1 58 Chapter 3 Higher Education in Manipur Proverbs 22:6, Train a child in the way he should go, and when he is old he will not turn from it. (Holy Bible, New International Version). The foundation of every state is the education of its youth. (Diogenes Laertius) Manipur at Glance Manipur is situated in the north eastern part of India. On 15 October 1949, after the Indian independence, the princely state of Manipur was merged into Indian Union as a part C state, and administered by the President of India and being placed under a Chief Commissioner. A committee to advice the Chief Commissioner was formed afterwards. This was replaced in 1957, by Territorial Council of thirty elected members and two nominated members. Later, a legislative assembly was established under the Union Territory Act of The territory became a fully fledged state within the Indian Union with the Governor as the Head of the state on 21 January The members of the Legislative Assembly were increased to 60 seats, out of which 40 seats are represented by Meiteis (Manipuri), 19 seats are represented by Scheduled Tribe and the remaining 1 seat is reserved for Meitei Scheduled Caste community. The name Manipur was first officially introduced in the early eighteenth century during the reign of King Garibniwaz ( A.D). The latitude of the State above the mean sea level varies from 750 metres to 2020 metres and the state has sub-tropical temperature in climate. Manipur is a multi-ethnic, multi-linguistic and multi-religious state. Imphal is the capital city of Manipur. According to Census of India (2001), the total population of Manipur is 22,93,896
2 59 persons, out of which, the tribals comprises of 7,13,813 persons and the remaining 15,80,083 persons are Meiteis which includes some outsiders like, Nepali, Bengali, Behari, etc. Census of India (2001), recognized 29 tribes in Manipur. Manipur comprises of three major communities Meiteis, Nagas and Kuki-Chin-Mizo. There are nine districts in Manipur namely, Imphal East, Imphal West, Bishnupur and Thoubal districts. These valley districts are dominated by Meiteis (non-tribal), whereas the remaining five districts are inhabits by the tribals, and among tribals, Nagas are the most populated and among Nagas, Tangkhul comprise of highest population inhabiting in Ukhrul district of Manipur. Nagas inhabit in four hill districts, Ukhrul, Senapati, Tamenglong and Chandel districts while Churachandpur district is dominated by Kuki-Chin- Mizo group of tribes. Geographically, tribals are inhabits in hilly areas and the multiple tribal ethnic groups have their own distinct language, tradition and culture. There are four major religious groups in the state: Christian, Hindu, Muslim (Manipuri Muslim are called Pangan) as well as the indigenous Meitei religion-sanamahi. Origin of Higher Education in Manipur Among the states in NER, Manipur is one of the advanced states in higher education. The first college was established at Imphal on 6 August 1946, a year before India attain its independence on 15 August The college is called Dhanamanjuri College (DM) and the college was named after Maharani Dhanamanjuri Devi, who donated a sum of Rs. 10,000 (ten thousand) for the establishment of a college. This undergraduate college was set up by the joint venture with some local leaders. Later, the DM College was taken over by the state government. It was marked as the beginning of higher education in the state. The college was started with a total enrolment of 68 students and the college was affiliated to Calcutta University. Later, after the establishment of Guwahati University in 1948, which is also the first university in NER, the affiliation of DM College was transferred to Guwahati University. Again, due to creation of Manipur University in 1980, DM College was transferred and affiliated to Manipur University. DM College remained as one of the remarkable constituent colleges under Manipur University. During the emergence of DM College, the college conducts the classes in the evening but later in , the one and only state government college was converted into Day College and became a residential college. The first batch of graduates in Arts got their degrees from the Guwahati University in Till 1950, the college offered only general courses of studies in Arts stream
3 60 but the next year in 1951, Science and Commerce courses were introduced. Now, there are three departments in the college. In the year , the first private intermediate college was established in Imphal which is called as Imphal College. Moreover, during , two more colleges emerged in Imphal valley namely, Oriental College and Modern College; in the same year two other colleges were also established and functioning in Thoubal district and Moirang village. However, in the year , the first Arts College, Seilmat Christian College was established in the tribal hill area of Churachandpur. Later in , this college was combined with Churachandpur College and called as Churachandpur College. Apart from DM College, the other four colleges were private and unaided. During , the first Women s College came into existence with the help extended from a person who donated a Cash amount of Rs.1 lakh (one lakh) by a name called Shri. Hidangmayum Dwijamani Dev Sharma, in remembrance of his mother Late. Smt. Ghanapriya Devi with an approval from the State government. Like DM College, the college was named after her, Ghanapriya Women s College. Manipur is a state where a person in particular and community at large has been given relentless efforts by donating in terms of cash to set up colleges as well as schools. Likewise, during , Kha Manipur College in Kakching was established and started functioning by donating in Cash amount of Rs (eighty thousands) by the people of that community. Till the end of 1971, there were total numbers of 12 colleges in Manipur, out of which eleven colleges were situated in Imphal and other valley areas whereas only one college was established in the hilly districts. Thereafter, the colleges were established extensively in different parts of valleys and hills districts of Manipur. Till then in Manipur, DM College was the only college which offered Arts and Science in graduation level, the rest of the colleges confined in Arts stream. By 1959, DM College introduced the courses in Basic Training (B.T), and Bachelor of Commerce (B.Com). Thoubal College started functioning with ten subjects in Arts stream at 10+2 level and eight subjects in graduate level while at present the three colleges, Imphal College, Manipur College and Oriental College started with Arts and Science streams in (10+2+3) level. In the year , GP Women s College opened the courses of Honors degree in Education, English and Political Science. Besides, the college also introduced Science stream at higher secondary school (10+2)
