Sweden, The Baltic States and Poland November 2000

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1 Folkbilning co-operation between Sween, The Baltic States an Polan November 2000

2 TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD...3 SUMMARY...4 I. CONCLUSIONS FROM THE COUNTRIES...6 I.1 Estonia...8 I.2 Latvia...12 I.3 Lithuania...15 I.4 Polan...18 II STATISTICAL INFORMATION...23 II.1 II.2 Summary of the questionnaire...23 Comments on the atabase ealing with folkbilning co-operation with Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania an Polan...25 III SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS FROM THE CASE STUDIES...28 IV IV.1 IV.2 IV.3 IV.4 IV.5 IV.6 APPENDICES Introuction Questionnaire Questionnaire results Project information from the finance proviers (8 co-orinating organisations) Project information from the finance proviers (Noric Council of Ministers/Noric Folk Acaemy) Case stuies ISBN

3 FOREWORD The survey was initiate as a response to a nee for summarising information concerning which ault eucation organisations in the Baltic States an Polan work with emocracy issues an which cooperation partners they work with. This survey was necessary in orer to escribe the status quo as well as to analyse the results an effects achieve. It also provies goo information on what organisations have been establishe an have emocracy promotion as their goal in the Baltic countries an Polan. The survey also shows the engagement of the Sweish folkbilning organisations into the co-operation with Baltic an Polish partners so far, as well as proviing information about their interest, commitment an preconitions for further work. The survey aims to show the iversity of the co-operation an tries to ocument the goo examples in the form of case stuies in orer to sprea the experience of success. The survey has been limite to Sween, Polan an the Baltic countries with the goal of concentrating on the new EU caniate countries, but without suggesting any priorities within co-operation projects. The survey also shows that the co-operation process between the Sweish an eastern European organisations fosters the exchange of information an the increase of knowlege about each other among the partners, which in turn helps to create an honest an objective image of the actual country. Folkbilning has prove to be a useful tool in Sweish emocracy an has been also successfully use by the Eastern European partners. The survey aims at stuying the possibilities for using the acquire experience for further eveloping the co-operation between the Sweish an Baltic or Polish ault learning organisations, thus fostering the citizens activities an raising consciousness about emocracy an EU issues as well as fostering aults emocratic participation in the society an overall ecision making process. The leaer of the project has been Antra Carlsen, Baltic project leaer at the Noric Folk Acaemy, an the project has been financially supporte by the Sweish Institute an SIDA. Stockholm 31 October 2000 Sweish National Council of Ault Eucation (Folkbilningsrået) Britten Månsson-Wallin Director 3

4 SUMMARY The last ecae coul be characterise as the ecae of change, increasing openness an new opportunities as well as the ecae of growth an evelopment within the fiel of ault learning. It has been the time of numerous contacts between Sween on one sie an Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania or Polan on the other sie, the time of new initiatives an generosity of sharing experiences. There is a goo eal of accumulate competence among the Sweish as well as the Baltic an Polish ault eucation organisations, which is worth summarising an utilising. Numerous funs in Sween an other Noric countries have supporte very significant eucation an exchange activities for the colleagues across the Baltic sea. Sweish ault eucation organisations have taken an active part in the co-operation an initially receive visits of hunres of Baltic organisation leaers an ault eucators. Such visits an stuy sequences have fostere the establishment of closer contacts for further co-operation, which is now complex an intensive. Non-formal ault eucation in the neighbouring countries lies to a great extent within the activities of thir sector, which has grown qualitatively as well as quantitatively uring the past ten years. However, the Baltic an Polish societies are soon at the crossroas of choice an ecision-making concerning NATO an EU membership. The eucational an emocracy fostering organisations see it as their uty to involve the population in the iscussion an ecision making process. The recent experience of Sween as a new member state is highly value by the Baltic countries an the methoology of spreaing this experience is requeste by the caniate countries. Skills for using the prouce information in the countries are also neee. The Baltic an Polish ault eucation organisations see the Sweish organisations for folkbilning as a strong methoological help an resource in the process. Co-operation between the organisations promoting emocracy an ault learning in Sween an in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania an Polan has been evaluate as meaningful an successful by all the partners. The project partners see it as a mutual gain an are intereste an willing in continuing their work provie there is: a nee the co-operation activities can respon to; there are human resources an engagement from own organisation; an there is an external financial assistance, both national an international as well. There is also a great number of ault eucation organisations (both newly establishe an those having existe through years) in the Baltic countries an in Polan, which are very intereste, but still without partnership contacts in Sween or any other Noric country. There are also a number of organisations in Sween intereste in starting new co-operation projects with partners across the Baltic Sea. Those Sweish organisations, which have not been involve in co-operation with the Baltic countries an Polan an are intereste to enter the co-operation arena, are motivate an willing to learn from the existing positive experience. The Baltic an Polish organisations see the partnership with Sweish organisations as necessary in the future - methoologically, economically an inspirationally vital. They can be escribe as active an growing; however, still in the process of evelopment an in nee of supportive partnerships. Existing as well as new partnerships have a strong emocratic potential, an shoul be fostere with the goal of the citizens involvement into the ecision making processes. Such issues as: non-formal ault eucation methoology (practice an research); emocratic leaership; culture an history of the Baltic Sea area; fostering of broa public involvement in the life of the society; public ebate on political, social an economic matters; EU membership are consiere to be necessary an interesting to work with by the Baltic an Polish ault eucation organisations. They are intereste in an woul appreciate that Sweish colleagues share their accumulate experience of working with the above issues. The information sprea about the partner countries via the projects has playe a certain role in creating 4

