1 Initial teacher training in vocational subjects This report looks at the quality of initial teacher training in vocational subjects. Based on visits to the 14 providers that undertake this training, it describes how good providers base their courses on clearly identified local needs and establish strong partnerships before training begins. The report recommends improvements to ensure these courses fully address all key aspects of vocational education. Of particular interest to: Providers of initial teacher training; schools involved in vocational subjects. Age group Published Reference no January 2007 HMI 2678
2 Crown copyright 2007 Document reference number: HMI 2678 Website: This document may be reproduced in whole or in part for non-commercial educational purposes, provided that the information quoted is reproduced without adaptation and the source and date of publication are stated.
3 Contents Executive summary 1 Key findings 2 Recommendations 3 Inputs and outputs: the overall provision of initial teacher training in vocational subjects 3 Recruitment 3 Quality of training 5 Trainees standards 5 Trainees destinations after qualification 6 Allocation of numbers and funding 6 How well are the courses matched to the needs of schools? 7 Partnership issues 7 How well do courses meet the particular requirements of vocational subjects? 8 How does the management of the courses assure good quality training? 10 Models of training 11 The use of FE colleges 13 Notes 13 Background 13 Methodology 14 Further information 15 Annex: ITT providers visited as part of the survey 16
4 ITT in vocational subjects 1 Executive summary In 2003 the Training and Development Agency for Schools (TDA), formerly the Teacher Training Agency (TTA), invited providers of secondary initial teacher training (ITT) to offer training in vocational subjects in the age range. This was in order to meet schools needs for teachers of the new applied GCSEs and post-16 vocational courses, such as the advanced vocational certificate in education (AVCE). As with all initial teacher training, the training has to meet specified requirements and enable trainee teachers to meet the standards for qualified teacher status (QTS). In most cases, courses also lead to the award of a postgraduate certificate in education (PGCE). However, these vocational programmes were developed within the TDA s innovations category exempting them from an institutional inspection leading to a published report. Over the two-year period the 14 providers who started these courses and recruited trainees were visited by inspectors as part of a survey to judge the quality of the training provided. Eleven providers are higher education institutions (HEIs) and three are school-centred ITT (SCITT) consortia. The survey considered training in a range of applied GCSE and post-16 vocational subjects: those with related National Curriculum programmes of study (applied art and design; applied business; applied information and communications technology (ICT); applied science) and others (engineering, health and social care; leisure and tourism). Training in vocational subjects is at least satisfactory in all the providers inspected and good or better in half of them. Good providers based their courses on clearly identified local needs and established strong partnerships before the courses began. Such providers combined existing expertise in teacher training with expertise in vocational subjects from within the partnership to address the particular demands of teaching vocational subjects. They made use of the expert knowledge and opportunities for trainees within further education (FE) colleges and other post-16 provision to support the training. They also provided high quality training for school-based trainers to ensure that trainees received feedback that focused on specific vocational issues as well the more general skills of teaching. There were, however, some notable shortcomings. Where providers did not identify local needs clearly, did not establish strong partnerships or did not identify and use the expertise available within the partnership, the courses did not address fully some key aspects of vocational subjects. In particular, such courses did not prepare trainees in the approaches to teaching and assessment commonly used on vocational courses. Trainees on such courses did not always have experience of teaching their vocational subject across the full age range.