4 61 level. Due to non-availability of Post-graduate degree courses in Manipur, most of the students migrate outside the state in order to pursue higher education in Guwahati University and Calcutta University. During that crucial period, the State government made a request to U.G.C to open an extension of Post-graduate studies in Manipur under the Guwahati University. The Central Government formed a committee called Wadia Committee in 1964, to look into the situation of higher education in the state. U.G.C formed seven members committee under the chairmanship of Prof. M.V. Mathur, the former Director, Asian Institute of Educational Planning and Administration, New Delhi, to examine the problems of higher education in Manipur. The committees visited Imphal, in April 1969, and inspected the situation of higher education. In result, the committees recommend to expand the Post-graduate degree courses in DM College. Three subjects in Postgraduate programme were introduced they are, Mathematics, History and Economics. Moreover, English subject was introduced the next academic year However, the students had to face lots of hardship because Guwahati University did not grant the full fledged Post-graduate Centre in the State. The students had to pay the special fees and appeared the examinations conducted by Guwahati University in Guwahati, at their personal cost. Due to inconvenience, most of the students intended to go to Guwahati University to pursue Post-graduate programmes. Due to unsatisfactory system in extension of Guwahati University Centre in Manipur, the State government then requested Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, to open Postgraduate Centre at Imphal. Again, U.G.C created a committee under the leadership of Prof. Nag Chaudhury to examine the problems of higher education in Manipur. The committee inspected the situation and recommended by giving positive results to set up Post-graduate Studies Centre in Imphal, under the JNU (New Delhi). The Centre for Post-graduate studies at D.M. College was started in 1971, with the total number of 37 faculties; out of which 10 faculties were appointed as regular teachers, 13 faculties were on deputation, 8 faculties were on contract basis, and 4 faculties were on part time basis. The Post-graduate degree in Arts and Science streams were started with five subjects: Applied Biology, Economics, Manipuri, Mathematics and Political Science. Later, five more subjects were introduced and divided into three departments: (i) School of Languages; English, Hindi, Manipuri (ii) School of Social Sciences; Economics,
5 62 History, Political Sciences and (iii) School of Science; Mathematics, Chemistry, Life Science and Physics. During the 5 th plan, U.G.C. approved the total number of 75 teachers. Later, J.N.U. Centre for Post- graduate studies was merged with Manipur University and shifted from D.M. College to Manipur University Campus in the year Table 3.1 Growth of Colleges in Manipur, Since Year No. of Colleges No. of Females Colleges Total Colleges Nil Nil Nil Nil Note: Including RIMS, Agricultural College, Polytechnic and CEDT Source: Devi (2001) Development of Education in Manipur. After India got independent in 1947, number of colleges in Manipur has been increasing year after year. The (table 3.1) shows that, during the pre-independence period there was only one college in the state while until 1961 there was no separate college for girls. The separate college for girls was established in the year By , the total number of colleges got increased, and the total number of women s colleges was also increased. All together, there were 64 colleges in the state till the end of the year The number of colleges maintained either by state government or by private bodies, very few colleges were established in tribal hilly areas as compared to those established in valleys where Meitei people are populated. Apart from the full
6 63 fledged government colleges in the state, the remaining colleges are maintained by an individual or by private bodies. In Manipur, D.M. College is regarded as one of the prestigious college which has distinct features by offering several courses in higher education. The courses consist of 23 subjects at 10+2 level, and 26 subjects in undergraduate level. The college also offers Pre- Medical Course and Honors Courses in all the subjects except Anthropology, Hindi and Manipuri. Education System in Manipur During 1903 Rev. William Pettigrew became the first honorary inspector of schools under the Education Department of Assam. A separate Department of Education was created for the first time in Manipur on 20 January Till 1960, the Manipur Administration and the Territorial Council had full control over all educational activities. In 1960, when the Imphal Municipality was established, a part of primary education, particularly within the municipal areas was transferred to this local body. The education department in Manipur has undergone changes from time to time. Since 1 March 1974, for the purpose of control and management, all primary schools in the hill districts of Manipur were transferred to concerned autonomous district councils. The Department of Education however retained the power of supervision, inspection, framing of curriculum and syllabi and selection of textbooks. The Manipur University was set up at Imphal in 1980, under the Act of Manipur Legislative Assembly, and later in 2006 Manipur University was upgraded to Central University. Council of Higher Secondary Schools, Manipur (COHSEM) was established in the year 1982, and Higher Secondary Leaving Certificate Examination (HSLCE) was conducted for the first time in At present, the Education Department of Manipur has been divided into four different entities: 1. Department of Education (University and Higher Education) 2. Department of Education (School) 3. State Council of Educational Research and Training, Government of Manipur, and 4. Department of Adult Education.