5 a broaer an more many-sie picture of the Eastern European countries in Sween an about Sween in the Eastern European countries. However, numerous project partners amit that more time an financial assistance coul an shoul be evote to mainstreaming of the project results as well as spreaing the information about the caniate countries. Increasing the flow of more iverse information is extremely important in creating an objective image of the EU caniate countries. Spreaing of the positive project experience an presenting the emocratic work of the thir sector in the Baltic countries an Polan is one way of oing it. Personal contacts, institutional an organisation contacts, mutual exchange is another important an efficient way of informing. The survey has shown that there is goo will, interest an accumulate experience for further cooperation, which eserves attention, appreciation an further support. 5

6 I. CONCLUSIONS FROM THE COUNTRIES In orer to fin out what the situation within the fiel of citizens eucation, evelopment of a emocratic society, non-governmental organisation evelopment in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania an Polan in the 90ies has been, a series of interviews were conucte in the mentione countries. These interviews provie a general overview of the country; information about the role of co-operation with Sween in the evelopment process, the experience from the complete an on-going activity within ault learning, the role an situation of folkbilning/non-formal ault eucation an citizens eucation in the country, an the interests an nees for the further co-operation with Sween with emphasis on preparation for the EU membership. The following persons were invite for the iscussion: In Estonia: Magnus Haiak, Hea of the Department of International Co-operation, Estonian Ministry of Eucation; Seea Ranroo, Hea of Ault Eucation Section, Estonian Ministry of Eucation; Kai Kukk; senior aviser, Estonian Ministry of Eucation Ivo Eesmaa, chairman of the boar, Estonian Non-formal Ault Eucation Association Tiina Jääger, secretary general, Estonian Non-formal Ault Eucation Association In Latvia: Ilze Buligina, EU Programme co-orinator Gunta Araja, Hea of International relations Division, Ministry of Eucation an Science Sanra Papina, Baltic an Noric States Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Anita Jakobsone, Chair-woman, Latvian Ault Eucation Association In Lithuania Kestutis Vaskelevicius, attaché, Public Relations Division, Ministry of Foreign Affairs Emunas Normantas, hea of the Ault Eucation Division, Ministry of Eucation Eita Treciokiene, EU Gruntvig/Minerva programme co-orinator Vincentas Dienys, irector, Methoical Centre for Vocational Eucation an Training Birute Kinuriene, Lithuanian Labour Market Training an Counselling System Roma Vilimiene, Chair-woman of the boar, Lithuanian Association of Ault Eucation Aurimas Juozaitis, member of the boar, Lithuanian Association of Ault Eucation In Polan Zofia Kaczor-Jezyczka, chairman, Towarzystwo Uniwersytetów Luowych ("Sällskapet Folkuniversiteten" The Folk University Association), TUL Elzbieta Gniazowska, vice-chairman, TUL Maria Kurulczyk (PSL), Polska Bonepartiet, Polish Farmers Party Barbara Buczynska, Sweish aministrator, Eucation epartment Ewa Tomaszewska, Sej boar member från AWS (Soliaritet) Wieslaw Kecik, one of the leaers in The Farmers Soliarity movement in1980 s, now an ault eucator. Jan Krzesinski, expert, Cross Borer Co-operation Program for the Baltic Region Phare Gunnar Haglun, secon secretary, Embassy of Sween The reports from the countries clearly show the evelopment of the Baltic an Polish societies in the 90ies, an also point out numerous very important an urgent nees. In all the countries inepenence was gaine aroun the same time. However, the chosen priorities an the infrastructures existing at the 6