5 ITT in vocational subjects 2 Instruction in how to manage and assess students progress during work-based learning was a particularly weak feature of training. Although attention was given to the place of key skills on vocational courses, their importance was often underplayed. Many trainees were not aware of the potential barriers to learning created by students low levels of key skills and did not know how to address this through teaching. The inspectors also judged the effectiveness of each provider s management and procedures for quality assurance. For most providers the procedures are those used for all other secondary ITT provision. Even where inspections judged this other secondary provision to be good or better, too little attention was given to the particular needs of training in the vocational subjects. Five providers were aware of this and reviewed their procedures before or early in the course to match them more closely to the features of the vocational subjects, resulting in high quality training. These providers used their deeper understanding of vocational education for example, through involvement in FE teacher training to undertake this review. Where there was a good match between management and quality assurance and the needs of vocational subjects, providers were able to deal with the changing nature of vocational provision in schools and colleges, such as the introduction of the applied GCSE courses. This report identifies and evaluates the different models of training used by the providers. The findings can be used as a resource to support further developments in ITT for vocational subjects. Key findings Provision of training in vocational subjects was at least satisfactory in all 14 providers inspected, and good or better in half of them. Most courses were based on clearly identified local needs and strong partnerships were established before the course began. In four providers, limited involvement with organisations with expertise in vocational education led to weaknesses in the provision. Trainees standards at the completion of their courses were comparable with those of trainees in other secondary subjects. All courses were designed to ensure that trainees had opportunities to meet all of the standards for QTS, but half the providers gave insufficient attention to some aspects of teaching vocational subjects. In particular, there were weaknesses in the training in work-based learning and the place of key skills. Although the trainees had suitable general teaching skills, they were not prepared well for teaching their vocational subjects. These providers management and quality assurance procedures did not detect or address the weaknesses effectively. Half the providers did not give some of their trainees good enough opportunities to teach their vocational subjects across the full age range or across the full range of courses available in their subject.
6 ITT in vocational subjects 3 In more than half the providers, the feedback trainees received on their teaching lacked focus on the vocational aspects of the subject. The developmental targets set for trainees also lacked this focus. Trainees recruited to these courses had relevant prior vocational expertise and experience and displayed a very strong commitment to teaching, and enthusiasm for their vocational subjects. The very large majority of trainees found employment, often in schools within the partnership where they were trained, but a minority did not find posts teaching their vocational subjects across the age range. This was particularly the case for those training to teach applied ICT. The present provision displays a good range of approaches, which provide a promising basis for further developments. Recommendations All providers should: build strong local partnerships making full use of all available expertise survey and collaborate with schools in the local area to identify both needs and expertise ensure that all trainees are able to teach their vocational subject across the age range give attention to training in the particular features of vocational subjects ensure that management and quality assurance procedures give sufficient attention to the particular requirements of vocational subjects. The TDA should: provide targeted support to continue facilitating the sharing of good practice encourage greater collaboration between providers consider how to encourage greater innovation in training in vocational subjects by reviewing the requirement for trainees to meet the standards for QTS through the teaching of one particular vocational subject, whilst retaining the importance of subject-specific training. Inputs and outputs: the overall provision of initial teacher training in vocational subjects Recruitment 1. The very large majority of trainees recruited to the vocational courses had good relevant vocational expertise and experience and good knowledge of their specialist subject. All providers made this a key requirement of their selection criteria and applied it rigorously even where it meant not
7 ITT in vocational subjects 4 meeting recruitment targets. Trainees had very high levels of commitment to teaching and impressive enthusiasm for their subject. Providers made good use of the range of expertise that trainees brought to enhance the quality of their training; for example, by using trainees to lead sessions where they had particular strengths or expertise in an aspect of the vocational subject. 2. Schools recognise the benefits of using trainees previous experiences to provide relevant and interesting contexts for learning. Schools were adept at identifying individual trainees particular expertise and using this to their advantage; for example, by involving them in planning and teaching particular modules, developing learning resources and activities, and devising assignments. Good schools were sensitive to the pressure this can place on trainees and provided a balance between their teaching expertise and the trainees particular knowledge and skills in the vocational subject. Nevertheless, there were examples where trainees depth of experience working in the vocational sector led to undue pressure being placed on them, particularly where staff teaching the subject lacked this experience. Case study: a trainee s previous experience benefits the school I spent five years working on commissioned art work and in graphic design. My placement school really encouraged me to use my experience to try out new ways of teaching art and to find new projects. I have found that a lot of students have become really enthusiastic. The school says it has broadened the range of work they do and this is attracting other pupils to take art and design. 3. Vocational courses provided recruitment opportunities for a small number of trainees who may otherwise have been lost to teaching, especially where National Curriculum subjects were not felt to match their qualifications. For example, some trainees on health and social care courses with non-standard science degrees felt that their subject knowledge was inadequate to train to teach science. Case study: a trainee benefits from positive recruitment opportunities I have always been interested in teaching in secondary schools. But my degree is in pharmacy and I worried about my subject knowledge. The thought of teaching physics scared me! When I found out about teaching health and social care I realised that my experience of working as a health professional could be really useful. I am so pleased to have been given the chance to teach at last.
