Present Status of Infrastructure Facilities in Schools in India: From National and State Level Perspective

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1 Draft Present Status of Infrastructure Facilities in s in India: From National and State Level Perspective Dr. Madhumita Bandhopadhyay National University of Educational Planning and Administration 17-B, Sri Aurobindo Marg, New Delhi (INDIA)

2 CONTENTS Page No. Introduction 1 Earlier Researches 1 Availability of s and Enrolment 3 Student-Classroom Ratio 6 Availability of Physical Facilities 7-17 All weather roads 7 Building 8 Water Facility 8 Functional drinking water facility 9 Girls Toilet 10 Boys Toilet 11 Condition of Classroom 11 Boundary Wall 12 Playground 13 Ramp facility 13 Electricity facility 14 Library Facility 15 Computer Facility 16 CAL Facility 17 Enrolment in schools lacking different infrastructure facilities 17 Conclusion 19 Reference 20

3 Present Status of Infrastructure Facilities in s in India: From national and state level perspective Dr. Madhumita Bandyopadhyay 1 NUEPA Introduction It is widely known that availability of infrastructure facilities in school has considerable impact on school environment and it is one of the important indicators for assessing whether the schools are providing a conducive learning environment for children. During last two decades, a major emphasis has been given on improving school environment by different educational programmes like Operation Blackboard, DPEP, SSA, RMSA and so on, as it is a major factor for regular participation of students and finally resulting in improvement in their learning levels. An attempt has also been made to provide adequate physical facilities as per the needs of schools, as recommended by education policy in India, NPE The policy has recognized that, unattractive school environment, unsatisfactory condition of buildings and insufficiency of instructional material function as de-motivating factors for children and their parents. The Policy, therefore, calls for a drive for a substantial improvement of primary schools and provision of support services (NPE, 1986, 15). According to this policy, primary schools have to be provided with at least two rooms for conducting teaching learning process. Further, RTE Act 2009 has recommended that each school should be equipped with All weather building consisting of at least one classroom for every teacher and an office-cum-store-cum-head teacher s room; barrierfree access; separate toilets for boys and girls; safe and adequate drinking water facility to all children; a kitchen where mid-day meal is cooked in the school; playground; arrangements for securing the school building by boundary wall or fencing. In view of above recommendations, using DISE data and recent research reviews, an attempt has been made in this paper to assess the present status of availability of physical facilities in schools run by different managements, especially government, private aided and private unaided schools. Earlier Researches Several researches (Ajayi, 2002; Hallack, 1990; Kuuskorpi & Gonzalez, 2011) conducted in different international contexts specifically link availability of infrastructure facilities of school and school effectiveness. According to Asiabaka (2008, 10) management of facilities is an integral part of the overall management of schools. The actualization of the goals and objectives of education require the provision, maximum utilization and appropriate management of the facilities. According to her the physical environment of a school is a major determining factor in the attainment of its objectives (Asiabaka 2008, 10). Importance of availability of physical facilities in schools and its optimum use have been a matter of concern across the globe. Several studies have already been conducted in context of India to find out different determining factors of school effectiveness and efficiency and lack of physical facilities has been identified as one of the major problems across the states. An overview of some of these studies is being given in 1 The author acknowledges the contribution of Ms. Meenakshi Khandari and Ms. Aparna Mookerjee from NUEPA. We are grateful to Prof. A. C Mehta, Head of EMIS Department for providing DISE and UDISE data some of which have not been published yet. 1

