatically since the development of our current educational system. These changes require that our educational models transition not just to meet the demands of our current economy but also to anticipate the skills our students will need to be successful and evolve as they meet the challenges of our changing culture. As students experience their lives through technology with the newly arrived Knowledge Age and flattening of the world, a new vision for learning is upon us and a fresh set of responses is needed. The impact is far reaching: Preparing our students to be college and career ready and with the ability to find success in the 21st-century must be grounded in core academics, but also must include such skills as technology, problem-solving, critical thinking, perseverance and communication (written and oral) that foster the creativity and adaptability for jobs that may not even exist today. Ongoing development to support school programs for success must occur in order to continue the shift toward the scaffolded, gradual release of learning for students as they become self-determined, lifelong learners equipped to meet the demands of the 21st- century. 3 PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

9 These changes and the challenges they pose necessitate curricular shifts and corresponding professional development for staff to ensure that students are prepared for success - work that is already underway. But they also require that we create a new nature and form for our schools and support staff and students as they adopt 21st-century approaches to teaching and learning. The attributes of educational space that represent a traditional educational model are not to be abandoned entirely, but a new set of requirements must be added to this model to provide a more dynamic and adaptive learning environment. Flexibility and Adaptability The challenge is to create a variety of spaces which can allow multiple learning experiences within the current framework of our educational planning and funding model. This challenge requires considerable creativity in the way that spaces are designed to allow for day-to-day flexibility of space and adaptability over time. Designed spaces must support ownership by both teachers and students, and must be adapted and reconfigured in ways that allow for sharing and flexibility. As we look to the future and see the pedagogy change to meet our educational challenges, this flexibility will accommodate adjustments to match alternative educational philosophies. Interactive Social Areas Educational environments of the future must embrace the need for students to have a place that they can call their own where they can feel comfortable, confident and secure. Positive socialization and participation amidst the broad cultural phenomenon of internet communities are fundamental to the healthy development of students as they grow into individuals prepared to contribute to society. Program spaces should be designed to incorporate technology such as Wi-Fi with adequate band-width, network data connections and power stations in the walls, floors and furniture to support student work and expanded opportunities for communication. These spaces can allow impromptu socializing, as well as structured collaborative-based work inside and outside of class time. In addition to the provision of technology, the physical design of these spaces should serve to accommodate a range of uses including small performance, dining and community use after school hours. Engaging Spaces Multiple modes of curriculum delivery are currently in use or are being researched in the development of educational pedagogy. Many of these look to the value of student and teacher directed learning experiences as a way to develop knowledge and advanced skills simultaneously. To support models such as inquiry or project base learning, spaces need to allow for scaffolded and gradual release of learning. Laboratory type spaces such as interactive learning labs, tinkering spaces and workshops that feature flexible technology will allow students to work either in groups or to lead the entire class. These spaces must also allow for a seamless transition from whole group learning to small groups and individualized teacher/student interactions and must be available across all disciplines and ages. Community and Parent Support The role of schools is expanding in the communities they serve. Not only is it documented that schools with the most parental involvement have the highest student success rate, but schools that are connected and integral to their communities also support development of the most successful communities. Integrating the school into the community begins with adjustments to the way schools are envisioned, focusing on a design that supports joint use of the facility. Provisions should be made for multi-function spaces spaces that are used by the school during the day but then offer opportunities for use by the community after-hours. These spaces accommodate mentoring programs for students, use by partner organizations to support students and families, and use by the community for access to resource and meeting space, as well as recreation facilities and playgrounds. 4