8 ITT in vocational subjects 5 Quality of training 4. The provision of training in the vocational subjects was at least satisfactory in all providers, and good or better in half the providers. None was found to be inadequate. However, even where provision was good overall, there were sometimes weaknesses in matching management and quality assurance procedures to the particular needs of vocational subjects to ensure that high quality training was maintained. Those involved in monitoring the quality of the provision did not realise the importance of, for example, ensuring that all trainees had sufficient experience of teaching their vocational subjects across the age range. As a consequence, weaknesses in training in particular aspects of teaching vocational subjects were overlooked. Trainees standards 5. There were secure procedures for making assessments of trainees against the standards for QTS. For vocational courses the achievements of trainees were comparable with those in the other secondary subjects offered by the provider. However, despite being prepared well for teaching in general, trainees understanding of the standards that are particularly important to vocational courses was often too variable. This applies in particular to those standards relating to: progression routes in schools, colleges and work-based settings; the place of key skills in vocational courses; and the role of work-based learning and how this is managed and assessed. In addition, many trainees in health and social care and leisure and tourism did not have a secure understanding of how students in Year 9 make informed choices about these subjects. 6. All trainees had teaching experiences that enabled them to meet the standards in the age range. However, a minority taught classes in Key Stage 3 at the expense of greater depth in teaching vocational courses. This was more often the case for trainees in those subjects where there are related National Curriculum programmes of study: applied ICT, applied art and design, and applied science. Providers often used the complementary Key Stage 3 experience as a way of establishing generic teaching skills early in the first placement, as well as providing useful experience of teaching in this key stage. Although this took time away from training in the vocational subject, it prepared trainees for the teaching posts they often obtained. Some trainees on leisure and tourism and health and social care courses had limited experience of teaching these subjects in Key Stage 4, often because of a lack of opportunity. Case study: a provider makes good use of Key Stage 3 experiences A provider recognised that trainees would spend a significant proportion of their time in school teaching ICT at Key Stage 3. It
9 ITT in vocational subjects 6 turned this to an advantage by focusing trainees on students progression from Key Stage 3 to 4 and beyond, and on preparing students for a range of options in ICT at Key Stage 4. Careful use was made of focused school-based tasks to direct trainees and mentors to the key issues. An early focus was on gaining confidence and acquiring basic teaching skills. Mentors were fully aware of the need for trainees to gather evidence to show that they meet the standards through their teaching of students on courses. Trainees destinations after qualification 7. The very large majority of trainees completing the vocational courses gained employment, often in the partnership or other local schools, but, in a substantial number of cases, not teaching their vocational subject. For example, many applied ICT trainees obtained jobs where vocational courses formed a small part of their teaching, if any. Unsurprisingly, no applied science trainees found teaching posts where they only taught applied science. Leisure and tourism trainees were often expected to teach some geography, but this was the minority of their teaching. Similarly, most health and social care trainees found posts where a small minority of their teaching was in another subject. Where schools were fully involved in setting up the vocational training programme and a comprehensive survey of local needs was undertaken, more trainees found employment teaching their vocational subject. Allocation of numbers and funding 8. When applying to set up these vocational courses, providers bid, and were allocated training numbers (and hence funding) by the TDA, within specific vocational subjects. To some extent, innovation was stifled by allocating numbers to particular vocational subject strands. Trainees were expected to demonstrate that they met the standards for QTS through their teaching, and related experiences, of their particular vocational subject. This reduced the benefits of working across a range of vocational subjects, and restricted the focus on vocational teaching rather than subject teaching. For example, leisure and tourism trainees could benefit from working with teachers and students following a module on an applied business course. Similarly, health and social care trainees could benefit from work with science students. Such experiences cannot currently contribute evidence to the achievement of the QTS standards. Some providers are keen that training numbers should be allocated to a group of vocational subjects, leaving them to determine particular routes and enabling them to adopt more flexible and innovative approaches to the training. However, it is essential to retain high quality subject-specific training.