4 following paragraphs. Despite considerable improvement in enrolment, many researches (Govinda & Bandyopadhyay, 2011a, 2011b, 2011c; De et.al. 2011; Pratham, 2012 etc) have constantly raised concerns that India will have to travel a long way to achieve the goal of Universialisation of Elementary Education and implement the Right to Education Act, The Act has not only stressed on providing access to free and compulsory education for 6-14 years old children, but has also emphasised on regular and active participation of children in government schools and improvement in their learning levels. The active presence of children and their imbibing of knowledge and skills in the classroom become important issues once they get enrolled in a school. The central characteristic of meaningful access (Lewin, 2007; Govinda & Bandyopadhyay, 2009; Little, 2008) to school education is the sustained and active participation of children in teaching learning processes and classroom activities. It has been found that students who attend school regularly score higher in their achievement tests than their peers, who remain frequently absent. Although the low attendance and low learning level of children is rampant across the country, many studies found these problems are more prominent in case of disadvantaged groups (Govinda & Bandyopadhyay, 2008; Pratham, 2012; Dreze & Kingdon, 1999). Many researches have also indicated that effective management of system as well as schools can improve the quality of educational services that in turn, influences the access and participation of children (Govinda & Bandyopadhyay, 2011c, Bandyopadhyay & Dey, 2011 Dayaram, 2011, Dayaram, 2013). These studies have also emphasized on availability of adequate infrastructure facilities and its optimum use for improving the learning environment of the school which motivates teachers as well as students for regular participation and getting engaged in teaching learning process of good quality. As mentioned in a CREATE policy brief (Bandypadhyay, Das & Zeitlyn, 2011), "absenteeism is multi- causal phenomenon" involving home -related and school- related factors. While children s engagement in paid or unpaid work, sibling care etc. reduces their chance of attending school fully and perform better in classroom, the quality of services provided in the schools, the infrastructure and the level of teacher s qualification and training may also act as determining factors for these. The study further discusses the vicious cycle of absenteeism and repetition. These characteristics of exclusion are known as silent exclusion in the CREATE conceptual model and eventually lead to drop- out (Lewin, 2007). The policy brief also suggests "there is an urgent need for improving the physical and academic infrastructure, incentives, TLM (teaching learning material), availability of teachers and their presence in the school and classroom." Gender and caste-based stereotyping was visible in the allocation of different tasks to children in schools covered by the CREATE study as well. Such gender and caste based discrimination increases in the schools which are resource poor and are grappling with different problems of managing scarce physical as well as academic resources for example often it is found that girls are engaged in collecting water in case schools are not provided with a safe drinking water facility on regular basis. Similarly, absence of boundary wall and playground hamper regular activities of school as well as can comprise children safety and security. 2

5 It is mention worthy that the socially disadvantaged children living in remote areas also remain deprived from various public services, including elementary education. For example, the schools located in tribal villages in Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh hardly had essential physical and academic facilities. Let alone other academic facilities, only four out of twenty-four sample schools had access to drinking water while not a single school had a toilet in it (Govinda & Bandyopadhyay, 2011b). An earlier study conducted by Jha & Jhingran, (2005, 66) has found that the condition of physical infrastructure in rural areas was far from satisfactory. In their study villages as mentioned by authors, only 6.7% of the primary schools and 12.5% of the upper primary schools have a fully pucca building. About 73% have partially pucca building and rest have either a kuchcha structure, a dilapidated one or no building at all. They also found that many schools did not have basic drinking water and toilet facilities. According to this study, only 4% of schools, the infrastructure could be considered average to good, these schools were located mainly in MP, Karnataka, Gujarat and Maharashtra. infrastructure was rated as inadequate in case of 38% schools and the remaining 22 percent was considered to be very inadequate (Jha & Jhingran, 2005, 67). Based on an extensive survey carried out in eight states Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Tamil Nadu (Mehrotra, 2006) has found that private unaided schools had better facilities than government and private aided schools in most of the states. As author has mentioned that in the states where the private-unaided schools account for a significant share of enrolled children Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan the proportion of urban unaided schools which are pucca (in brick buildings) is higher than the proportion of government schools that are pucca. The problem of one-classroom schools is also largely confined to the government schools. Privateaided schools do not have this problem. Similarly, most of the private-unaided schools do not seem to have a space constraint in terms of classrooms (Mehrotra, 2006, 265). In addition he has also mentioned that the larger share of government schools were found without drinking water facility and toilets whereas many private-unaided schools (and private-aided ones) in urban areas had separate toilets for girls than do government schools. Another study conducted by Srivastava (2006, 63) has pointed out that in Uttar Pradesh a greater proportion of government schools had pucca buildings compared to private schools, though the difference was lower in urban areas. Approach roads to rural schools were mostly kuchcha or semi-pucca for both private and government schools, although the proportion of semi-pucca roads for private schools was higher at the primary level (Srivastava, 2006, 64). In context of findings of above research studies, an attempt has been made in the following section to find out the extent to which the schools managed by government as well as private agencies are equipped with different physical facilities and what are the future challenges that remain to meet for its further improvement. This status paper not only assess the situation not only with respect to elementary education but also post elementary school education i.e. secondary and higher secondary education. Availability of s and Enrolment Any discussion on school education has to look into the aspect of availability of schooling facilities to children of eligible age group. According to the DISE data (Table 1), the percentage 3