7 64 Table 3.2 District-wise Literacy Rate (Percentage) in Manipur during 1991 & Sl.No Districts Males Females Total Males Females Total 1.Imphal East Imphal West Bishnupur Thoubal Chandel Churanchandpur Senapati Tamenglong Ukhrul Source: Census of India (2001). During 1991, Manipur had a total literacy rate of percent (72.98 percent males and percent females), and it rise to percent (80.33 percent males and percent females) in According to census of India (1991), among the nine districts of Manipur, Imphal West held the top position in acquiring total literacy rate of percent (84.63 percent males and percent females) and rise to percent (89.10 percent males and percent females) in It was followed by Imphal East with the total literacy rate of percent (80.65 percent males and percent females) in 1991, and rise to percent (86.44 percent males and percent females) in Ukhrul stand in third position with the total literacy rate of percent (72.11 percent males and females) in 1991, and percent (80.13 percent males and percent females) in Bishnupur got the total literacy rate of percent (68.59 percent males and percent females) in 1991, and percent (62.25 percent males and percent females) in Thoubal attained the literacy rate of percent (68.33 percent males and percent females) in 1991, and percent (80.50 percent males and percent females) in The remaining four hill districts, Churachandpur, Tamenglong, Chandel and Senapati districts got the total literacy rate of percent, percent, percent and percent in 1991, and rise to percent, percent, percent and
8 percent in Senapati, Tamenglong and Chandel districts literacy rates are lower than the average of national literacy rate against 65 percent in However, Chandel district attained the lowest literacy rate in the state. The census data depicts that literacy rate of males are higher than the females in the state. Table 3.3 District-wise Total Persons and Percentage of Attaining Higher Secondary and Above in Manipur-2001 Total Persons Total Percentage Sl.No Districts Males Females Total Males Females Total 1.Manipur Senapati Tamenglong Churachandpur Bishnupur Thoubal Imphal West Imphal East Ukhrul Chandel Source: Census of India (2001). Census of India (2001), indicates that out of total literacy rate in Manipur, the state attained the educational level of percent in Higher Secondary and Above, with the total number of persons. Imphal West stands in the highest position with the rate of percent. It is followed by Imphal East, Bishnupur and Thoubal. Ukhrul stand at the fifth position with the rate of 9.78 percent whereas Tamenglong stands at the lowest position of 5.51 percent. Census (2001) data depicts that in Manipur few persons were taking up the streams of non-technical diploma or certificate which is not equal to degree. The total numbers of 142 persons were opting for the streams of non-technical diploma or certificate in Manipur which includes only three persons from Ukhrul district. There were total numbers of 2278 persons with a technical diploma or certificate not equal to degree, out of which 59 persons were from Ukhrul. The census data
9 66 shows the Meitei inhabited valley districts have the higher percentage in educational level attainment from Higher Secondary and above, whereas in comparison among the tribal inhabited hilly districts, Ukhrul score the highest percentage. Tribals are lagging behind in attainment of higher education as compared to the Meiteis, due to the lack of higher educational institute in tribal districts. Colleges and Universities in Manipur Manipur University (MU) was established as a state university on 5 June 1980, under the Manipur University Act Manipur University is situated at Chanchipur, Imphal. Once, the location was a historical palace of Manipur, it was established by Maharaja Ghambir Singh in 1827 AD (Anno Domini in The Year of Our Lord). The palace was called as Langthabal Konung. Prof. T. Ratho was appointed as the first Vice Chancellor of Manipur University on 1 December The campus of the University occupies large area of land, which have the several different units of buildings, comprising of Library Building, Administrative Building, Teaching and Non-Teaching Staffs Quarters, Students Hostels, Social Sciences Department, Humanities Department, Science Blocks, Bank, Post Office, Recreation Hall, Health Centre, Auditorium, Canteen, Co-operative Store, etc. Later, Manipur University was upgraded to Central University on 13 October The J.N.U. Centre of Post-graduate degree programmes was also transferred from DM College to Manipur University on 1 April After the annexation of J.N.U. Centre of Post-graduate in Manipur University, separate buildings were set up with better infrastructure for higher education. During the period of shifting the base of JNU Centre for Post-graduate Studies to Manipur University, there were 69 teaching staffs and 77 non-teaching staffs. All together, there were 146 employees in J.N.U. Centre for Post-graduate Studies. According to the Manipur University Act, 2005, No.54, the objectives of the Manipur University states that, The objects of the University shall be to disseminate and advance knowledge by providing instructional and research facilities in such branches of learning as it may deemed fit; to make provisions for integrated courses in humanities, natural and physical sciences, social sciences, forestry and other allied disciplines in the educational programmes of the University, to take appropriate measures for promoting innovations in teaching-learning process, interdisciplinary studies and research; to educate and train manpower for the development of the State