10 Student and Teacher Collaboration The importance of collaboration in schools has been at the center of conversations regarding learning for some time. In thinking about collaboration, we should expand that conversation to its fullest and consider collaboration in all forms, from one on one student interaction to the vision for partnering, communication and collaboration on a global scale. Recently, more focus has been geared toward team based, collaborative teaching versus departmentalized structures. Basic school organizational principles can be designed to support one or the other as a primary focus, but overall design should allow for both. Flexibility in building design and technology will support the efforts of collaborative learning and will also help foster this open communication within the school itself, as well as between schools throughout the City and around the world. The spaces we create and the ways in which schools are organized must express the values of the school system regarding collaboration including, but not limited to, the capability for video conferencing and streaming so students and teachers can expand resources outside of the school building. III. Design Criteria for 21st-Century Spaces IV. The following design criteria are frequently incorporated into successful 21st-Century Educational spaces and should be among the important considerations in the design of new or renovated school buildings. Openness and transparency between learning spaces. Rooms that open to each other and allow a connection between learning spaces of different types. Seamless integration of technology with wireless capability available everywhere and for everyone. Abundant outlets for charging of portable devices. A variety of seating styles, including chairs which allow different ways to sit or move. Surfaces that can be projected upon and written upon throughout. Spaces which can be open to circulation to facilitate efficient use of all space in the school and impromptu communication. Provisions for higher ceilings with multiple lighting levels available. Comfortable furniture and furniture with built-in power. Moveable work surfaces to allow arrangement of different sized group work settings. Relocatable storage furniture that can also create different spatial configurations in the room. Building Organization The intent of the is to encourage teacher teaming and the development of small learning clusters of students. One way to support this approach is for buildings to be organized into clusters of classrooms. These clusters can include 100 to 200 students with the smallest clusters intended for the lower grades and larger clusters at the high school level. In the cluster there can be 4 to 8 classrooms in alignment with the number of students designed to share that cluster. 5 PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

11 The classrooms are designed to support teacher directed learning as well as flexibility for small group activities and one-to-one teaching. The clusters will share a common Collaborative Learning Space, Resource Room and Teacher Planning Room with storage. The Collaborative Learning Space is the most flexible and technology rich space in the cluster. It will be a space designed to provide the learning environment discussed above and support interactive project based activities. Diagram IV-A. Spatial relationship in a typical classroom cluster It is also important to consider the relationship of the clusters to each other and their proximity to the shared use spaces. Shared use spaces, such as art, music and science spaces, that are not repeated for each cluster should be located on the edge of the cluster so that they are readily accessible from separate clusters. They can be located in such a way that they align with a cluster and share in the common space of the cluster, but are on the edge to allow access for other students. Diagram IV-B. Relationship between shared use spaces and classroom clusters These diagrams and the descriptions of how these spaces relate to each other are intended to inform the relationships between the spaces. The specific forms these spaces will take depend largely on the individual projects. In renovation projects, these relationships will need to be formed by removing some portions of the existing corridor and classroom walls and reconfiguration of some of the interior partitions. The design team should work with the school in questions to determine the best way to create these collaborative relationships. See the discussion of Section 03 Teaching and Learning in the Part 2 volumes for Prototypic Educational Specifications for further detail regarding how this diagram relates to specific grade levels configurations. 6

12 C. CITY SCHOOLS PORTFOLIO I. Introduction City Schools currently manages approximately 17.5 million square feet of permanent facility space on 163 campuses. These campuses may be home to one or more schools, and may contain multiple buildings. Combined with non-owned facilities, in this inventory supported a total enrollment of approximately 84,157 students, including charter schools. City Schools owned properties house approximately 78,511 students. Of these, 3,120 students attend charter schools located within the City School properties. City Schools facility inventory includes 35 high school campuses, 9 middle school campuses, 50 elementary school campuses, 64 K-8 campuses and 5 special education campuses. See the 21st-Century Schools for Our Kids report as well as The State of School Facilities report for greater detail regarding the quantity and condition of City Schools facilities. These are both available on City Schools website. II. School Grade Organization Baltimore City Schools currently has many different grade configurations including Special Schools, PK to 2 Schools, 3 to 5 Schools, PK to 5 Schools, PK to 8 Schools, Middle Schools, 6 to 12 Schools, Transformation Schools and High Schools. Many of these are unique in their grade configuration, size or special programs. In this document we will be focusing on the most common projects included in the 21st-century buildings initiative. This document will not address the very unique case, nor will it outline specifically how every individual project is to be configured. The goal of this document is to address the most common occurrences and give guidelines as to how these standards might be applied to the special circumstances. At the completion of the 21st-Century Buildings Initiative, the City Schools portfolio will include approximately 35 PK to 5th Grade Elementary Schools, 69 PK to 8th Grade Schools and 32 High Schools. The High Schools will be either traditional configurations or grades 6 to 12. These estimates could change over time but since these configurations will likely continue to represent the majority of City Schools portfolio, this document includes specific prototype educational specifications for each of these four types of school grade organizations; PK to 5, PK to 8, 6 to 12 and 9 to 12. The intent of this document is to provide guidance and a general framework from which individual educational specifications can then be created for each of the specific circumstances. These do not include a specific prototype to address the Middle School configuration of 6th to 8th grade. There are very few middle schools in operation in Baltimore City Schools and each of these schools have very different requirements. It is the intent that Site Specific Educational Specifications be created from the prototypes included by using the 6 to 12 and/or the PK to 8 prototypes and reconfiguring as needed to meet the appropriate middle school population. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 7