6 share of government schools is much higher as compared to private aided and unaided schools at each level but an increasing trend is found in proportion of private schools as the level of education increases. While, 19% primary schools across the country is run by private management and not aided by government, the proportion of such schools is 28% at the upper primary level. The proportion further increases to 39% for secondary and 42% for higher secondary level. The proportion of private aided schools is also much higher in case of secondary and higher secondary levels. It is also noticeable from Figure 1 that the number of government as well as private schools has shown a gradual increasing trend over the years. Table 1: Percentage Share of Management wise s at different levels of Education Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary Figure 1: Trend in number of Government and Private Elementary s in India: to Government s Private s Source: Elementary Education in India: Trends to , DISE, New Delhi The state wise distribution of schools run by different management shows that more than 80% primary schools are run by government in states like Odisha, Bihar, Tripura, Jharkhand, Arunachal Pradesh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Chhattisgarh, West Bengal, A & N Islands, J&K, Himachal Pradesh, Assam. Lakshadweep has 100% schools run by government. According to the DISE data, it has been found that Kerala (30.44%) has the lowest proportion of government primary schools but this state also has the highest proportion of private aided primary schools. In case of private unaided primary schools, Delhi ranks first with 52% of schools under private management and only 2% schools in Jharkhand are managed by private providers. 4

7 In case of upper primary schools, again Kerala has the lowest proportion of government upper primary schools and Delhi has the highest proportion of private unaided upper primary schools. However, for private aided schools, Goa ranks first with 67% of upper primary schools. Apart from Delhi, states like Pondicherry, Telangana, Haryana, Rajasthan, Punjab, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, and Madhya Pradesh has more than 40% private unaided upper primary schools. Like primary, in Lakshadweep 100% upper primary, secondary and higher schools are also managed by government. It is also noticeable that the states like Tripura, West Bengal, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Bihar, Dadra & Nagar Haveli have more than 80% upper primary schools run by government. While in case of secondary and higher secondary, only four states such as West Bengal, A & N Islands, Tripura, Sikkim have more than 80% schools managed by government. It is noticeable that around 70% schools in Uttar Pradesh have reportedly been private unaided while Goa has 74% private aided schools at the secondary level. At the same time, there are 17 states such as Manipur, Delhi, Pondicherry, Arunachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chandigarh, Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Tripura, Haryana, Telangana, Madhya Pradesh, A & N Islands, Chhattisgarh, Sikkim and West Bengal have less than 10% private aided secondary schools. Similarly, 18 states such as Delhi, Jharkhand, Pondicherry, Tripura, Chandigarh, Arunachal Pradesh, Punjab, Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Sikkim, Haryana, A & N Islands, Chhattisgarh, Manipur, Goa, Telangana and West Bengal have less than 10% schools as private aided and five states such as A & N Islands, Bihar, West Bengal, Tripura and Goa have less than 10% schools as private unaided at the higher secondary level. On contrary, it is also noticeable that Maharashtra is the state which has the highest proportion (68%) of secondary schools under the private aided category followed by Meghalaya and Gujarat. Similarly, Mizoram with 67% private unaided higher secondary schools rank first followed by Uttar Pradesh, Nagaland, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh which fall within the category of 60-70% of schools that are under private management but not receiving any aid from government. The expansion of private schools has also impacted on trends in enrolment at each level of school education which is highlighted in the Table 2. It is noticeable that although the proportion of enrolment in government schools at each level is much higher than the proportion of enrolment in private aided and unaided schools, but as the level of education increases, a decreasing trend has been found in the proportion of enrolment in government run schools. It is noticeable that at the higher secondary level, the percentage share of enrolment is only 39.3% in government schools while in private unaided schools it becomes more than 48%. Table 2: Percentage share of Management-wise Enrolment at different levels of Education Pvt. Private Recognized Govt. Unrecognized levels Aided Unaided Madrasa Total Primary Upper Primary Secondary Hr. Secondary