7 time have influence the pace an irection of evelopment. Without ranking or evaluating the countries, several similar tenencies can be pointe out as well as ifferences registere. Legislative situation A law on ault eucation There exists in Estonia an Lithuania, but the non-formal ault eucation also receives the financial support from the state buget only in Estonia, wherre it is aministere by the leaing NGO for non-formal ault eucation Estonian Non-formal Ault Eucation Association. In Estonia, the ault eucation organisations have been involve in co-operation with Sween an other Noric countries more than in the other countries, which has ensure faster evelopment an also growth in quantity. Several of the organisations even enter the angerous pattern of wellfunctioning organisations an stop searching for new target groups or eveloping innovative courses. In Latvia there is neither a law nor state financing for non-formal ault eucation, but the leaing NGO has recently establishe a goo partnership with the local governments in several istricts in Latvia an is working for activating the local ault eucation centres in all the 26 istricts of Latvia. NGO situation Non-formal an value base eucation in all the three Baltic countries is mostly in the hans of nongovernmental organisations. NGOs are a growing capacity an strength in the countries, but a lot of foreign financial assistance uring the 90ies has been unconitional an unsustainable. After its termination, the organisations become helpless, as neither stable partnerships are establishe nor the necessary managerial skills acquire. The eucation an exchange of experience an transfer of knowhow provie through ifferent co-operation projects with Sween an other Noric countries is often the pre-conition to the success of the Baltic NGOs. In Polan, the collective farming principles an later on the estruction of the system has left serious negative traces in organisational life. There is a nee for new motivation for forming non-governmental organisations an for the skills of activating the local population in the countrysie of Polan. The attitue of the population to learning The population in the Baltic States has returne to learning either ue to their own will an interest in self-realisation or being force by the changes in the labour market. The most problematic group is the unemploye part of the population which suffers both from the lack of any kin of initiative ue to growing up in the soviet oppression an at the same time lacks self-confience ue to not being able to fin work at a mature age for the first time in their life. The organisations proviing ault eucation also lack the methoology of involving this particular part of the society in learning activities. There is practically no research into ault eucation in the Baltic States, which makes it ifficult for the ault eucation proviers to plan their activities. The risk here is the market orientation an the loss of value base eucation. The eucational interests of the ault population in the Baltic States are still very subject oriente an the challenge for the organisations with emocracy promotion as their goal is involving the ault population in civic eucation. In Polan, the most active group in the society is young people. The greatest challenge is involving the ault population, often unemploye an isillusione. Results from co-operation with Sween There have been several stages in the Baltic Sweish co-operation. From in the majority of cases it has been a take situation from the Baltic sie, whilst in the Baltic partners insist on a give an take relation. The Sweish partners have appreciate the initiative from the Baltic sie consierably. The co-operation has been a learning arena for both the sies. From the Baltic partners Sween has learne creativity an enthusiasm, skills of working with scarce resources an professionalism. From the Swees the Baltic partners have learne structure an methoically planne work, motivation of ecisions, emocratic working an ecision-making methos. Nees for know-how Even if there has been a rapi evelopment of the Baltic societies, there is still a great nee for improvement, an an efficient an economic means is the aoption of goo practices. The Baltic 7

8 societies are soon at the crossroas of choice an ecision-making concerning NATO an EU membership. The eucational an emocracy fostering organisations see it as their uty to involve the population in iscussion an eciing. The recent experience of Sween as a new member state is highly value by the Baltic countries an the methoology of spreaing this experience is emane. Skills for using the prouce information are also neee. Co-operation possibilities The philosophy an methoology of Noric non-formal ault eucation/folkbilning are well-known an by now also quite well groune in the Baltic States. Democratic peagogical methos are seen as a means not only for involving the ault population in the learning activities but also as the means of eveloping the emocratic participation of the whole society. However, the eucational structures bearing the above mentione ieas o not mirror the ault eucation structures in Sween an other Noric countries. They are ajuste to the local possibilities (with consierably scarcer financial support) an the nees of the population. Forms such as non-resiential evening courses short courses (often on weekens) an stuy circles are the most popular. The folk high schools in Estonia an the recently establishe ones in Lithuania also organise their eucational activities in a similar form. These are the organisations an institutions with local knowlege an local contacts, organisations, striving to become goo co-operation partners for the foreign partners, organisations intereste in an very much neeing a partner in Sween or other Noric countries for successful growth an evelopment. There also exists various small organisations an local networks (in the local culture houses, libraries, local amateur theatre groups) base on the cultural traitions, which were active before inepenence an who continue their work toay. They have face the challenge of change, the challenge of losing state financing, the challenge of market relations ominating the cultural values. However, they have retaine their commitment to working in the local community. With methoological assistance an goo partnerships with emocratic organisations in Sween an other countries, these organisations can play a more important an active role on the scene of emocracy. I.1 Estonia There has been quite wiesprea co-operation between Sween an Estonia uring the past ten years. It has passe through several stages. At the beginning of 90ies Swees offere something: money, knowlege, experience an Estonians took it. Now the co-operation has entere another stage where we offer each other something. It is not only take any more, but give an take, an this is how the Estonian sie woul like it to be. The ivision of the responsibility in the projects is more equal now. Estonians also assume the financial responsibility, but on the preconition that the Sweish partner allows it an that the Estonian partner has acquire the skills in the process. One of the ways of measuring the success within a project is if the foreign financial support goes over to the Estonian national support. The proportion of financial assistance an the evelopment of the knowlege an skills of being sustainable are also important. If the external financing is too large from the start (AHL - ABF co-operation) troubles start when the financing is lost. There is no knowlege of how to survive without external financing. A lot of time an effort is then lost in the recovery an restructuring process. Several activities coul be characterise as having the Re Cross synrome, the Sweish sie has come to help because they believe they shoul help. It has been receive with a varie egree of enthusiasm by Estonians, but what has been appreciate is that a question how has been aske an iscusse. Project within the special nees area As an example of a very goo cooperation one coul mention the project from the area of special nees, working with parents, eucating avisers for the families who have isable chilren. The project has covere the whole country, every region in Estonia chose some people who worke as counsellors an then within the project receive eucation. The aim of the project was to open-up an emocratise the society, to change the attitues in the society through inclusion. It covere all age groups, starting from the kinergarten an ening with parents. The project has been complete in the sense that the project financing is over, but now there is a next step planne. It was starte with Sweish money but finishe with Estonian money. It is not so that 8