13 III. School Sizes Each prototype has a proposed Summary of Spatial Requirements included. These area summaries are developed to reflect a range of sizes that were determined to be most appropriate based on the projections included in the 21st-Century Buildings Initiative. The area summaries have been created with the consideration of state requirements related to the number of teaching spaces in the school and the size and quantity of the supporting spaces. It is not intended that these area summaries are specifically modeled to every school project undertaken in the 21st-Century Buildings Initiative. Customized area summaries will need to be created at the beginning of each project, reflecting more closely the exact, intended population for the school being considered. Schools smaller than the areas provided in the prototypical area summaries should design their educational specifications based on the current population and teacher support. Because of the small size of these schools, they have greater need for evaluation of the pertinent requirements and must be considered on an individual basis. 8

14 D. SCHOOL SAFETY AND SECURITY Baltimore City Schools and School Police support the principles of CPTED: Crime Prevention through Environmental Design. All schools shall be designed using the three principles of prevention implemented as part of this program. In school design these elements correlate to minimizing blind hiding places and maximizing supervision through transparency and openness. I. Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Principle #1 Natural Surveillance See and be seen is the overall goal when it comes to CPTED and natural surveillance. A person is less likely to commit a crime if they think someone will see them do it. Lighting and landscape play an important role in defining and revealing school activities and safety for the school site. This principle must also be applied throughout the interior school spaces. Corridor length should be minimized and should also be straight, providing clear lines of sight and offering no places to hide. Adults in administrative roles or supportive services roles should be placed throughout the building in smaller groupings, to allow for the oversight of more spaces during class time when teachers are in their classrooms. Glass should be placed abundantly and spaces arranged strategically to ensure that all areas are able to be supervised while unoccupied or between classes. Principle #2 Natural Access Control Natural Access Control encompasses much more than simply providing imposing physical barriers. CPTED utilizes the walkways, fences, lighting, signage and landscape of a facility to clearly guide people and vehicles to and from the proper entrances. The goal of this CPTED principle is not necessarily to keep intruders out, but to direct the flow of people while decreasing the opportunity for crime. Limited access to secure areas such as courtyards or outdoor teaching areas should also be considered through natural deterrents. II. Principle #3 Territorial Reinforcement Creating or extending a sphere of influence by utilizing physical designs such as pavement treatments, landscaping and signage that enable users of an area to develop a sense of ownership over it is the goal of this CPTED principle. Public areas are clearly distinguished from private ones. Potential trespassers perceive this control and are thereby discouraged. Classrooms can be grouped internally to provide zones of ownership and security. Students develop a sense of ownership of their designated cluster area and adults can expand their zone of effective supervision by creating perceived outer boundaries or thresholds. Design Criteria The following design criteria should be applied to every project. Locate the visitor s access system at the main entrance with provisions for adequate data and power. Ensure clear sight lines throughout the building and around the building exterior. The building should be zoned so that portions can be locked down and secured individually. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 9