8 From above analysis, one can understand that a sizeable proportion of schools are still run by government though the proportion of such schools varies from one state to other. As it has been mentioned that there are some states which have very high proportion of private aided and private unaided schools, however it has been found that despite high proportion of private schools, the role of government schools still remains important to cater to the needs of children from socially and economically disadvantaged groups. In the following section, an attempt has been made to examine how schools run by different management systems such as government, private aided and private unaided are provided with different infrastructure facilities at different educational level. Student-Classroom Ratio Table 3: Management wise Student Classroom Ratio at different level Category Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Aided Unaided Unrecognized Recognized s Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary Student classroom ratio is another important factor covered under DISE to analyze the average number of students per classroom in a school. In the Table 3, data indicate that the secondary and higher secondary government as well as private aided schools have adverse SCR indicating overcrowded classrooms but for elementary education, the situation seems to be much better for government and private unaided schools. It may be because of prevalence of small size elementary schools which are results of recent initiatives taken by government for covering all habitations by primary and upper primary schools in case those habitations qualify the norm for opening school. The state wise data suggests that eight states and UTs have higher proportion of government schools at elementary level with SCR higher than the national average (27). These are Assam, Bihar, Chandigarh, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Daman & Diu, Delhi, Haryana and West Bengal. Out of these, Bihar has the highest SCR not only for government schools but also for private aided schools. As far as private unaided is concerned Jharkhand has the highest proportion of schools with highest SCR (41) followed by Uttar Pradesh. Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal are also the states which have very high SCR at secondary and higher secondary level particularly in the government and private aided schools. Manipur is another state which shows highest SCR in case of private aided schools at the higher secondary level. There are some states which need further attention for reducing SCR in the government secondary and higher secondary schools are Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Assam, Odisha, Tripura, etc. 6

9 Availability of Physical Facilities All weather roads Accessibility of schools can be measured by examining whether the schools are approachable by all weather roads or not. It has been found that although above 90% private aided and unaided primary and elementary schools are approachable by all weather road, there are at least around 13% primary and elementary government schools are yet to be connected by such road. It is also noticeable that barring a few most of the secondary and higher secondary schools irrespective of their management are connected by roads. However, many unrecognized and Madrasas are also not approachable by all weather roads, as highlighted in the following Table 4. Table 4: Percentage share of s Approachable by all weather Roads Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Higher Secondary The state wise variation is also found in availability of primary schools that are approachable by all weather roads. It is found that Jharkhand is the state which has the lowest proportion of government as well as private schools which are not accessible by all weather roads. Similarly, there are other states such as Sikkim, Lakshadweep, Nagaland, Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, J&K, Uttaranchal, Rajasthan, Arunachal Pradesh and Meghalaya where large number of government schools yet to be linked by all weather roads. In case of upper primary schools, although Jharkhand has more than 60% government schools with all weather roads but it has more than 70% of private aided and unaided upper primary schools with such facility. The states which require immediate attention are Meghalaya, Lakshadweep, Arunachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, West Bengal, Bihar, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, Tripura, Rajasthan, Nagaland, J&K that have less than 90% upper primary schools which are not approachable by all weather roads. In case of secondary schools, it is found that majority of government, private aided and private unaided schools are approachable by all weather roads but Jharkhand, Uttaranchal and Lakshadweep fall within 70-80% as far as availability of government secondary schools which are approachable by all weather roads. Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya, Jharkhand are found in most critical condition with much less proportion of such schools. In Meghalaya, less than 60% private unaided schools are also not approachable by all weather roads. In case of higher secondary schools, the most critical situation is found in Lakshadweep where around 69% government schools have all weather roads but situation is not that satisfactory in the states like Jharkhand, Nagaland and Uttaranchal. As far as private unaided schools are 7

10 concerned, Telangana and Assam need more attention whereas for private aided schools the state like Daman & Diu is at the lowest category with 67%. Building It is heartening to see that around 98-99% government as well private schools have building at all levels (Table 5). It is also found that the state level variation with respect to school building is also not wide and majority of states fall in the category of above 90% and even some of the states have building for all schools. However, attention needs to be paid especially in Bihar and Uttaranchal where more than 10% schools are still not having building for primary schools whereas in case of secondary schools attention needs to be paid on state like Madhya Pradesh which is falling at the lowest category. Table 5: Percentage Share of s with Building Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Higher Secondary Water Facility It is known to all that the essential facility like water needs to be made available in the school for making school environment hygienic and clean. The data has been provided by DISE to assess the availability of water facility in every school which can be utilized in different purpose other than drinking. It has been found that the water facility has been provided in majority of government as well as private schools. But there is slight variation if we compare the government schools with private schools for example, while 95.6% primary government schools have water facility, around 99% private unaided schools have this facility. Similar variation can be found in case of upper primary level though, the gap has declined at the secondary and higher secondary level (Table 6). Table 6: Percentage share of s with Water Facility Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary

11 As far as water facility is concerned, 23 states have more than 95% government primary schools with water facility in it. But, as data revealed, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya and Nagaland have less than 80% schools with this facility. According to DISE data, mainly the north-eastern states are falling into the lower categories as far as availability of upper primary schools with water facility in it. Only 57% government schools and 66% private unaided schools in Meghalaya have such facility. Even in Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Tripura, Mizoram J & K, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland have many government schools which are yet to be provided with water facility. The situation in Nagaland is also a matter of concern in terms of availability of water facility in secondary and higher secondary government schools. However, in other states more than 90% schools are equipped with water facility. It is heartening to see that many states have already achieved universal availability of water facility with 100% schools that are having such facility. Functional drinking water facility With the help of DISE data (Table 7), an attempt can be made to see whether the school has been provided with functional drinking water facility or not. It has been found that as compared to government schools having functional drinking water facility, the situation is much better in private unaided schools at each level. It is also noticeable that almost all private schools are provided with functional drinking water facility whereas more than 15% elementary and around 10%-12% secondary and higher secondary schools run by government are still devoid of such facility. Since drinking water facility is one of the essential facilities, urgent action is required in this regard. Table 7: Percentage Share of s having Functional Drinking Water Facility Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Higher Secondary In case of state level disparity, it has been found that at least 40% of government primary schools in north-eastern such as Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Meghalaya are yet to have drinking water facilities. There are 10 states which are falling in the categories of 60-80%of schools where drinking water facility is available. On contrary, the number of states with higher proportion of private aided and unaided primary schools without drinking water facility is much less and these are again mainly from north-eastern states such as Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Assam and Nagaland. 9

12 As far as availability of drinking water facility at the upper primary level is concerned, the trend is almost similar to primary level putting north-eastern states such as Nagaland, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Assam in the lower category for government as well as private schools. In addition, there are certain states like Telangana, Sikkim, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, J & K, Uttaranchal, Assam, Manipur, Mizoram also have around 30 and more percentage of government schools without any drinking water facility. The situation is not very different from that of below level as far as availability of drinking water facility at the secondary and higher secondary run by government as well as private agencies. In addition to north-eastern states, other states like Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand are also falling within the lower category of 60-80%. Girls Toilet According to the DISE data (Table 8), it has been found that more than 90% government and private unaided schools at primary, upper primary, secondary and higher secondary levels are providing girls toilet facility. However, the situation is slightly better in private unaided schools as compared to government run schools. While in case of private aided schools at the primary and upper primary levels, the proportion of schools with girls toilet facility is around 88% but at the secondary and higher secondary levels, the proportions of such schools are 97% and 99% respectively. Table 8: Percentage Share of s with Girls Toilet Facility Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary It is heartening to see that more than half of the states and UTs have more than 90% government schools with girls toilet facility and it is true for all levels. The situation is also satisfactory in case of private aided and private unaided schools as majority of such schools are equipped with girls toilet facility. However, further attention needs to be given for the government schools in the states like Bihar, Meghalaya, Assam, J&K, etc. where a large number of schools at each level are yet to be provided with girls toilet. It is also noticeable that in some of the states a substantial proportion of private aided and private unaided schools are functioning without girls toilet in it. For example while Andhra Pradesh has around 55% private aided schools and Meghalaya has 56% private unaided schools that are functioning without any girls toilet. Similarly, Assam has only 24% private aided schools that have a girls toilet in it. In case of secondary and higher secondary levels, not a single state could be found in the category of below 60% schools without a girls toilet. 10

13 Boys Toilet Provisioning for boys toilet facility has been much better as compared to girls toilet at every level and irrespective of the management of schools. It is also noticeable that the proportion is much better in case of private aided schools (Table 9). Despite this, some of the states require further attention such as Bihar, Meghalaya, Andhra Pradesh and Assam which fall in the category of below 80% of government schools with boys toilet facility. It has been found that 22 states at primary level, 21 states at upper primary level and 17 states each at secondary and higher secondary level have more than 90% government schools with boys toilet facility in it. Table 9: Percentage Share of s with Boys Toilet Facility Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Higher Secondary In case of primary level, Jharkhand and Meghalaya have the lowest proportion of private aided schools with boys toilet facility whereas Meghalaya (47.22%) is the only state which has been found with the lowest proportion of private unaided schools with such facility. As far as the availability of toilet facility for boys is concerned, Assam is the state which ranks lowest for privately managed upper primary, secondary and higher secondary with the lowest percentage share of schools with this facility. While only 39% private aided upper primary schools in Assam have toilet facility for boys, 50% private aided schools at secondary and 66% at higher secondary are having such facility. The state ranks lowest for government secondary (58%) and higher secondary (73%) schools as well. Condition of Classroom DISE has also provided data on physical condition of classrooms at the elementary, secondary and higher secondary levels. It has been found that classrooms in private aided and unaided schools are in much better condition than government schools at all levels. It is also noticeable that higher proportion of government schools require major repair than minor repair. Despite receiving school grant for last many years, around 14% of government elementary schools require major repair and 11% elementary schools require minor repair (Table 10). 11