9 people have been traine for three years an now it is finishe. The local authorities have allocate financing for the continuation, which is quite ifficult to obtain, an can be interprete as an appreciation of the achieve results. It also signals the nee for such activities. Working atmosphere The project starte with mutual personal contacts. The people, who were later involve an were the riving forces in the project, met at a conference. Swees have been very emocratic, they always aske how Estonians wante the project to be. Regular meetings were hel, both the partner sies were in the steering group. There were goo relationships an atmosphere in the project group. The only remark coul be that all the activities took place in Estonia. It might be esirable to visit Sween to have a look how the personal assistants work. Attitue to lifelong learning in Estonia The Estonian Popular Eucation League (EPEL) is the national umbrella organisation, a union of eucational non-profit making, non-governmental organisations foune in It continues the activities of Estonian Eucational Association ( ). The goals by the statutes of the EPEL as a centre of eucational organisations are: a) to evelop the spirit, intellect an culture of people through the activities of the league an its members; b) to join its members knowlege, skills an influence in orer to amplify, efen an isseminate the ieas of popular eucation. In the perio from 1994 to 1999 there was a four-fol increase in participation. By1999 there were stuents in the ault eucation centres proviing ay an evening courses, the total number of groups is Stuy circles have gaine groun in Estonia. The metho of ialogue an iscussion an attitue to the participants are factors why 1789 Estonians have attene a total number of 125 stuy circles in The subjects within non-formal ault eucation that the participants wish to stuy are the following: Aesthetic courses 37,0% Languages 14,5% IT an economy 11,4% Personal evelopment (communication skills etc.) 7,7% Home an family 6,9% Civic eucation 6,6% Environmental courses 6,2% Courses for special nees target groups 3,4% Other 1,6%. The number of aults getting involve in learning activities is relate to the changes in society, which is very ifferent from the society ten or more years ago. Earlier the responsibility was with the society, now it is with the iniviual. You have to o it yourself. Thus the main reasons for being involve in ault learning are: wish to belong somewhere, a social nee to participate, to be in the society, to iscuss; insufficient or outate social an professional competence, insecurity about one s position in the labour market; looking for practical skills (weaving, sewing), which woul help in coping with aily life, which is also economically ifficult for many; participation in esthetical courses is a traition in Estonia; Immeiate nees Teachers at all levels nee further eucation, especially if Estonia woul like to create a more homogeneous society, integrating ifferent special nees groups as well. There are stuents with special nees in the mainstream schools, while the eucators are lagging behin in training. School is a small emocratic society but we nee new teachers for that. We nee teachers who believe in emocratic ieas an values an can bring the value iscussion to the learning arena. Discussion an ebating skills are neee in Estonia, as iscussing various matters on the political 9