15 Position Administration adjacent to the main entrance with a security interlock vestibule. All visitors must enter into the administration workroom area and be checked in before proceeding into the school. In larger schools assistant principals, guidance suites and student support suites should be located in an area separate from the main administration to allow for supervision of other areas of major activity. All doors will be locked for entry during the day with the exception of one entry door into the secure vestibule at the main entrance. This door will be provided with audible notification. Power should be provided at the main entrance to accommodate metal detectors where required by the school. Required egress doors will be equipped with a delay and/or alarm that can be deactivated with a security card. All interior glazing will have blinds. ADA doors that are located in areas other than the main entry will require an access card for entry by supervising adults. Magnetic hold open devices should be provided in corridors and stairways to increase visual supervision. The hold opens should have high hold strength and be security type devices to prevent release by the students. Position areas frequented by staff throughout the building. Toilet rooms should be designed for easy visibility upon entry to all sinks and stalls. Eliminate secluded areas or areas where students can hide from view. Limit the number of entry points to the building. Design open, visible and bright areas that create transparency throughout the building. Electronic access control will be provided throughout the building. The cards will be printed with pictures for verification. An electronic monitored security system will be provided throughout the building with door contacts located at each entry, motion sensors at all exterior openings and corridors and cameras at entrances, corridors and stairwells. Motion sensors will be provided at all openings perceived to be accessible. Security cameras are to be located throughout the site so that every door and most if not all areas of the site are under video surveillance. The camera system will be IP addressable. Surveillance equipment should be located in the main Head End room with connection to both the main office and the security office. Provide exterior building and site lighting adequate for safety and security. Consider interconnect between security lighting and alarm system. 10

16 Exterior access by teachers will be via security access cards. Every school will be planned to have a School Police Officer. A security office should be provided for the officer at a centralized location that provides the best possible access to the majority of the school. Glass should not be provided in the security office. School Police should have a dedicated parking space with easy and quick access to the security office. A probation office is located on site at several schools throughout the district. The design team should work with the school to determine the specific needs on a site specific basis. The security system in every school should connect to the district command center. The pedestrian approach to the school and the vehicular circulation will be designed in a way that prevents creation of small, congested areas directly in front of the facility. Drop-off area should allow easy flow of cars and students and prevent back-ups and congested areas. Security cameras are to be located throughout the site so that every door and most, if not all areas of the site are under surveillance. See the Design Standards for further detail related to the security system designs. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 11

17 E. COMMUNITY USE GUIDELINES I. Guiding Principles believes that family and community engagement is essential to student success. Research documents the positive effect of parent involvement on the lives of students. Students who feel supported and encouraged by their families are more likely to be successful. The goal of each project is to create schools that are the center of the communities they serve. Spaces in the school should to be designed to support community partnering and involvement. After-hours use should be both a goal and a reality for each building, as the resources community institutions bring to students after school hours can support school success and the school can provide much needed space for community programs that help build community success. Each community is unique and specific changes will be needed to the for each school to ensure that they meet the needs of each community. II. Design Requirements Every school should support the implementation of a food and/or clothing pantry program. If a designated space is required it should be located such that it provides easy access to public areas and out-of-school time activity areas. It should be easily visible and accessible for drop off and pick up of items. Every school should have a family resource room located in one of the main public corridors of the building. The family resource room should be accessible after-hours. This space should be configured to provide privacy so that support services can be accessed after-hours by families and community members. These services could include tax preparation, aid with paperwork, mental health services and counseling. Restrooms for adult guests that include baby changing stations should be located close to the main entrance and family resource room and be accessible for after-hours use. The building should be zoned in a way to allow shut down of HVAC systems in areas not in use, while operations continue in areas intended for after-hours use. To support communities, families and students, an area of the school should be dedicated for use afterhours to access the internet through computers or wireless devices. The space could be a portion of the media center, a collaborative area used for learning during the day, a portion of the dining room arranged to function as a café, outdoor recreation and learning spaces, or another space deemed appropriate for that particular project. This space has to be visually and physically accessible and should provide a welcoming atmosphere, while also establishing set boundaries for security. The building should be secure but be welcoming and inviting to visitors and volunteers. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 13