14 Table 10: Percentage share of Classrooms as per their Condition at different education levels levels Good Govt. Pvt. Aided Pvt. Unaided Unrecognized Major Minor Good Major Minor Good Major Minor Good Major Minor Good Madrasa Recognized Major Minor Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary *Data on primary and upper primary are not available separately Boundary Wall It is also noteworthy that although most of the schools are running functioning in a building but many of these schools are found without any boundary wall. It is disheartening that around 43% primary schools, 32% upper primary schools, 25% secondary schools and 18% higher secondary schools which are run by government do not have any boundary wall as per the estimation of DISE (Table 11). The situation is much better in the private schools though around 10-15% schools at the different levels still require boundary wall. Table 11: Percentage Share of with Boundary Walls Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary The state level analysis shows that in Manipur, Tripura and Meghalaya less than 20% government primary schools have the facility of boundary wall in it whereas in case of upper primary level only Meghalaya with 18% government schools have boundary wall. In comparison to government schools, private aided and unaided schools are in better situation except only in Assam where 15% private aided upper primary schools found with boundary wall. The situation is slightly better in government secondary and higher secondary schools. The states which are in the lowest category are Manipur, Sikkim and Mizoram and out of these three states Mizoram (25%) has the lowest proportion of schools with boundary wall. All other states are having more than 40% schools which have boundary wall. For higher secondary schools except Uttaranchal, Sikkim all other states are having more than 60% schools which have boundary wall. There are certain states which have achieved 100% schools with boundary wall and it is 12

15 noteworthy that Chandigarh is the state which has all primary, upper primary, secondary and higher secondary schools which have boundary wall. Playground The situation regarding availability of playground in the school is far from satisfactory particularly in government schools (Table 12). It is to be noted that only 52% government primary schools have playground within it whereas 78% private aided and 79% private unaided primary schools are equipped with playground. It is understandable that lack of availability of playground hampers engagement of children in different games and physical activities making schooling monotonous and unattractive. The situation has slightly improved in case of upper primary, secondary and higher secondary level. Table 12: Percentage Share of s with playground Category Govt. Private Aided Private Unaided Unrecognized Madrasa Recognized Total s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary The state level data show that in Lakshadweep less than 20% government primary schools are yet to be provided with playground facility whereas 11 states such as Andhra Pradesh, Daman & Diu, West Bengal, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Bihar, Goa, Jharkhand, Jammu And Kashmir have less than 40% schools with playground. In case of upper primary level, six states such as Lakshadweep, Nagaland, J&K, Meghalaya, Odisha and Jharkhand fall in the category of 20-40% government schools that have playground facility. Around 70% schools in Jharkhand do not have such facilities. The situation is little better in government secondary and higher secondary schools in most of the states except Mizoram where 30% secondary and 37% higher secondary schools are found with playground. The private schools are found in much better situation because as compared to the government schools, higher proportions of private schools whether aided or unaided are having playground facility. Ramp facility One of the major objectives of all education programmes that have been implemented at present is to develop an inclusive education system by providing access to children with disabilities. Provisioning of ramp facility is one of the indicators in this regard. It has been found in DISE (Table 13) that around 20% schools are not providing any ramp facility at the primary and upper primary level. The proportion of schools without ramp facility is much higher in case of secondary and higher secondary level though there has been considerable decline of such schools during last two years of all levels. 13