10 agena is a part of a citizen s emocracy. Discussion prior to ecision making for EU membership issues is vital for Estonia. In ifficult, new or in any other aspect unusual situations, people either stay home an o nothing or look for new possibilities. Thus the task in Estonia is to create various kins of eucation possibilities. Special attention shoul be pai to the age group 18 35, (oler people have better chances an more offers). This particular age group is our labour-force. It is the state an NGOs who shoul create the new possibilities. There is a nee for more iverse an more ynamic opportunities on the eucation market. There is the problem in organising learning activities because of the way we look at what teachers we have for a course instea of looking at what the learners nee. There are no ynamics in eucation opportunities, too few new opportunities. The existing organisations, those functioning well, have foun their speciality an their target group an it is convenient to continue working this way. Estonia shoul seriously consier involving young people in non-formal ault eucation, not only as participants but as teachers an organisers as well. At the beginning of August a former folk high school stuent meeting was organise in Estonia.141 people registere for the meeting out of almost 500 known former Baltic stuents at Noric Folk High Schools. They wishe to iscuss what an how coul they contribute to spreaing folk high school thinking an peagogy in their countries. In iscussing what an how they also ha to reflect on why. The young people experience their stay at a folk high school in one of the Noric countries as giving something to them personally an also professionally, they learne new communication moes, foun out about new skills in themselves as well as ways of encouraging others. After a year or a term at a Folk High School in the Noric countries, the stuents are reay to work for the creation of more folkbilning activities in their home countries. On the question why non-formal ault eucation is neee in the Baltic countries the answer given by one stuent was It woul make our societies better an the citizens more responsible. I am better, my frien is better an then we make the society better a result of a value base eucation. There is a Society of Estonian Folk High Schools in Estonia, establishe in February 1997, an now the task of the organisation is to assist the young people in using their love for folkbilning an commitment of making use of it in Estonia. Reainess for international co-operation Estonian organisations regar international work positively. 1/5 of single member organisations of the Estonian Popular Eucation League have international co-operation on a aily basis now. The bigger organisations with branches are more capable of co-operation. AHL, Amateur Theatre Association has this experience. Knowlege on both sies woul increase the intensity of contacts. Threats Lack of experience in managing aily co-operation, incluing relations an work with foreign partners in the aily life of an organisation is still a problem. Within a project, contacts are establishe, there is a wish to continue them among teachers but it oes not work lack of human resources an skills makes it a strain. Teachers think that it is someone else s responsibility. People are not so goo at fining common interests either. Co-operation still functions easier if Estonians receive something, but if it emans equal partnership from Estonians, there is lack of initiative, especially from small organisations. People are generally not intereste in what is going on outsie their concrete life or professional sphere. They are critical but o not get involve. It is a matter of eucation to get people involve but you cannot o it on courses. We have to fin other ways, we have to talk to people; in libraries, stuy circles in libraries, perhaps. It is easier to get people to stuy circles aroun a concrete problem relevant to people; they iscuss a common problem. They want a result. Priorities in Estonia The National Ault Eucation Council has been create in the country in orer to efine the priority issues in eucation as well as to foster the co-operation among ifferent sectors an co-orinate all ault eucation activities in all fiels ault formal eucation, professional eucation an popular eucation. The Council is lea by the Minister of Eucation. Members of the Council represent the ault eucation umbrella organisations ANDRAS an the Estonian Popular Eucation League. There are representatives from the Ministry of Social affairs, Ministry of Economy, Ministry of Eucation, representatives from the labour market an non-formal ault eucation, employers, an NGOs. 10

11 Priorities up to 2003: Organise the system of vocational eucation; Training for small enterprises, starting an running of small businesses; Social aaptation, training of counsellors, trainers, school psychologists, teachers. They shoul know how to help people in the social aaptation process. They cover all age groups. This is the place where it is possible to change attitues, how to be responsible, how to o things one s own way. Training of trainers Citizen eucation, civic eucation. All actors in the society have to co-operate. At the en of 2000 the law of ault eucation is going to be change, ifferent social partners are participating in the preparation of the amenments. Current legislative situation The law on Ault eucation has existe since 1994, the state support to non-formal ault eucation activities since The state support (since 1995, the first year of getting it) to the ault popular eucation organisations has ha a very strong an positive influence. See figure below. Participants The major changes, which have occurre in the fiel of ault eucation, have been mae in tax legislation. In 1997 the Estonian Parliament (Riigikogu) passe a law accoring to which some very important changes in the income tax law were mae: Since the person has right to euct from the taxable income all vouche costs connecte with learning in public schools, private schools with a license or in public universities. Tax euction is vali only for certifie non-formal ault eucation institutions an organisations. One can euct the corresponing costs for one s uner 26 years epenant, too. Since the ate mentione above it is permitte to euct the vouche costs on the training an retraining of the employees from the entrepreneurial income. If an institution has a programme of over 120 stuy hours it nees a licence. The ault eucation institutions, which apply for the support from state, have to have a license to eucate aults. Some other changes were mae concerning the eucational leave an ivision of responsibilities between the state, local communities an employees. EU information The Ministry of Eucation works with EU information for schools through numerous goo activities. Schools are very intereste. Young people in general are more intereste in EU issues than others. They are motivate by the wish to learn languages, evelop professionally, by the new possibilities in the labour market. The government has one goo work with information, but people o not seek it, they expect it to be brought to them, even then they o not rea it. The population is not very active in EU iscussions, not intereste in it. There is no emocratic iscussion traition in the current society in Estonia an not enough has been one yet to foster it. It is a matter for a civic society an Estonia oes not have one 11