18 Each school should be provided with a community information kiosk area to post announcements and information for the public. This should also include a map of the school building. Several rooms throughout the school, including the dining room, gymnasium, media center, the auditorium, outdoor recreation and learning spaces, and potentially specialty classrooms, should be located, and the HVAC systems separately zoned, to allow for independent community use at the same time. The school is at the hub of communication with the community and the broader City Schools network. This function should be served and enhanced through clear and open organization of the spaces designed to support community functions. If possible, each school should have an electronic marquee. Storage should be provided for afterhours program use, separate from the general school storage. Consider the creation of a family resource suite where the family resource room, adult toilet room, storage room and office are located in a suite type arrangement for convenient access. III. Special Services Baltimore City Schools have many partner organizations and special programs developed in communities throughout the district. Every project should begin with an understanding of the services already present in a community and the potential for additional partnerships that might be realized in support of each school. Examples of some of the current community partnerships that could be considered for individual community needs include: School based physical and mental health clinics through either the Health Department or other providers. Dental suites associated with the school based health clinic. Community Schools that provide onsite coordinators and resources for family support services and out of school time activities. Enoch Pratt Free Library support for schools and shared resources. Family support services such as adult education, tax preparation and counseling. Daycare & Pre-School programs not operated directly by City Schools. 14

19 F. SUSTAINABILITY I. Introduction Building green is no longer just the right thing to do. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that schools designed with sustainability in mind lead to higher student outcomes. There are many approaches to developing sustainable schools and school grounds. Maryland State law requires that City Schools new construction and major renovation projects achieve at least LEED Silver certification under the LEED for Schools guidelines as developed by the United States Green Building Council (USGBC), or equivalent Stateapproved criteria. However, when we are designing schools, we must think beyond the LEED pre-requisite and optional credit requirements, which will change over time, to more holistic and integral sustainability goals. We must be clear with ourselves and stakeholders that we are not tied to one specific rating system, but rather to our principles and goals. II. Principles There are three overarching principles that guide City Schools approach to sustainability for all projects, including both newly constructed and renovated schools. These should be reviewed throughout the school project and should guide decision-making. Environmental Literacy Decisions during design, renovation, operation and maintenance should consider the value of those decisions to the educational program of the school. The modernized school buildings under the 21st-century buildings initiative provide powerful environmental literacy learning opportunities. The State of Maryland requires environmental literacy be taught in all grades with the following goal: The purpose of Maryland s Environmental Education program is to enable students to make decisions and take actions that create and maintain an optimal relationship between themselves and the environment, and to preserve and protect the unique natural resources of Maryland, particularly those of the Chesapeake Bay and its watershed. Healthy School Environment A healthy school can have real and positive impacts on its students, teachers, and staff, which lead to successful educational outcomes. Design, construction, renovation, operation and maintenance decisions should be weighed to optimize indoor environmental quality, especially in regards to ventilation, illumination, acoustics, and the avoidance of possible contaminants in materials. Cost and Consumption Reduction At the core of sustainability is the reduction of our consumption, both in resources used to construct or renovate the school and in its ongoing operation. Fundamental to this philosophy is the reduction in the use of resources such as energy and potable water and the subsequent financial savings. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 15