10 ITT in vocational subjects 7 How well are the courses matched to the needs of schools? 9. The majority of courses had a clear rationale established through the identification of local and/or regional needs. In all cases, this involved working with existing partnership schools. Nine providers made good use of their links with local authorities and FE colleges to establish the courses. In the best examples, courses were based on secure partnerships that were established before the course began. This involved identifying future as well as current needs; for example, working with schools to develop their vocational programmes. 10. However, even where provision was good, very little use was made of other local partners with expertise in vocational education, such as local learning and skills councils and education business partnerships. In the few cases where they were involved, these partners provided useful information on local needs, advice on the use of vocational settings for work-based learning, and help in the recruitment of trainees with relevant vocational qualifications and experience. In four providers, limited involvement with organisations with expertise in vocational education led to weaknesses in the provision, such as insufficient attention to workrelated learning. 11. Two of the SCITT consortia used the very strong links with local authorities to establish courses to meet particular needs in that locality. In one case, the course was set up to address the shortage of teachers in vocational subjects as part of a local authority-led initiative to raise standards at Key Stage 4. Partnership issues 12. The introduction of training in vocational courses gave rise to particular partnership issues. Finding teaching placements for trainees often meant identifying existing partnership schools that could provide some vocational placements and training. This was not always easy to achieve. Some of the best partnership schools provided very good general training, but were not always strong on vocational courses and lacked staff with the necessary experience and expertise. All providers also brought new schools into the partnership. These often had the vocational expertise required, but did not always have expertise in initial teacher training. Both situations created problems for providers in ensuring that school-based trainers (often referred to as mentors) had the skills and expertise required in both teacher training and vocational education. In two providers in particular, and to a lesser extent in several others, the difficulties were exacerbated by high turnover of school-based mentors. Some of the weaknesses in training, identified later in the report, are a direct consequence of such variation in the quality of school-based training.
11 ITT in vocational subjects 8 Case study: a successful partnership One successful provider spent considerable time and effort building up the partnership before embarking on training in vocational subjects. They surveyed good partnership schools to identify those teaching vocational subjects as well as those planning to introduce such courses. Discussions were held with local FE and sixth form colleges to identify staff with vocational expertise who also had experience of teaching in schools. Links with other networks brought several other schools with extensive vocational experience into the partnership. A team of trainers was established to provide central training, and support and train mentors in schools. The team successfully combined expertise in teacher training with recent experience of vocational teaching and industrial/commercial expertise. One subject was delayed by a year to ensure the right tutor was in post before the course started. In the first two years the provider only recruited sufficient trainees to match the number of strong placement schools in the partnership. Former trainees now employed in partnership schools are being trained as future mentors. How well do courses meet the particular requirements of vocational subjects? 13. The large majority of trainees had opportunities to work with and learn from trainers with good expertise in teacher training and/or teaching vocational subjects during at least some parts of their training. All trainees gained extensive teaching experience that enabled them to demonstrate their ability to teach competently and independently. However, there was a range of issues specific to vocational teaching that required attention, to differing degrees, in all providers. 14. Providers need to ensure that all trainees have opportunities to teach the vocational subject across the full age range. In all providers, too many trainees spent significant amounts of time teaching a related subject at Key Stage 3 or non-vocational subjects at Key Stage 4. This was a particular problem for applied ICT, art and design, and science trainees who, in many cases, also lacked experience in teaching post-16 vocational qualifications. Leisure and tourism and health and social care trainees often had limited Key Stage 4 experience because the subject was not offered for that age range in the schools where they were placed. Trainees who had extended placements in FE or sixth form colleges often taught a narrow range of vocational qualifications. This did not prepare them well for teaching the vocational courses commonly found in schools. 15. There was often a lack of coherence between central and school- or college-based training. Professional studies programmes were adapted to take full account of the needs of vocational trainees in only three of the 14 providers. Key aspects of vocational subjects, such as the management