12 yet. People ought to have a lot more information an shoul learn to hanle it. It is the task of nonformal ault eucation to help, the citizens shoul have the information before eciing. The economic aspects, the state security, etc. are very important for Estonia in relation to the EU membership, an the government is working for that. However, the population shoul also feel like equal members in the EU, which puts new emans on eveloping personal an civic skills. The role an influence of the non-formal ault eucation shoul be increase. There is little EU project experience as yet. The organisations lack general knowlege on foreign partners, as well as communication skills an a reainess to be tolerant in the projects. A myth exists that we are very similar. Longer an more thorough preparation for projects woul help to solve some of the problems. Preconitions an areas for co-operation It oes not matter whether Estonia is an EU member or not, there will always be political links, even in ault eucation policy making there are common interests share with Sween. Diactics/methoology an other theoretical matters. The practical problems are ifferent. Estonia an Sween are at ifferent stages of evelopment. The more Estonia evelops the more concrete items there will be, going from general matters to more concrete. Estonians woul like to be equal partners, so far equality is felt in iscussing working principles an goals, in teacher training projects there is equality. Estonians woul like to be equal in the whole ecision making process. Sween is close to Estonia, there are many personal contacts, which helps. However, the society in general is much more evelope an avance in Sween, an Swees think that everything happens very quickly in Estonia. It is not possible to go so fast. Things sometimes take longer in Estonia. Swees are very goo partners, very responsible. Our history is similar an eucation system is similar, it makes it easier. During the co-operation, new topics an issues for iscussion an co-operation shoul be create. One of them can be personal growth, this is the base of everything, this creates responsibility, creative thinking, initiative, self-esteem builing. Estonia is starting to change ynamically at all levels right now There are many goo professionals in Estonia now, but there are no common ties among them, there is no interisciplinary co-operation. The image an information The image of Sween in Estonia is very positive. Historically there has been a very positive image, Estonians speak about the goo ol Sweish times. Also personal contacts with people, who work for Sween in Estonia toay have contribute to preserving the goo image, (it is ifferent with some other countries) in eucation fiel, at least. If we say Russia we think negative, Sween positive. If some things come from Sween they are goo because they are Sweish, if people are Swees, they are constructive an tolerant. There is an Estonian Sweish society, it also helps in promoting a goo image. Estonians think that the majority of Swees know a lot about what is happening from newspapers an meia, but not eeper causes. Those people who have co-operation know more. All knowlege in ault eucation comes from the other sie of the Baltic Sea. The ieas of ault eucation the biggest influence is from Denmark. If we look at the way of organising an the structures of ault eucation, then Sween has bigger influence. I.2 Latvia There have been numerous links between Sween an Latvia from the very beginning of the 90ies, one of the first an now most wiesprea an broa co-operation cases is between ABF an Raina an Aspazijas Fons. It has functione well in the local istricts in Latvia as well. There have also been numerous projects in the fiel of the environment. Otherwise, there are links with Sweish organisations, which have been establishe uring the projects run by the Noric Folk Acaemy, especially the Noric Baltic NGO network. The network activities an meetings have contribute to strengthening the position of ault learning in the Latvian society. (e.g. co-operation 12

13 among the local NGOs from Latvia, Sween an Finlan was starte). There have been several goo methoological publications in ault eucation prepare with the assistance of Sweish partners (SISU, Trae Unions, Forestry Association). Even if they are initially meant for a certain professional fiel, like the trae unions, sports teachers, etc., they have prove to be useful also for others working with aults. The en of the 90ies has seen a growing constructive spirit in all the activities, the projects are planne to bear fruit not only for those irectly involve but also for the surrouning society (e.g. the evelopment project of the former evening schools in co-operation with R-Vux). Legislative situation Currently the fiel of non-formal ault eucation is taken care of by NGOs, the biggest of them being the Latvian Ault Eucation Association (LAEA), a non-governmental organisation foune on December 14, 1993, which encompasses 61 member organisations. A co-operation agreement between the Ministry of Eucation an LAEA, elegating the state functions in the ault eucation sector to the latter party was signe July 15, 1999, a milestone achievement for the year. LAEA has also been working on preparing the Law on Ault Eucation, with a varying egree of success uring ifferent Parliaments (Saeimas). Although the 6th Saeima passe the Law on Ault Eucation in the first reaing, the 7th Saeima has left the raft legislation off parliament's subsequent plenary agenas. The text of the bill was reviewe by LAEA an iscusse within continuing ault eucation organisations. Following the initiative of LAEA working group, the bill was reviewe by the Saeima Eucation, Culture an Science Commission. In October 1999 the raft law was passe for review to the Eucation an Science Ministry, which faile to submit an official report by the en of the year. Co-operation with the local governments was more successful uring the past year. Seminars were hel for county (pagasti) aministrators, ialogue was expane between regional government leaers an the Local Government Association of Latvia. LAEA has also supporte the growth of Ault Eucation Centres in the regions. Most local government leaers have unerstoo that eucation is the way to encourage employment an social evelopment for their rural communities. Using EU Programme support LAEA has co-orinate several activities, which have fostere the emocratic evelopment in the country: PHARE-TACIS Democracy project The NGO Contribution to Strengthening Society in Latvian an Estonia, ; PHARE-TACIS Democracy project "Civic Eucation as Means Towar a Democratic Society", SOCRATES program project Creation of a Regional strategic Ault Eucation Programme, NGO situation In general the thir sector has evelope an grown strong uring the past years. Numerous NGOs of various profiles inclue ault eucation activities in their work (healthy lifestyle, sustainable evelopment of househols, etc). They also closely follow the evelopment processes in Europe an try to bring them to the population of Latvia. Nevertheless, there is still a great nee for eveloping the capacity of NGOs (human capital evelopment, lobbying skills evelopment), especially in the rural areas. NGOs lack stable partnerships with foreign organisations. One NGO Eiropas kustiba Latvija (Movement for Europe in Latvia) is a big organisation working at the grass-root level as well as proviing a consultancy service for the government in EU matters. The are numerous other organisations having the potential of informing the society of the EU membership but lacking the skills of reaching an involving the population into ebate, iscussion an ecision making. The financial assistance for the NGO projects has often been receive from common Noric sources or iverse US funs. Two years ago SIDA organise a seminar in Latvia with an aim of informing the NGOs about the co-operation possibilities, however, the response was rather weak an many NGOs i not fin the programmes suitable for the following reasons: The priorities/emans being set in Sween are not flexible enough to match the local emans in Latvia; 13