20 III. Specific Goals When planning, designing, building/renovating and operating a school project, these sustainability goals shall be primary. Clear Communication of Sustainability Goals for Each Project At the start of each project, City Schools shall convey its sustainability goals clearly to each design team and its methodology for measurement, verification and reporting to the school community during construction and ongoing operations. Additional detail may be found in the Design Guidelines. Teaching and Learning To support environmental literacy, schools should include sustainable elements that can be used to further curricula. Possibilities include but are not limited to: indoor and outdoor garden space, visible storm water management systems, interactive energy and water use monitoring, visible construction elements where appropriate, teaching kitchens, and waste management programs including trash reduction, recycling, and food composting. Outdoor Education Where possible, every school should have an outdoor educational area with controlled and secure access. Because each site and community is unique, this requires careful consideration and coordination with the school and local community members. Storm water should be managed comprehensively and in a visible manner whenever possible and provide learning opportunities for students to interact with and understand the hydrologic cycle. Site Layout Consideration shall be given to locate or renovate the school building and organize its interior spaces to maximize the positive effect of daylight and sunlight, while minimizing the impact of glare and unwanted heat gain. Consideration shall also be given to the grounds of the school, to preserve open space, and to provide play areas commensurate with the student ages, native landscaping, interactive storm water management systems, and garden plots whenever possible. Resource Efficiency and Conservation Water and energy use is as much about physical infrastructure as it about behavior modification, therefore, to the extent feasible, measurement of water and energy usage should be made available to students and staff. In the selection of systems, life cycle cost analysis should be applied as design criteria. City Schools and project design teams will jointly examine multiple scenarios, carefully considering initial costs, long-term operating costs, and eventual disposal and replacement costs. Effective building envelop design and construction should be specified and monitored to reduce air and moisture infiltration, achieve sufficient insulation, and reduce the energy demand of the school. Renewable energy systems (or building systems that generate energy from replenishable sources like sunlight, wind and geothermal) should be considered at the start of a project, including the possibility of zero-energy schools. Provisions should be made in the design of the structural and electrical infrastructures to allow for future solar hot water or solar photovoltaic. 16

21 Acoustics Good acoustic design is essential to quality educational spaces. Regardless of the inclusion of an audio enhancement system, classrooms and other teaching spaces should be designed to provide uniform sound transmission throughout the classroom with reverberation minimized or controlled. Daylighting Student and teacher productivity is consistently improved by natural lighting in interior environments. Natural lighting also reduces the energy demands of high performance schools; therefore, maximizing daylight throughout the building should be a priority. Technology, such as lighting controls and zoned switching, and thoughtful design elements, such as light shelves, clerestory windows and sunshades are to be considered to maximize the positive effects of natural light. Indoor Air Quality The introduction of continuous filtered fresh air for school occupants, lowering CO2 levels and reducing allergens, can increase concentration, attendance and productivity, and should be a priority for design and renovation decisions. Cleaning during renovation, construction and ongoing operations should follow best practices to minimize air-borne contaminants that could be harmful to workers or maintenance personnel. Thermal Comfort Project design should strive to provide reasonable thermal comfort to all occupants in the school. Materials Material selection should prioritize specification of non harmful materials those with low levels of potentially irritating off-gases and dangerous contaminants. Life-cycle assessment and available product declaration information should be considered in the evaluation of material selections. Alignment with Local Plans Where economically feasible, projects should take other local plans into consideration, including the 2009 Baltimore Sustainability Plan, the Baltimore Climate Action Plan, The Healthy Harbor Plan and Neighborhood or Small Area Master Plans. Consideration should be given to anticipated changes in the climate over the next half-century. City Schools and design teams will consult with Baltimore City s Office of Sustainability, its Climate Action Plan and its Disaster Preparedness & Planning Project to ensure consistency in project design and use. This may include the use of schools as emergency shelters, preparing for rising flood levels, increased frequency of power outages, additional heating loads, etc. Recycling Construction and demolition waste shall be diverted from landfills and incineration facilities to the maximum extent feasible. In the design of the building(s), sufficient space should be allocated for recycling collection and storage. Commissioning All schools will be subject to complete building commissioning prior to final acceptance, including mechanical, plumbing, lighting, lighting control, information technology, sound systems and the building envelope. Water All schools shall have city-supplied potable water throughout the building and grounds, including kitchen and bathroom sinks, water fountains and bottle-filling stations, and exterior hose bibs. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 17