12 ITT in vocational subjects 9 and assessment of work-based learning, and approaches to teaching and assessment, received insufficient attention. Very often, there was too little focus on the importance of key skills. Trainees were generally unaware that a low level of key skills can be a barrier to learning for students on vocational courses and they failed to integrate key skills into their teaching. In eight providers there was scope to improve the quality of feedback to trainees about the vocational-specific aspects of their planning, teaching and assessment of students. 16. The trainees recruited to the vocational courses had very diverse backgrounds. All providers structured their courses to take account of trainees individual needs. Trainees starting points were identified accurately and many were set well-focused pre-course development targets. The initial needs analysis was often used well to inform individual training plans in the early stages of the course. However, the use of these plans to set targets for professional development throughout the course was underdeveloped. Providers lacked models of good practice in this area. Case study: a provider plans for trainees individual needs A provider was conscious that trainees, even those recruited for the same vocational subject, had very different qualifications and experiences. Trainers were also aware that there was little published information about vocational subjects with a lack of relevant educational research. This made it difficult to set pre-course reading tasks. The trainers established a clear list of key subject knowledge and applications and matched this to tasks for trainees to undertake as preparation for the course. Tasks included visits to schools, colleges, and relevant workplace settings, discussions with skills sector organisations and the use of specific websites. The tutors also analysed a wide range of information provided by trainees during the selection process. They used this to ensure that early stages of the course dealt with particular gaps in subject and other knowledge, and to identify trainees with particular skills and expertise so that they could plan peer-coaching. Trainees often led some of the earlier training session to gain confidence in teaching and to share their expert knowledge. This ensured that all trainees were equipped with a good breadth of understanding of the vocational subject at an early stage in the course. 17. From the selection of trainees onwards, all courses used thorough procedures for auditing trainees subject knowledge and skills and the outcomes were used well to plan the subject-specific training. The audits worked especially well for Key Stage 4 as they were based on a clearly identified body of knowledge matched to the specifications. Audits for post-16, where they occurred, were based almost entirely on the core modules in the specifications for the relevant vocational subject. However,
13 ITT in vocational subjects 10 in schools and colleges trainees often taught modules from the breadth of options available on AVCE courses. Although trainees subject knowledge was at least adequate for the modules they taught, this sometimes led to significant insecurity. Frequently there was no attempt to try to define a core of knowledge for post-16 courses. How does the management of the courses assure good quality training? 18. All of the providers except one offered a range of secondary ITT subjects in addition to the vocational courses. Each provider applied common procedures for management and quality assurance to all their secondary provision, including the vocational courses. Nevertheless, inspectors had some concerns about management of vocational subjects, even where arrangements had been judged to be good or better in previous inspections of the other secondary provision. Often, trainers on the vocational courses had good expertise in their subject and in vocational education, but not in ITT. By contrast, programme managers have strengths in ITT, but often not in vocational education. Only half the providers blended these skills effectively to achieve good outcomes. 19. Five providers reviewed their quality assurance procedures before or early in the course. This decision arose from their deeper understanding of vocational education, for example, through involvement in FE teacher training. In these providers, training was of a higher quality because quality assurance procedures took account of the particular demands of vocational courses. Good quality assurance measures ensured coherence between central and school- or college-based training and trainees received appropriate teaching experiences with high standards of mentoring in the vocational subject. The best providers were able to deal with the evolving nature of vocational provision in schools and colleges, such as the introduction of the applied GCSE and changes to advancedlevel vocational courses. They are well prepared for further changes that will result from the introduction of the specialised diplomas in vocational areas. 20. Good providers addressed the following questions to determine if their management and quality assurance systems and procedures detected and dealt with the issues specific to vocational subjects. Is there sufficient expertise in senior management to know about the quality of central training in the vocational subjects? If people other than the vocational tutors (such as link tutors who are not specialists in vocational education) visit schools or colleges, will they detect particular gaps or weaknesses in the training in the vocational subjects? Do professional mentors or training managers in schools have the expertise to quality assure training in vocational subjects?