14 The financial recourses being manage an remaining mostly in Sween give virtually no responsibility to the Latvian partner; The meeting was one way communication from SIDA, who i not listen much to the local nees. Generally, the opinion among the strongest NGOs is that in orer to ensure a stable evelopment of the organisations, they shoul organise themselves in bigger associations an fight for state support an more favourable legislation for the NGO evelopment. Results (within Noric co-operation) Possibility to eucate a lot of eucators an NGO leaers in Sween an other Noric countries; Increase public awareness about lifelong learning in Latvia; Witnessing the change in ault eucation in Noric countries allows Latvia to evelop very ynamically an take over the best practices; Notions secon chance eucation an civic eucation have entere the Latvian learning arena ue to foreign co-operation; Co-operation at the ault eucation policy level. Threats Latvia is not always capable of raising the necessary national support an therefore there is the risk that goo activities o not continue after the project has been complete. Only the participants themselves finance non-formal ault eucation activities, which exclues many groups in a society from learning. Low self-confience, especially among the socially exclue groups, prevents them from joining the learning activities. Lack of the knowlege of foreign languages among the ault population. Lack of methoology for involving people in searching for an using the information. There is lack of financing an methoology for working with the existing publishe an prepare material about such important issues as EU an NATO membership, regional co-operation, etc. EU programmes seem to be too complicate an expensive for small NGOs, besies the information is not sprea very efficiently (only one national seminar in the capital per year) in Latvia ue to the lack of financing. Attitue to ault learning in Latvia The population really wants to learn, but the possibilities shoul be very flexible. The population has very little financial resources for learning, which means it shoul be organise close to their living-places, in convenient time, at a low cost, etc. People are mostly intereste in learning something that woul open them new professional possibilities; those who are unemploye also have less motivation to learn. People follow everything that is going on in the country with interest, but 2/3 of the population are not satisfie with the level, quality an frequency (too little) with which they get information about the new laws in Latvia, integration policy into NATO an EU, local government policies, etc. Future Evaluation like this is of very great importance, it gives an overview an an opportunity to speak about new nees; Eucators working in the fiels of higher eucation an vocational training lack the knowlege in methoology for working with aults; Planning future activities shoul take place in ialogue between Latvia an the partners; Twin city, municipality, school projects shoul be increase as a goo way of learning by oing, provie there is interest, motivation, responsibility on both sies; There is an interest in learning more about the Sweish culture an also stuying the language as a goo tool in co-operation; 14