22 G. INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNOLOGY I. Goals The objective for technology at will be to support the digital native learning style of today s students. This will include both wired and wireless access to computing technology. While technology is continuously changing and improving, the approach will be to provide a minimum threshold for a technology package for each instructional space. The district has established the goal of one-to-one technology devices for students. In the 21st-century classroom, technology should be provided to support the 3 C s: Connect: Schools should be provided with wireless connectivity to support connection for 30 students in each classroom. Collaborate: Technology should be in place to support students working between schools and within schools including the possibility of district wide simultaneous delivery of instruction and recorded instruction. Communicate: Audio enhancement technology should be included in all teaching spaces to ensure the benefits of proper balanced sound to facilitate the best possible communication between student and teacher. Today s students are technologically fluent and our schools should support these skills. School design should facilitate the integration of technology into every aspect of education in the same way it has become integral to the world in which our children live. II. General Requirements The following standards will define technology infrastructure at each school: 1. Each campus will accommodate wireless data communication throughout the facility. 2. Every building will house a centralized data closet, preferably near the Media Center, that will function as the Main Distribution Room. 3. Throughout the building, consideration should be made within the spaces and the furnishings for providing power requirements to accommodate charging of portable devices. III. Classroom Requirements 1. Each classroom will have a minimum of (6) data drops for computer connections including (4) student drops, a teacher drop and a drop for the projection device. 2. Each classroom (any space with the potential for student instruction) will be equipped with: a. A short throw interactive projector mounted above a white board. b. White boards that are projector compatible. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 19

23 c. An AV cabinet located at the teacher s station. d. Wireless access. e. Audio Enhancement. f. Ceiling mounted speakers. g. Data drops to provide adequate connectivity for all students and printers. h. Teacher docking station location with connectivity to projection device. 3. An alternative classroom design would have the following criteria: a. A ceiling mounted projector with a rotating mount or multiple ceiling mounted projectors. b. Wall treatments on all walls that are projectable and writable. c. Multiple stations where a teacher or student can connect to a projector or multiple projectors. d. Wireless access. e. Audio Enhancement. f. Ceiling mounted speakers. g. Data drops to provide adequate connectivity for all students and printers. 4. The Design team should work with each school site to verify and locate interactive white boards that are currently being used at the existing school. Technology Standards are currently under development by City Schools to address these, and many other requirements throughout the district. These standards should be referenced as part of the design process for every project in addition to the goals and information provided here. Technology is constantly changing so consideration should be made regarding these requirements, but approval for alternations to the technology standards must receive approval of City Schools. The intent of these standards is to provide a guide by which technology integration can be achieved for every grade and every part of instruction. If this goal can be achieved in a way more appropriate to the particular school, potential changes should be discussed with the technology department to ensure system integration with City Schools. 20

24 H. GENERAL DESIGN CRITERIA The following general criteria will apply to all buildings: The entire building shall be accessible for all individuals with disabilities including sight, hearing and mobility impairment. All buildings shall be in compliance with the latest American with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADAAG). The project must comply with all applicable codes and regulations which are in place at the time of completion of Construction Documents. These include building code requirements for the City of Baltimore along with the applicable sustainability requirements, NFPA Life Safety Codes, requirements of MSDE, the Interagency Committee on School Construction procedures and requirements, the State of Maryland High Performance Building Act of 2008, MDE requirements related to site design and the latest storm water management and sediment control regulations. Buildings should be designed for a minimum life span of 50 years. The building shell shall be designed to an insulation value as high as is effective and achievable within the prescribed budget. The shell shall also eliminate thermal bridging and be air and moisture tight to create a continuous thermal envelope and prevent energy loss through the building perimeter. Exterior building materials should require minimum to no ongoing maintenance such as painting. Buildings shall also be resistant to vandalism. Spaces designated to be used for the public after-hours should be easily accessible from the exterior by well-lit, well defined entrances and should also be separately zoned to allow the independent operation of the systems for these spaces. The entry to the school shall be open and inviting to the students and public. It should be designed to convey a feeling of warmth and welcome. The primary entrance should be designed with visual precedent over other building entrances, in order to provide a clear understanding of approach for those unfamiliar with the school. Signage should not be used to make up for a lack of visual clarity. The building is to reflect the community it serves and should be designed to be contextually appropriate, while providing an atmosphere that is inspirational to its users. The exterior building façade should respect the imagery of the neighborhood and be appropriate to its setting. The design team shall refer to the Design Standards for other applicable information related to the design of the building.. PART 1 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 21

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