10 67 of Manipur; and to pay special attention to the improvement of the social and economic conditions and welfare of the people of that State, their intellectual, academic and cultural development. (Manipur University Act, 28 December 2005.p,3). After the takeover of Manipur University by Central Government under the Ministry of Human Resource Development, the annual academic system of education was changed by introducing semester-wise system of higher education. In the year , 43 Colleges which are permanently affiliated to Manipur University were entitled to receive grant from U.G.C. Before the Manipur University was taken over by the Central Government, the State Government established the University and run the affiliated colleges. Since the government made little investment in the higher education, the condition of running the colleges and university faced difficulties. The government colleges were in the state of inadequate teaching staffs, lack of college buildings, lack of infrastructure, etc. In the year , Development of North East Region (DoNER), extended a helping hand by constructing classrooms and multipurpose halls, with funds from the Non-Lapsable Central Pool of Resources. Moreover, DoNER had purchased 55 computers and contributed to the government colleges in the state. Table 3.4 Construction of Classrooms for the Following Colleges in the Year Sl.No. Colleges Amount in Lakhs 1. D.M. College of Commerce 1 Classroom (2 nd phase) D.M.C. of Science, Thangmeiband, Imphal, 1 Classroom (2 nd phase) Classrooms (PG) G.P.W. College, Jail Road, Imphal N.G. College, Lamphelpat, Imphal. 1 Classroom (2 nd phase) H.T.T. College, Thangmeiband 1 Classroom Presidency College, Motbung 1 Classroom 8.50 Sub-total Source: Report of the Manipur State Higher Education Commission, Part I, (2003). DoNER, played a major role in development of Northeast states in India. Education is one of the most important sectors in the society. During the period of , DoNER build eight classrooms in six government colleges in the state. Those colleges are; D.M. College of
11 68 Commerce and Science which got one classroom each with the total expenditure amount of Rs lakhs and 3.64 lakhs and moreover, D.M. College of Science got two classrooms for Postgraduate studies with the total expenditure amount of Rs lakhs. The other colleges are G.P. Women College, N.G. College, H.T.T. College and Presidency Colleges got one classroom each with the expenditure amount of Rs lakhs, Rs lakhs, Rs lakhs and Rs lakhs respectively. The sum-total amount of Rs lakhs has been allocated by DoNER, in construction of eight classrooms in six government colleges. Table 3.5 Construction of one Multipurpose Hall each for the Following Colleges, Sl.No. Colleges Amount in Lakhs 1. D.M.C. of Arts, Thangmeiband Imphal College, Kwakeithel, Imphal Ideal Girls College, Akampal M.B. College, Palace Ground, Imphal Manipur College, Singjamei, Imphal Modern College, Porampat N.G. College, Lamphelpat, Imphal Oriental College, Thakyelpat, Imphal L.M.S. Law College, Dewlaland, Imphal Manipur University, Construction of Department Building, etc Grand Total Source: Report of the Manipur State Higher Education Commission, Part I, (2003). In the year , DoNER constructed nine multipurpose halls in nine government colleges. One multipurpose halls cost an amount of Rs lakhs. The nine government colleges are; D.M. College of Arts (Thangmeiband), Imphal College (Kwakeithel, Imphal), Ideal Girls College (Akampal), M.B. College (Palace Ground, Imphal), Manipur College (Singjamei, Imphal), Modern College (Porampat), N.G. College (Lamphelpat, Imphal), Oriental College (Thakyelpat, Imphal) and L.M.S. Law College (Dewlaland, Imphal). The total cost of the nine multipurpose halls was Rs lakhs. Besides, DoNER constructed the Manipur University, department buildings and others with the total expenditure amount of Rs lakhs. The sum-
12 69 total expenditure in construction of eight Colleges Classrooms cost Rs lakhs, nine Multipurpose Halls cost Rs lakhs and Manipur University Department Buildings, etc. cost Rs lakhs. DoNER spend the grand total amount of Rs lakhs in development of higher education in Manipur. Out of total construction, only one college, Presidency College (Motbung), got benefits among the college in tribal areas of the state, while the rest of the development are located in valley districts. The colleges that are not included under section 2(f) and 12(b) of the UGC Act cannot avail of UGC grants, and the Private and Private Aided colleges are not eligible for assistance from NLCPR. Table 3.6 Number of Recognized Higher Educational Institutions in Manipur, Year University General Education Professional Education Total Nil 1 Nil Nil Nil * * Note: * Due to Cancellation of Non-formal Education Source: Economic Survey Manipur & Directorate of Education (S) & (U), Government of Manipur The (table 3.6) shows the total number of higher educational institutes in the state from the year 1950 to Till 1979, there was no university in the state whereas in the year , a lone State University was emerged and during the year , another university named Central Agricultural University was established. Manipur had only one College for general education till 1950, and in the year , the first professional college was established. By 2005, there were