15 The following priority areas coul be istinguishe: Civic eucation: more than half of the ault population of Latvia are not aware of the role of their participation in the society, they o not fully unerstan the moern relations between the state, market an civil society; they o not participate in the political iscussion in the country; a lot more eucational activities are neee if people shoul make motivate ecisions in important for their country issues, e.g. EU, NATO membership; People are still looking for concrete subjects, like psychology, IT, etc; the task of the non-formal ault eucation is to get the population more intereste an involve in the social processes in Latvia; to provoke iscussion about these issues. Eucation on EU integration: uring the Sweish Days in Latvia (business, culture, eucation cooperation, etc.) the Sweish sie has been especially aske by the Latvian colleagues to concentrate on their recent experience concerning EU, both the ebate about the membership an the consequences of the actions; the experience of the new member states is especially value by Latvia; Eucation on ecentralisation an regional evelopment: the population feels exclue from the ecision making processes, methoology for public influence into local ecision making is neee; Personality evelopment for life an work: eucation in the emans an rules of the moern labour market is necessary, how to feel harmonious with personal interests an professional skills, what secures staying in the labour market toay how to buil a learning society in Latvia; Information an image There is goo information about Sween in general in Latvia an the professional information concerning ault eucation is quite broa. The Latvian sie oubts if there is equally much in Sween. Another kin of information, which is more specific, about the moern eucation strategies, role of non-formal eucation in the society evelopment, laws, etc., is not sufficient. When speaking about the Noric countries, then the Danish culture an ifferent activities are known better in Latvia ue to the work of the Danish cultural institute. Also the work of the Noric Information Office has mae an enormous contribution to informing about the neighbouring countries. Information to Sween about Latvia that goes eeper than just mass meia is provie through contacts an co-operation projects, an this information might be more positive than the picture painte by the mass meia. Common work for a longer time perio improves the common unerstaning. There are ifferent iscussion an work cultures, ecision making cultures (acting vs. iscussing, pragmatics in ecision making, etc.) in Latvia an Sween. When there is full unerstaning then the jugement about one another is also more objective not base on a single occasion impression. The common work process with a Sweish partner is now equally important with the result. I.3 Lithuania There have also been ault eucation activities in Lithuania before the inepenence time of the 90ies, however, the broa unerstaning of folkbilning came to Lithuania together with the first groups of Lithuanian ault eucators stuying at Noric Folk Acaemy organise Summer Acaemy in 1992/1993. Noric an German influences are the ones shaping the initial stages of ault eucation activities in Lithuania, both in the sense of the ieology an the methoology of working with aults. Numerous Lithuanian teachers an leaers go on stuy visits to the Noric countries an Germany, now they amit that their heart an soul lies with the Noric moel because of the emocratic learning atmosphere, people s love of learning for self evelopment an not always for concrete skills. Contacts with Sween are often associate with Gothenburg, Noric Folk Acaemy, courses, meetings an research scholarships there. The nature of the co-operation has change in the way that Lithuania has receive a lot initially in the form of information an inspiration an then they have worke har themselves to create the system of ault eucation in Lithuania. There are numerous activities an initiatives but still no state support for non-formal ault eucation in Lithuania. Another important issue is the methoology for working with aults, e.g. iscussion or interest groups have gaine popularity in Lithuania, which have been inspire by the Sweish stuy circles. Generally it is ifficult to istinguish the Sweish influence from the rest of Noric countries especi- 15

16 ally in non-formal ault eucation. The institution known most of all is the Sweish Institute, which is behin numerous activities, especially university co-operation. Another aspect, gaining importance especially in the last 3-4 years, is eucation within an enterprise, an those with Sweish capital are the most active ones. This also influences the Lithuanian business environment an attitue. Such terms as a goo employee an a goo citizen are now mentione equally, although the latter one was not a part of the business vocabulary at all a couple of years ago. Lifelong learning ieas for work an life are graually being anchore among the Lithuanian employees an the rest of the population. Legislative situation When talking about the actual situation of ault eucation in Lithuania the news of utmost importance is that the Law on Non-formal Ault Eucation was passe in the Parliament (Seimas) in June Eucational Reform in general in Lithuania was starte in The main attention was pai to General Eucation, Higher Eucation an Vocational Eucation an Training at the time. The Laws in these areas of Eucation were passe in the Seimas in this orer: Law on Science an Stuies - February 1991, Law on Eucation - in June 1991, Law on Vocational Eucation an Training in October The Law on Non-formal Ault Eucation was only passe in June It is late but at least a goo sign of Government s attention to the Ault Eucation problems in Lithuania. The new Law opens bigger an better opportunities for the evelopment of ault eucation concept an system in our Republic. The Law introuces new rights for the customers of non-formal ault eucation: it is obligatory to have signe a contract between non-formal eucation provier an the customer if the service is ue to be pai for; the customer of non-formal eucation has right to get a pai leave of absence from work for meeting his/her eucational nees when it is agree between him/her an the employer. There is a new requirement for buget organisations to allocate at least 3 % of their annual buget for meeting the eucational nees of employees. The Government is going to support non-formal ault eucation from the state buget. Over 600 organisations an institutions provie non-formal eucation, eucation for self-evelopment. The biggest NGO co-orinating the non-formal ault eucation activities is the Lithuanian Association of Ault Eucation, establishe in 1992, In 1999 there were 210 iniviual an 19 legal members in the Association. Recently, February 3, 2000, the Association of Lithuanian Folk high schools with 3 schools as members has also been establishe. NGO sector During the 90ies Lithuanian NGOs have receive foreign financing at the scale of % of the nee. Now when the funs pull out (consiering Lithuania to be a evelope emocratic country) the organisations fin themselves rather helpless as no sustainable evelopment methos have been acquire, no stable partnerships emane or acquire. Those NGOs that have common projects with a stable partner are much better prepare to become project organisations. Partnerships among NGOs are not popular, another NGO is treate as a competitor an not a partner. Information is kept within an NGO, existence of other NGOs working in the same area is not amitte to a foreign partner as there is a competition for funing. Partnerships with the local government are weak, NGOs o not know how to profile themselves, the local governments are not sure what functions coul be elegate to the NGOs. Learning possibilities in Lithuania an threats to it, motivation for learning Unfortunately, the statistical publications o not contain much ata on non-formal eucation for aults. In 1997 the National Observatory an the Methoical Centre for VET initiate a sociological research of ault eucation. During the research 1,000 ault resients of Lithuania were questione. only 20% of the responents participate in continuing eucation activities; 16

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