16 Table 13: Percentage share of s with Ramp Facility Category Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary Source: Flash Statistics: , DISE, NUEPA State level analysis indicates that seven states fall in the category where above 90% elementary schools have ramp facility. Delhi has been found with 100% schools with the facility of ramp while Sikkim (26.4%) has been found with lowest proportion of schools with ramp facility and J&K has only 32.5% schools with such facility. It is also found that Mizoram, Telangana, A& N Islands and Andhra Pradesh have around 50-55% schools without any ramp facility. Further attention is needed for these states. At the secondary level, Dadra & Nagar Haveli (22.2%) has the lowest proportion of schools with ramp facility and it is also found that states like Assam, Goa, Meghalaya and Sikkim have below 40% schools with such facility. While at the higher secondary level, Mizoram has been found with only 8% schools with ramp facility, the data also indicate that states such as Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Sikkim and Telangana have around 20-30% higher secondary schools with such facility. Electricity facility Electricity facility is one of the important initiatives that require collective decision of at least two departments such as electricity and school department in the state. It has been found that despite having electricity in the village many schools are still devoid of electricity facility. However, it is heartening to see that very high proportion of government secondary and higher secondary schools are equipped with electricity facilities but only 50% primary and 65% upper primary government schools could have electricity facility. However, much higher proportion of private aided and unaided schools have received the electricity connection (Table 14). Table 14: Percentage Share of s with Electricity Facility Category Govt. Private Aided Private Unaided Unrecognized Madrasa Recognized Total s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary

17 State wise distribution of primary schools with electricity connection shows that 12 states still have less than 40% government schools that have electricity connection. Two states like Jharkhand and Madhya Pradesh have only less than 10% government schools with electricity connection. The situation is far better in case of private aided and unaided schools for example Madhya Pradesh which has only 8.5% government schools with electricity facility, it has more than 80% private unaided schools that have been provided with electricity facility. The lowest proportion of private aided schools with electricity facility has been recorded in Manipur (13%) and for private unaided schools it is Meghalaya which has the lowest proportion of schools (26%) with electricity connection. In case of upper primary schools, five states have been identified which have less than 40% government schools with electricity facility. Out of these, the state like Jharkhand has the lowest proportion of government schools (18%) with electricity facility. On contrary only two states have less than 40% private aided schools with electricity facility and there is no such state could be found in this category where less than 40% private unaided schools without electricity facility. In case of secondary schools, only Bihar has been found with less than 40% government schools with electricity connection but for private unaided schools, Bihar has around 48% schools without electricity connection. Assam has the lowest proportion of aided private schools (31%) with electricity connection. In case of higher secondary schools, except Bihar all other states have more than 70% government as well as private schools that have electricity connection. It has been found that around half of the government and 44% private aided schools have not been provided with electricity facility. In case of private unaided schools Assam has recorded the lowest proportion of schools with electricity facility and around 30% schools in Assam are yet to be provided with this facility. Library Facility It is heartening to see that the proportion of government as well as private schools with library facility is quite high at each level of education (Table 15). It is noteworthy that in case of government schools, around 84% primary, 89% upper primary, 91% secondary and 94% higher secondary schools have library. The situation is slightly poor in case of private unaided schools, where only 77% primary, 83% upper primary, 89% secondary and 91% higher secondary schools have library. Thus, indicating availability of better library facility in the government schools, the proportion of schools with library facility is also higher in private aided schools as compared to private unaided at each level of education. Table 15: Percentage Share of s with Library Private Private Madrasa Total Govt. Unrecognized Category Aided Unaided Recognized s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary

18 It is the north-eastern states like Manipur and Meghalaya are placed at the lowest rank with around 7 8% primary schools, whether private or government, that have been provided with library. Similarly Meghalaya also has the lowest proportion of upper primary government, private aided and unaided schools with library facility and the situation is not that satisfactory in other north-eastern states as well. Although, the proportion of schools with library facility is much higher in case of secondary and higher secondary level but north-eastern states such as Mizoram in case of higher secondary and Nagaland, Mizoram and Meghalaya in case of secondary need more attention for making schools equipped with library facility. It is understandable that even primary schools need library facility for providing conducive learning environment to its students and also for improving teaching learning process. Computer Facility It has been found that only 13% government primary and 37% government upper primary schools have computer facility in it whereas more than 60% secondary and around 70% higher secondary schools run by government are having computer facility (Table 16). However, much higher proportion of private aided and unaided schools are found equipped with computers and even 32% unrecognized schools are provided with computer facility. It is to be noted that substantial proportion of recognized Madrasa are having computer facility. Thus, it is understandable that a long way has to be covered to make computer aided learning a reality in government schools particularly at the primary and upper primary level to deal with the problem of digital divide in India. Table 16: Percentage Share of s with Computer facility Category Govt. Private Aided Private Unaided Unrecognized Madrasa Recognized Total s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary As many as 17 states were recorded where not even 10% government primary schools could be provided with computer facility. Bihar has only around 2% of government primary schools with computer facility. For private aided schools, four states could be found with below 10% schools with computer facility and out of these four states, Manipur with 3% schools with computer secured the lowest position. Meghalaya is the only state where the lowest proportions of private unaided schools (11%) were found with computer facility. In case of upper primary, two states such as Jharkhand and Bihar (lowest with 3.8% schools) were found with lowest proportion of government schools with computer facility and only Assam is the state where only 2.5% private aided schools could be provided with computer facility. The situation is much better in case of private unaided schools and Uttar Pradesh ranks lowest with 27% schools that have been provided with computer facility. 16