13 70 two universities in the state. The colleges for general education were increased to the total number of 62 colleges and 69 professional colleges. Together, there are two universities and 133 colleges in the state. Comparing between the establishment of colleges for general education and professional colleges, professional colleges are higher in number than the general colleges. Most of the colleges offered three years degree in General and Honors courses. Since 1996, some vocational and professional courses were introduced in the colleges, however these courses do not have the separate colleges but the particular subjects were introduced in combination with general colleges and they were not much effective. These professional courses existed just for the name sake in the colleges. According to structures of education system in the country, Higher Secondary School (10+2) should be part of the school education while in Manipur, forty colleges follow the patterned in combination of Higher Secondary School and Undergraduate College (10+2+3). During 1987, fifteen Government Colleges were detached higher secondary schools (10+2) from the colleges but still ten government run colleges run (10+2) level with degree courses in the colleges. Most of these colleges are situated in hilly districts where tribals are populated. Some of the colleges that offered non-credit vocational courses in the colleges are; Pettigrew College (Ukhrul), offer Vocational Course in Domestic Animal and Farming. United College (Chandel), Presidency College, (Tatubi), C.I. College (Bishnupur), Kha-Manipur College (Kakching), offers Vocational Course in Sericulture. Thoubal College (Thoubal), Oreintal College (Imphal), and Lilong Haoreibi College (Lilong), offers Vocational Course in Industrial Fish & Fishery. L. Sanoi College (Bishnupur), offers Vocational Course in Industrial Fish & Fishery Industrial Chemistry. Moirang College (Moirang) and Manipur College (Imphal), offers Vocational Course in Tourism & Travel Management. Modern College (Porampat), Ideal Girls College (Akampat), offers Vocational Course in Seed Technology. Imphal College (Kwakeithel), offer Vocational Course in Still Photography. N.G. College (Lamphel), offer Vocational Course in Tax Procedure & Practice. G.P. Womens College (Imphal), offer Vocational Course in Food Science & Quality Control Electronic Equipment Maintenance. D.M. College of Science (Imphal), offer Vocational Course in Biological Technique & Specimen Preparation. D.M. College of Arts (Imphal), offer Vocational Course in Functional English. D.M. College of Commerce (Imphal), offer Vocational Course in Office Management & Secretarial Practice. These Vocational Courses are introduced at Higher Secondary School level and some of the
14 71 courses are also introduced at Undergraduate level. Vocational courses annexed in the general colleges were in pathetic condition and some of these courses are vanished from the course options of the colleges. Likewise, the vocational course in Domestic Animal and Farming at Pettigrew College was no longer available. Different Types of Affiliated Colleges in Central Manipur University Table 3.7 Affiliated Colleges in Central Manipur University-2010 Sl. No. Name of the Colleges Sl. No. Name of the Colleges 1. D.M. College of Science, Imphal 2. D.M. College of Arts, Imphal 3. D.M. College of Commerce, Imphal 4. D.M. College of Teachers Education 5. G.P. Womens College, Imphal 6. Kha-Manipur College, Kakching 7. C.I. College, Bishenpur 8. Moirang College, Moirang 9. Nambol L.Sanoi College, Nambol 10. Presidency College, Motbung 11. Imphal College, Imphal 12. Manipur College, Singjamei, Imphal 13. Modern College, Porompat, Imphal 14. Oreintal College, Takyelpal, Imphal 15. Ideal Girls College, Akampat, Imphal 16. M.B. College, Imphal 17. N.G. College, Imphal 18. Lilong Haoreibi College, Lilong 19. Lamka College, Churachandpur 20. Y.K. College, Wangjing 21. Churachandpur College, Churachandpur 22. Thoubal College, Thoubal 23. Pittegrew College, Ukhrul 24. Hill College, Tatubi 25. L.M.S. Law College, Imphal 26. Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, 27. Hindi Teachers Training College, Imphal Lamphel, Imphal 28. Tamenglong College, Tamenglong 29. United College, Chandel 30. Manipur College of Technology, Takyelpal 31. Government Polytechnic, Takyelpal 32. DOEAAC, Akampat, Imphal 33. Institute of Cooperative Management 34. Government Dance College, Imphal (ICM), Lamphelpat, Imphal Source: Manipur University Website, manipuruniv.ac.in/en/college_development_council.htm l#affiliated Colleges, (2011).
15 72 Table 3.8 Sl.No. Permanently Affiliated Private Colleges Sl.No. Government Aided Colleges 1. South East Manipur College, Komlathabi 1. Biramangol College, Sawombung 2. Kumbi College, Kumbi 2. Standard College, Kongba 3. Mangolnganbi College, Mangolnganbi 3. Mayai Lambi College, Yumnam Huidrom 4. S.K. Women s College, Nambol 4. Kakching Khunou College, Kakching 5. W. Mani Girls College, Thoubal 5. Liberal College, Luwangsangbam 6. Bethany Christian College, Churachandpur 6. Thambal Marik College, Oinam 7. Regional College, Chajing, Lilong 7. Jeri College, Jeribam 8. T.S. Paul Manipur Women s College, 8. Imphal Art College, Imphal Mongsangai 9. Pole Star College, Wabagai Sl. No. Private Affiliated Colleges 10. Royal Academy of Law, Oniam 11. Kamakhya Pemton College, Hiyangthang 1. NG. Mani College, Khurai, Chairenthong 12. N. Birahari College, Khundrakpam 2. Damdei Christian College, Kangpokpi 13. Pravabati College, Mayang, Imphal 3. Yairipok Universal College, Yairipok 14. Kanan Devi Memorial College, Senapati 4. S.S.G. Govinda Girls College, Khurai 15. Mt. Everest College, Senapati 5. Kakching College, Kakching 16. Don Bosco College, Maram 6. Chingtam College, Sagang 17. Western College, Konthoujam 7. LMGM Law College, Churachandpur 18. Moreh College, Moreh Sl.No. Permitted Private Colleges 1. Chancipur College, Kyangei 2. Kanggui Christian College, Kangpokpi 3. Rayburn College, Churachandpur 4. Th Ibotombi Institute of Teacher 5. R.K. Sanatombi College of Teacher Education and Training, Bishnupur Education Imphal 6. Trinity College of Teachers Edn. Koirengi Source: Manipur University Website, manipuruniv.ac.in/en/college_development_council.htm l#affiliated Colleges, (2011).