14 ITT in vocational subjects 11 Do trainees know where the focus of their training should be, and are they able to evaluate the effectiveness of the training they receive? Do management and quality assurance procedures detect inappropriate teaching experiences? Do management and quality assurance procedures detect weaknesses in the vocational-specific aspects of the training? Is there good quality mentor training that deals specifically with vocational subjects? Does the moderation of evidence against the standards for QTS detect insufficient focus on those standards with particular importance to vocational courses? Are the procedures robust enough to deal with changes in the local area or region and national changes to vocational education? Models of training 21. Each provider designed a course structure to suit its particular circumstances. All were fit for purpose. They provide a secure basis for the further expansion of training in vocational subjects, both for existing and new providers. 22. One provider made links between courses leading to QTS and those aimed at FE teacher training. Trainees gained a very good understanding of the breadth of qualifications available as well as developing a broad range of approaches to teaching and to the assessment of students. 23. In another provider, all central training in the vocational subjects was undertaken by two full-time vocational tutors, with trainees working as one cohort. Subject-specific training took place in schools and colleges, making very good use of the expertise available. The success of this model was due to effective quality assurance procedures. 24. One provider developed a coherent programme covering all subjects, not only the vocational subjects but others such as business studies. The programme ensured that general professional studies (GPS) training had a good focus on teaching vocational subjects. Their approach also led to secure partnerships with schools and colleges offering post-16 courses. 25. Eight of the 14 providers visited offered (or recruited to) only one or two vocational subjects, as an element in the standard PGCE secondary route. In some of these cases, vocational courses were delivered alongside other secondary programmes, with additional modules used to cover specific vocational requirements. For these providers the difficulties in meeting the particular needs of trainees on vocational courses were more apparent. Often the separate programme of professional studies sessions did not give sufficient attention to the vocational subjects for example, in sessions on approaches to teaching and on assessment. These courses also gave insufficient attention to particular features of vocational courses,
15 ITT in vocational subjects 12 such as managing and assessing work-based learning. Generic mentor training for school-based trainers did not provide vocational mentors with the knowledge and skills they needed to support trainees on vocational courses. 26. All the models have strengths and potential weaknesses. The following table makes comparisons between the three different models used by providers that offered both vocational and non-vocational training. Model Strengths Potential weaknesses All vocational trainees receive central training as one group; all subject-specific training carried out in schools/colleges Focuses on key aspects of teaching vocational courses Variable quality of subjectspecific training Coherence is dependent on mentors/ trainees Lack of breadth across vocational area Very dependent on good QA procedures Vocational trainees work as one group for all central GPS training Some subject-specific central training Sometimes includes a sub-group within secondary cohort (which may include business studies as well as vocational subjects) Vocational subject treated as just another secondary subject strand Addresses GPS themes within a vocational context Enables good coherence between vocational and GPS training Consistent approach to training within each vocational subject Provides a focus for professional studies Fits easily into existing secondary course/ placement structure Variable attention given to key aspects of teaching vocational courses across the subjects Lack of attention to key aspects of teaching vocational courses GPS can lack the vocational/14 19 dimension Placements may not meet needs of vocational trainees
16 ITT in vocational subjects 13 The use of FE colleges 27. Although all providers had some links with FE and other post-16 colleges, only around half developed strong partnerships that integrated schools and colleges. These partnerships provided trainees with good experiences across the full range of vocational routes in the subject and more opportunities to teach vocational subjects across the age range. They also made good use of expertise in vocational subjects in the colleges, particularly with respect to the use of workplace settings, assessment arrangements, the range of teaching approaches used, and the management and assessment of work-based learning. 28. The best providers overcame several barriers to make the most effective use of these partnerships. The barriers included: the lack of expertise in mentoring and lack of familiarity with the standards for QTS in colleges; problems of progression when trainees undertook one placement in a school and the other in an FE college; and colleges being unable to provide the required training in professional studies. Good providers made the most effective use of FE colleges through short, focused placements. Notes 29. This report is based on a two-year survey carried out in 2004/05 and 2005/06 by HMI with the support of a small number of Additional Inspectors. Over the two-year period inspectors visited all 14 initial teacher training (ITT) providers offering training in vocational subjects. The survey focused on courses preparing trainees to teach in schools, not further education. 30. For most subjects, this means preparing trainees to teach applied GCSE, AVCE or other commonly used specifications in schools, whilst recognising that trainees need to understand the breadth of qualifications in their subject for levels 1 3. Background 31. As with all programmes of ITT, training to teach vocational subjects has to meet the requirements specified in Qualifying to teach: professional standards for qualified teacher status and requirements for initial teacher training. One of these requirements is that providers work in partnership with schools in the planning and delivery of the training. The training must be designed to enable trainee teachers to meet the standards for qualified teacher status (QTS) specified in Qualifying to teach. In most cases, the courses also lead to a postgraduate certificate in education (PGCE). The courses were set up to provide training to meet schools need for teachers of the new applied GCSEs and post-16 vocational courses, such as the AVCE. They were not intended to train teachers for further education (FE).