19 In case of secondary and higher secondary schools, Madhya Pradesh has been identified as the most deprived state in terms of computer facility in government schools. While around 18% government secondary schools in the state have computer facility, this percentage is 28% in case of higher secondary schools. In case of private aided secondary schools, the proportion of schools with computer facility has been recorded merely less than 20% in Assam and Odisha but in case of private unaided schools, further improvement has been found in availability of computer facility in schools and the lowest proportion of schools with computer facility could be found in Mizoram only, where the proportion of such school is 22%. The proportion of private aided and unaided higher secondary schools with computer facility is nearly 20% in two states such as Assam and Mizoram. CAL Facility It is noticeable that, despite having computers, the percentage share of schools with CAL facility is very low at different levels including secondary and higher secondary levels and except primary, much difference could not be found between government and private schools at other levels (Table 17). Table 17: Percentage Share of s with CAL Category Govt. Private Aided Private Unaided Unrecognized Madrasa Recognized Total s Primary Upper Primary Elementary Secondary Hr. Secondary The state wise variation indicates that the majority of states (25) have less than 10% government primary schools with CAL facility. The number of states gradually decreases along with increase in the level of education such as 7 states at the upper primary level, 4 at the secondary and 2 at the higher secondary level were found with less than 10% government schools with CAL facility. The situation is not that satisfactory in case of private aided and unaided schools as 14 states have been recorded with less than 10% primary aided schools with CAL whereas in case of unaided the number of such states is 8. The number of states with 10% schools having CAL facility becomes 10 each for aided upper primary and secondary schools; 7 for higher secondary schools whereas 5 each for unaided upper primary, secondary and higher secondary schools. Enrolment in schools lacking different infrastructure facilities In the above section it has been discussed how different schools are equipped with different facilities. In this present section, an attempt has been made to look into the enrolment pattern in government schools which lack some of the important physical facilities as given in the following Table 18. It is found that around 2% of total enrolment has been recorded in the government primary schools which have only one classroom. This proportion has declined to 17

20 0.03% at higher secondary level. It is disheartening to see that around 45-46% of enrolment has been recorded in primary schools without electricity and playground facilities in it whereas more than 80% enrolment in primary schools without computer (81%) and CAL (88%) facilities despite having an ongoing program on computer aided learning at this stage. The proportion of enrolment is also high in the schools without electricity, playground, computer etc. at the upper primary, secondary and higher secondary level though it has shown a declining trend as the level of education increases. Table 18: Percentage share of enrolment in government schools according to different facilities at different school levels Primary Upper Primary Secondary Higher Secondary Facilities One Classroom Without Building Without Boundary Wall Without Water Without Toilet Without Electricity Without Playground Without Computer Without CAL The EDI for infrastructure at primary and upper primary levels indicate that Karnataka is the state which has improved its infrastructure facilities substantially as it rank first for both levels (Table 19). It is noticeable that Madhya Pradesh and Meghalaya have also same rank at both levels but the situation is quite alarming in both states particularly Meghalaya which holds lowest rank. There are few states which have ranked higher in case of primary but hold lower rank in case of upper primary whereas some states have shown reverse trend as well for example while Himachal Pradesh rank 2 for primary with 0.90 index, it has gone down to 3 rank in case of upper primary with 0.85 index. Similarly Gujarat ranking 5 for primary has improved to rank 2 in case of upper primary with a higher index (0.93). Table 19: Educational Development Index for Infrastructure at Primary and Upper Primary Level in State/UT Primary level Upper Primary Rank Index Index Rank State/UT Karnataka Karnataka Himachal Pradesh Gujarat Puducherry Himachal Pradesh Maharashtra Daman & Diu Gujarat Punjab Tamil Nadu Puducherry 18

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