16 73 By 2010, there were 76 affiliated colleges in Central Manipur University, out of which there are six different types of affiliated colleges; 34 Affiliated Colleges, 18 Permanently Affiliated Private Colleges, 8 Government Aided Colleges, 7 Private Affiliated Colleges, 6 Permitted Private Colleges, and other higher educational institutions (see table 3.7 & 3.8). Colleges of importance like Regional Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS), Law, Polytechnic, Engineering, Management, Business, Information Technology, etc. were set up in Imphal and other Meiteis populated valley districts. Few colleges have been set up in tribal inhabits hilly districts of Manipur. Departments in Central Manipur University Different kinds of subjects are available in Colleges and Universities in the state. Three major courses structures are mainly practiced. They are; degree, diploma and certificates programmes. In Central Manipur University, there are six main schools with its agencies viz: School of Humanities (6 departments), School of Human and Environmental Sciences (4 departments), School of Life Sciences (3 departments), School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences (5 departments), School of Social Sciences (9 departments), and School of Medical Sciences (30 departments with 21 subjects in Postgraduate Courses). Apart from these six major schools, some Centres and Departments are functioning in the University they are: Educational Multimedia Research Centre; Centre for Manipur Studies; Academic Staff College; University Museum; Computer Centre; Indira Gandhi National Open University Centre; Special Cell for the Welfare of Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribes; Centre for Myanmar Studies; University Employment and Information Bureau; and Bachelors Degree in Library and Information Science. Research Courses are available in Post-graduate, Master of Philosophy (M.Phil) and Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in the University. Beside these departments, there is also the Department of Management Studies under Manipur Institute of Management Studies (MIMS). This department was introduced on 26 September However, MIMS started functioning lately, only after three years of its establishment on 1 September 1995.
17 74 Table 3.9 Schools and Departments in Central Manipur University, 2010 Sl.No, School of Social Sciences Sl.No. School of Humanities 1. Adult Continuing and Extension Department 1. Dance (Manipuri) Department 2. Commerce Department 2. English Department 3. Economics Department 3. Hindi Department 4. Education Department 4. Linguistic Department 5. History Department 5. Manipuri Department 6. Mass Communication Department 6. Philosophy Department 7. Library and Information Sciences Department School of Human and 8. Manipur Institute of Management Studies Environment Science School of Life Sciences 1. Anthropology Department 1. Biochemistry Department 2. Earth Science Department 2. Biotechnology Department 3. Geography Department 3. Life Science Department 4.Physical Edu. & Sports Sc. Dept. School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences 1. Chemestry Department 2. Computer Science Department 3. Mathematics Department 4. Physics Department 5. Statistics Department School of Medical Sciences: Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, which has 30 departments 21 post graduate subjects. Source: Retrieved from & Annual Report ( ), Central Manipur University. Presently, Manipur University had introduced diploma and certificate courses at different levels viz.; Diploma and Certificate Courses in Japanese Language, Postgraduate Diploma in Adult and Continuing Education and Mass Communication, Diploma in Banking, Diploma in Business Management, Diploma in Educational Administration, Diploma in Labour Laws, Diploma in Spoken English, Diploma in Biological Techniques, Diploma in Computer Programming, Diploma in Economics, Diploma in Library Science, Diploma in Fisheries and Diploma in
18 75 Foreign Languages. During the mid of 1988, Centre for Manipuri Studies was introduced and in the next year 1989, Centre for Tribal Studies was also established. It was a direct recommendation from the visiting team of U.G.C., and these two Studies Centres are centrally funded to function independently. To look into the affairs of different schools and departments, the university formed nine Boards of Studies they are; (i) Postgraduate Board of Studies of the School of Humanities, (ii) Postgraduate Board of Studies of the School of Social Sciences, (iii) Postgraduate Board of Studies of School of the Medical Science (Pre-clinical), (iv) Board of Studies of Medical Sciences (Para-clinical), (v) Board of Studies of Medical Sciences (Clinical), (vi) Postgraduate Board of Studies of Science, (vii) Undergraduate Board of Studies of the School of Humanities, (viii) Undergraduate Board of Studies of the School of Social Sciences, and (ix) Undergraduate Board of Studies of the School of Science. Adult Education: The Adult Education under the scheme of National Literacy Mission (NLM) was established in the year 1988 by the Government of India. The aim of introducing NLM is to implement strategies of eradicating illiteracy in the age group of years. The policy is targeting the Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) in a phased manner in the state. During the Ninth Plan ( ), it was targeted to 2.12 lakhs illiterate population with the introduction of complete course programme of basic literacy and post literacy followed by continuing education programme in the phase through the Jana Shikshan Nitayamas (JSN) Centres. Out of total targeted 2.12 lakhs populations, 1.92 lakhs are to be covered by centre based projects, and the remaining of 0.20 lakhs populations are to be taken care by the Post- Literacy and continuing phase-wise education programme through JSN Centres. During the Tenth Plan ( ), the mission was proposed to eradicate the total number of 1,92,914 persons (87,257 males and 1,05,657 females). A State Literacy Mission Authority (SLMA), Manipur, was constituted as per the directive given by NLM authority, Government of India. During the year , the TLC was implemented in all the nine districts of Manipur, through the District Literacy Societies (DLSs). The project is funded on sharing basis by the State and Central Government in the ratio of 2:1 and 4:2 in respect of the Valleys and Hills districts respectively. There are three literacy phases in the TLC programme. In each phase, a primer/book needs to be completed by adult learners. The teachers are volunteers mostly by the educated unemployed youth, youth clubs, women society members, Church members, retired