17 ITT in vocational subjects The funding for establishing these courses was based on those subjects where applied GCSE specifications were available: applied art and design, applied business, applied ICT, applied science, engineering, health and social care, leisure and tourism, and manufacturing. For art and design, ICT, and science there are related National Curriculum programmes of study for Key Stages 3 and 4. For the other vocational subjects these do not exist, although both engineering and manufacturing should meet the requirements of the Key Stage 4 programme of study for design and technology. In some subjects (such as leisure and tourism) there are no direct post-16 equivalents, or a range of different qualifications is available. These factors have an impact on trainees teaching programmes. Methodology 33. Of the 14 providers visited: 11 are higher education institutions (HEI) and three school-centred ITT (SCITT) consortia. For 12 of the providers, an inspector made one visit in the autumn or spring term to judge the quality of the training and the management of the provision. These visits took place at the same time as the inspection of the secondary ITT provision, but did not contribute to the findings of those inspections. Inspectors then made visits to a small number of trainees from each provider during their final placement in a school or college. During these visits inspectors judged trainees achievements against the standards for QTS to provide additional evidence of the quality of the training. Two providers received one short visit as they had no ITT inspection during the two years of the survey. 34. The survey considered the following key questions: What is the quality of initial teacher training in vocational subjects? Are the content and structure of the training programme designed to ensure trainees meet the standards for QTS? How effective is the training in ensuring that trainees meet the standards? Is the assessment of trainees against the standards effective and accurate? How well are the courses matched to the needs of schools? How well do courses meet the particular requirements of teaching vocational subjects? What models of training are most effective? How well does the management of the provision assure good quality training and continuous improvement? 35. The subjects inspected were as follows: Applied art and design Applied business Applied ICT 4 providers 4 providers 9 providers
18 ITT in vocational subjects 15 Applied science Engineering Health and social care Leisure and tourism 3 providers 5 providers 4 providers 6 providers Two providers offered manufacturing, but neither recruited any trainees. The number of subjects offered by each provider ranged from one to six. Further information The following two publications deal with the introduction of AVCE and applied GCSEs: Vocational A levels: the first two years (HMI 2146), Ofsted, March 2004 Developing new vocational pathways: final report on the introduction of new GCSEs (HMI 2051), Ofsted, July 2004 For more information on the requirements for ITT and the standards for QTS: Qualifying to teach: professional standards for qualified teacher status and requirements for initial teacher training (TEA0044/1p/fmp/jul 03), TTA, 2003 For more information on vocational qualifications: For more information on initial teacher training:
19 ITT in vocational subjects 16 Annex: ITT providers visited as part of the survey Bradford College Canterbury Christ Church University College De Montfort University Durham Secondary Applied SCITT Edge Hill College of Higher Education Liverpool John Moores University Nottingham Trent University Sheffield Hallam University St Mary s College, Richmond upon Thames The Marches Consortium The Learning Institute University of East Anglia University of Greenwich University of Sunderland
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