19 76 teachers, etc. The details of the Physical Achievement of TLC as on March 2007, is given in (table 3.10). The table shows the Physical Achievements of TLC in nine districts and the total achievements in the state. Table 3:10 Physical Achievement of TLC as on March, 2007 Districts/State Targets Enrolments Persons Completed Primers I II III Senapati Tamenglong Churachandpur Chandel Ukhrul Imphal East Imphal West Bishnupur Thoubal Manipur Source: Economic Survey, Manipur, ( ). Teacher Training Colleges: There are six professional Teachers Training Colleges in Manipur. Out of six teachers training colleges, two colleges are run by the government whereas four teachers training colleges are established and run by the private bodies. Two teacher training colleges offer Master of Education (M.ED.) course namely; D.M. College of Teachers Education (Govt. College) and a private affiliated college named, R.K. Sanatombi Devi College of Teachers Education. Moreover, out of six Teachers Training Colleges in the state, the Central Manipur University had introduced degree in Master of Education. Unlike, other teachers training colleges, the duration of the course is a compulsory two years course. The profiles of these six Teachers Training Colleges are as follows: (i) Government Hindi Teachers Training College is located in Imphal West district of Manipur. The college was established on 2 October 1975, which is an Affiliated College of Manipur
20 77 University. The aim of the establishment of the Hindi Teachers Training College is to train the Hindi teachers in teaching of Hindi to those in non-hindi speaking states as a secondary language. This college was introduced and run by the Govt. of India, and specially, it is for those in the non-hindi speaking states of the country. The college follows the syllabus prescribed by the Central Institute of Hindi, Agra, Utter Pradesh. The eligibility to pursue this course is the candidate who passed graduate or equivalent level in Hindi subject. The college has the total intake capacity of 100 students per annum with the strength of six teachers. The duration of this course is one year full time. Hindi is the medium of instruction as well as in conducting the examination. (ii) D.M. College of Teachers Education is situated near Chingmeirong area of Imphal. It is the oldest college in Manipur to impart the professional course in Teachers Education. The college is one of the Constituent Affiliated Colleges of Manipur University. The introduction to impart of B.T. Course (Basic Training) was started during 1959 while on 6 November 1972, the BT course was separated to become a full-fledged Post-graduate Training College and the college was renamed as D.M. College of Teachers Education. The college offers one year full time in Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) and Master of Education (M.Ed.) courses with the total intake capacity of 230 students in (B.Ed.) and 25 students in (M.Ed.). The minimum eligibility to seek admission to these courses is completion of graduate in (B.Ed.) Course and (B.Ed.) passed in order to pursue (M.Ed.) Course. The procedure of recruiting students in not done by the college but it is controlled by The Department of Education (S), Government of Manipur. (iii) Kanan Devi Memorial College of Education is situated at Pangei area in Imphal East district of Manipur. The college is sponsored and run by the Manipur Ramakrishna Society. The college was established in the year It is an Affiliated College to Manipur University and recognized by the National Council of Teacher Education (NCTE), New Delhi. B.Ed. Course is available in the college with total intake capacity of 100 students per annum. (iv) R.K. Sanatombi Devi College of Teacher Education is situated in Imphal East and the college was established in the year The college is a Private College Affiliated to Manipur University and recognized by NCTE, New Delhi. The college offers (B.Ed.) and (M.Ed.) Courses with the total intake capacity of 200 students in B.Ed. and 25 students in M.Ed. Courses. (v) Trinity College of Teachers Education is located at Koirengei, Imphal. It was established in the year It is a Private Affiliated College to Manipur University. The college offer three years
21 78 degree course in Bachelor of Education (B.Ed.) with the total intake capacity of 100 students per annum and. (vi) Th. Ibotombi Institute of Teacher Education and Training is situated at Bishnupur district of Manipur. The college was established in the year It is a Private Affiliated College to Manipur University. The college offers B.Ed. Course with the total intake capacity of 100 students per annum. Law Colleges: There are three professional law colleges in Manipur namely; L.M.S. Law College, it is situated at Imphal and it is also the oldest law college in the State. The college was established in the year 1958, and it came under the category of Affiliated College to Manipur University as well as it is approved by BAR Council of India. The Law College offers Bachelor of Law (L.L.B) degree course. Graduate in any discipline candidates are eligible to seek admission in the college. Secondly, the L.M.G.M. Law College is located at Churachandpur district. The college was established in the year 1982, and the college is under the category of Private Affiliated College to the Manipur Central University. The college is recognized by BAR Council of India. The college offer Bachelor of Law (L.L.B) degree course. Graduate candidate in any discipline are eligible to seek admission in the college. This is the lone professional college available in the hilly districts of Manipur. The third law college is Royal Academy of Law, and the college is situated at Oinam, Manipur. The law college was established in the year 1994, and the college came under the category of Private Permanently Affiliated College of Manipur University. Like other two law colleges Royal Academy of Law is also recognized by BAR Council of India and offer Bachelor of Law (L.L.B) degree course. Graduates in any streams are eligible to apply for the Course. Medical Institutes in Manipur Regional Institute of Medical Science (RIMS): RIMS is situated in Lamphelpat (Imphal). Firstly, RIMS was established as a 300 bedded general hospital on 22 October 1968, inaugurated by the then Home Minister of India Union, Shri Y.B. Chavan. The Medical College was established in a state with the joint venture of other North Eastern States. Later, on 22 May 1972, the hospital was upgraded to Hospital cum Medical College. The foundation stone was laid by the then Governor of Manipur, Shri. B.K. Nehru, and it was named as Manipur Medical College.
22 79 The name Manipur Medical College was changed to Regional Medical College. Again, the Medical College was renamed as North Eastern Regional Medical College, under the supervision of North Eastern Regional Medical College Society. From August 1976, the Medical College is run by Ministry of Home, Government of India. During that period, it was the only Medical College run by the Ministry of Home, Govt. of India. After nearly two decades, the medical college was again renamed as Regional Institute of Medical Science (RIMS), and its management was taken over and run by North East Council, Ministry of DoNER, Government of India, from 1 April Finally, after 12 years on 1 April 2007, RIMS was transferred to the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Government of India. From that period, RIMS has remained as a Regional Medical Institute under the Medical Council of India (MCI). RIMS, provides undergraduate and postgraduate courses in different streams of medical education. RIMS is one of the apex bodies to impart medical education among the seven states of Northeast Region except Assam. RIMs has the total number of 1074 bedded teaching hospital. Annually, RIMS has the capacity intake of 100 students in undergraduate degree course, 145 students in Postgraduate degree course (including 50% All India Quota), 7 students in M.Phil degree course, and 6 students in Postgraduate Diploma course. From December 2009, B.Sc. Nursing Course has been started by total capacity intake of 50 students annually along with the introduction of Postgraduate Courses in Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion Medicine and M.Ch. in Urology and Plastic Surgery. There are separate reserved seats among the seven North Eastern States and all India in MBBS graduate degree course; All India (15 seats), Manipur (30 seats), Tripura (13 seats), Meghalaya (13 seats), Nagaland (10 seats), Mizoram (7 seats), Arunachal Pradesh (7 seats), and Sikkim (5 seats) respectively. After the creation of Manipur University, RIMS was affiliated to the Manipur University and recognized by Medical Council of India. According to the website of RIMS (2011) states, The objectives of this premier institutes are to cater to the needs of the North Eastern Region in the field of imparting quality medical education and ameliorate the health condition of the cosmopolitan population of North Eastern States in India. It also aims to bridge the gap of health manpower in the region. (Retrieved from URL RIMS consists of 30 departments and 21 Postgraduate subjects are available. Presently, the activity of RIMS has been expanding rapidly from the total number of 300 bedded in 1972, to 1074 bedded teaching hospital.
23 80 Table 3:11 Departments in Regional Institute of Medical Science, Imphal, 2011 Subjects Available at Regional Institute of Medical Science Anaesthesiology Anatomy Biochemistry Clinic Psychology Community Medicine Dentistry Dermatology, STD & Leprosy Forensic Medicine Immunohaematology Medicine Microbiology Blood Transfusion (IHBT) Otorhinolaryngology Opthalmology Obstetrics & Gynecology Pediatrics Pathology Orthopedics Physical Medicine and Physiology Pharmacology Psychiatry Radiodiagnosis Plastic Surgery Respiratory Medicine General Surgery Radiotherapy Urology Units in Regional Institute of Medical Science Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgical Gasteroentology & Nephrology Surgery Minimal Access Surgery Biostatistics Source: Retrieved from URL, RIMS, website (2011), Jawaharlal Nehru Institute of Medical Science (JNIMS): JNIMS is situated in Parompat, Imphal East district of Manipur. It was established in the year 1989, and become the second medical college in the state. JNIMS was affiliated to the Manipur University. It runs as medical college as well as hospital with 300 bed capacity. The medical college runs three Pre Medical Departments (Anatomy, Physiology and Biochemistry), five Para Medical Departments (Pharmacology, Pathology, Microbiology, Community Medicine and Forensic Medicine) and ten Clinical Department based on 300 bedded (Medicine, Surgery, OBG, Ophthalmology, ENT, Orthopedics, Anesthesiology, Radio-Diagnosis, Pediatrics and Dentistry) in addition with Central Record Department, Wards, OPD, Casualty and Trauma Center. JNIMS Medical College conduct MBBS degree course. The medical college has an annual intake capacity of 100 students. JNIMS follow the pattern of unreserved and reserved seats in different categories they are; Unreserved (30 seats), Reserved (Scheduled Tribe 30 seats), Manipuri OBC (Meitei Bamon